2 6 MY '24


A FEW words are necessary to explain how the present work came to be written; and one or two points should be mentioned regarding the aims it is hoped to achieve. Early in 1908 the Government o£ Ceylon were contemplating' a new and revised edition of Tumour's translation of the Maha-vamsa, published in 1837 and reprinted in L. C. Wijesinha's Mahavamsa published in 1889, and were in correspondence on the subject with the Ceylon Branch of the Eoyal Asiatic Society. The Society appointed a numerous and influential Committee, and recommended myself as Editor for Europe.1 By their letter of July 18, 1908, the Government of Ceylon requested me to undertake that post. I took the opportunity at the Congress of Orientalists held at Copenhagen in August, and again at the Congress on the History of Religions held in September at Oxford, to consult my colleagues on the best plan for carrying- out the proposed revision. They agreed that the method most likely to lead to a satisfactory result within a reasonable time was to entrust the work to one competent critical scholar who eould^ if necessary, consult members of the Ceylon Committee, but who should be himself responsible for all the details of the work, I reported to Government accordingly, and recommended that Prof. Geiger, who had just completed his edition of the text, should be asked to undertake the task. The Government approved the plan, and asked me to make the necessary arrangements. Those arrangements have resulted in the publication of the present volume.

Professor Geiger has made a translation into German of his own revised critical edition published by the Pali Text Society

3 See the Jonm-al of the Ceylon Branch of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, ¥01 xxi, no. 61, pp. 40-42, 70, Editors Preface

in 1908 ; and added the necessary introduction,, appendices, and notes. Mrs. Bode has translated the German into English ; and Professor Geiger has then revised the English translation.

The plan has been to produce a literal translation, as nearly as possible an absolutely correct reproduction o£ the statements recorded in the Chronicle. It is true there is considerable literary merit in the original poem, and that it may be possible hereafter to attempt a reproduction also, in English unrhymed verse, of the literary spirit of the poem. But a literal version would still be indispensable for historical purposes. For similar reasons it has been decided to retain in the translation certain technical terms used in the Buddhist Order. In a translation aiming at literary merit some English word more or less analogous in meaning might be used, regardless of the fact that such a word would involve implications not found in the original. Thus bhik&hu has often been rendered c priest' or e monk*. But a Wdkkhu claims no such priestly powers as are implied by the former term, and would yield no such obedience as is implied in the other; and to discuss all the similarities and differences between these three ideas would require a siaall treatise. There are other technical terms of the same kind. It is sufficient here to explain that when such terms are left, in the present translation, untranslated, it is because an accurate translation is not considered possible. Most of them are, like Mi&Mit, already intelligible to those who are likely to use this version. But they are shortly explained in foot-notes; and a list of them, with further interpretation, will be found at the end of the volume.

The Ceylon Government has defrayed the expense of this, as it did of the previously published translations of the Mahl-vamsa.




Abbreviations ...... Ixiv

I. The Visit of the Tathagata .... 1

II. The Race of Mahasammata . . .10

III. The First Council..... 14

IV. The Second Council..... 19

V. The Third Council ..... 26

VI. The Coming of Vrjaya . . . . 51

VII. The Consecrating of Vijaya . . .55

VIII. The ConsecratiDg of Panduvasudeva . . 62

IX. The Consecrating of Abhaya ... 65

X. The Consecrating of Pandukabhaya . . 68

XI. The Consecrating of Devanampiyatissa . 77

XII. The Converting of Different Countries . 82

XIII. The Coming of Mahinda .... 88

XIV. The Entry into the Capital .... 91 XV. The Acceptance of the Mahavihara . . 97

XVI. The Acceptance of the Cetiyapabbata-vihara. 114

XVII. The Arrival of the Relics . . . . 116 XVIII. The Receiving of the Great Bodhi-tree . 122

XIX. The Coming of the Bodhi-tree . . .128 XX. The Nibbana of the Thera . . . .136

XXI. The Five Kings......142

XXII. The Birth of Prince Gamam . . .146

XXIII. The Levying of the Warriors . . .155

XXIV. The War of the Two Brothers . . . 164 XXV. The Victory of Dutthagamani . . . 170

XXVI. The Consecrating' of the Maricavatti-vihara . 179 XXVII. The Consecrating of the Lohapasada . . 182viil Table of Contents


XXVIII. The Obtaining of the Wherewithal to build

the Great Thupa..... 187

XXIX. The Beginning of the Great Thupa . . 191

XXX. The Making of the Kelic-Chamber . . 198

XXXI. The Enshrining of the Relics . . . 209

XXXII. The Entrance into the Tusita-Heaven . 220

XXXIII. The Ten Kings..... 228

XXXIV. The Eleven Kings..... 238

XXXV. The Twelve Kings..... 246

XXXVI. The Thirteen Kings ..... 256

XXXVII. King Mahasena..... 267


A. The Dynasty of Mahasainmata .... 273

B. The Buddhist Sects...... 276

C. Campaigns of Pandukabhaya and Dutthagamani . 288

D. List of Pali Terms occurring in the Translation . 292


A. List of Geographical and Topographical Names . 298

B. List of Terms explained in the Notes . . . 299

ADDENDA ......... 300


Ancient Ceylon ..... To face page 1

Anuradhapura..... n 137INTRODUCTION

§ 1. Literary questions concerning Dipavamsa and MLahavamsa.

THE LITERARY QUESTIONS connected with the Mahavamsa and the development of the historical tradition In Ceylon have been thoroughly discussed in my hook Dlpavamsa, and MaMvamsa.1 I believe that I have there demonstrated that the two Ceylonese Chronicles are based upon older materials and for this reason should claim our attention as sources of history.

Now, however,, R. O. FRANKE has taken a decided stand against my inferences.2 He disputes the existence of an older historical work as foundation of Dip. and Mah.

The former appears to him to be only a botched compilation of Pali quotations from the Jatakas and other canonical works. But the author of the Mah. has merely copied the Dip. and the same applies to Buddhaghosa and his historical introduction to the Samanta-Pasadika. I have however, I hope, succeeded in combating the doubts and objections raised by FEANKE.S

The defects of the Dip.j which naturally neither can nor should be disputed, concern the outer form, not the contents.

1 Dip. und Mah, *und die geschicJitliche V"berlieferung ^in Ceylon,

Leipzig-, 1905. Translated into English by E. M. COOMABASWAMY, Dip. and Mah., Colombo, 1908. Quotations in the following pages

follow the English edition. I may also refer here expressly to OLDEN-BERG'S remarks, Dtp., ed. Introd,, p. I foil. (1879), as the starting-point for my own.

8 Dtp. und Mah. in the Wiener Zeitsahr. /. d. Kunde des Morgenl. 21, pp. 203 foil.; 817 foil.

s N&ck einmal Dtp. und Mah.; Zeitschr, d. D. morgenl. GeseUsch. 63, p. 540 foil. I note that OLBEKBERO In the Archwf. Religionswissensch. 13. p. 614S agrees with my Inferences against FEAKKE.x Introduction

But that the author of the Dip. simply invented the contents of his chronicle is a thing impossible to believe.

Thus it is our task to trace the sources from which he drew his material. This is made possible for us by the Maha-vamsa-Tlka,, i. e. the native commentary on our chronicle which, under the title Vamsatthappakasini, was composed by an unknown author.

I will then here briefly sum up the principal results of my labours, referring, for confirmation in detail, to my earlier works.

1. In Ceylon there existed at the close of the fourth century A.D., that is, at the time in which the Dipavamsa was composed, an older work, a sort of chronicle, of the history of the island from its legendary beginnings onwards. The work constituted part of the Atthakatha, i. e. the old commentary-literature on the canonical writings of the Buddhists which Buddhaghosa took as a basis for his illuminating works. It was, like the Atthakatha, composed in Old-Sinhalese prose, probably mingled with verse in the Pali language.

2. This Attkakatha~MaJidmmsa existed, as did the Atthakatha generally, in different monasteries of the island, in various recensions which diverged only slightly from one another. Of particular importance for the further development of the tradition was the recension of the monks of the Mahavihara in Anuradhapura, upon which the author of the Hah. Tika drew for his material.

3. The chronicle must originally have come down only to the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon. But it was continued later and indeed, to all appearance^ down to the reign of Mahasena (beginning of the fourth century A. p.), with which reign the Dipavamsa as well as the Mahavamsa comes to an end.

4. Of this work the DIPAVAMSA presents the first clumsy redaction in Pali verses.1 The MAHAVAMSA is then a new treatment of the same thing, distinguished from the Dip.

1 So far as language is concerned, the author** have been

indicated, for numerous verses? by FKAKKI ; herein lies the

merit of his work, although 1 cannot consent to Mi conclusions.Introduction xi

by greater skill in the employment of the Pali language, by more artistic composition and by a more liberal use of the material contained in the original work. While the authorship of the Dip. is not known the author of the Mahavamsa is known as Mahanama.1

5. It is also on the Dip. that BUDDHAGHOSA bases his historical introduction to the Samantapasadika;2 but he completes and adds to its information with statements which could only have been drawn directly from the Atthakatha.

6. The MAHAVAMSA-TIKA brings to the contents of the Dip. and Mah. further additions, taken from the original work. It was certainly not composed till between 1000 and 1250 A. D. But there can be no doubt that the Atthakatha-Mahavamsa lay before the author, as he also supposes it to be known to his readers and accessible to all.3 For this reason his statements as to the original work, its form and its contents, naturally acquire particular importance.

These conclusions are not in any way altered if I am now inclined to consider the relation between Mah. and Dip. as a closer one than in my first work. That the author of the former knew the latter and used it I have naturally never disputed. But I should now wish, in agreement with FLEET, to go much further and regard the Mah, as a conscious and intentional rearrangement of the Dip., as a sort of commentary to this latter. I also think now that the quotation of the ' Mahavamsa of the ancients' in the procemium of our Mah. refers precisely to the Dip. I have besides already indicated the possibility of this view in my Dtp. and MaL} p. 17. FLEET 4 then translates the well-known passage of the later Culavamsa (38. 59) datva sahassam dipetum Dipa-vamsam samadisi in very illuminating fashion: 'he (king* Dhatusena) bestowed a thousand (pieces of gold) and gave orders to write a dlpika on the Dfpavarasa/

1 See RHYS DAVIDS, Journ. Boy. As. Soc. 1905, p. 391.

2 Edited by H. OLBENBEEG, The Vinaya Pltakam, iii, p. 283 foil

3 1 have indicated in Z.DMG. 63, p. 549 foil., passages in the Mah, T. which undoubtedly bear this out.

4 JJR.AJS. 190% p. 5, n. 1.xii Introduction

The interpretation hitherto given: that this is an allusion to a public recitation of the Dip. must then be abandoned. But this dipika, which was composed by order of Dhatusena, is identified by FLEET with our Mahavamsa. Thus, at the same time, the date of its origin is more precisely fixed. Dhatusena reigned, according to calculations which are to be confirmed further on., at the beginning of the sixth century after Christ. About this time the Mahavamsa was composed.

§ 2. The Trustworthiness of the Ceylon Chronicles.

After these preliminary observations the Ceylonese Chronicles should now be judged particularly with respect to their value as HISTORICAL SOURCES, and the historical data drawn from them should be brought together.

In their character of historical sources the Dip. and Mah. have been very differently appreciated.

PRANKE goes the furthest in scepticism. If he did in the beginning at least admit the POSSIBILITY I that the author of the Dip. had some document or other before him, he has lately said most positively: * in the absence of any sources, the last-named work (i.e. the Dipavamsa) must be considered as standing unsupported on its own tottering feet/ 2 And therefore according to him no historical value can be conceded to the Dip. nor to the Mah. nor finally to the Snap. FRANKE'S scepticism, to which I shall return in discussing the history of the councils, ceases to be well founded as soon as we accept the thesis that the Ceylonese Chronicles are based on the Atthakatha. With this the tradition recedes several centuries, and the probability that it contains historical recollections is correspondingly reinforced, and that thesis must, as I have explained above, be considered as confirmed.

KERNS too expresses himself with great caution on the historical value of Dip. and Mah. He indeed says in his Manual cf Indian Buddhism, p. 9, £. . . the chronicles

1 Literarbche* Centrulttatt, 1906, No. 37, column 1275,1. 2.

2 Journal of the Pali Text Soc. 1908, p. 1.

s, German translation by Jacobi, ii, p. 288.Introduction xiii

Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, and Sasanavamsa deserve a special notice on account of their being so highly important for the ecclesiastical history of Ceylon.1 But here, however, it is only admitted that the chronicles can be utilized as of value for the period from Devanampiyatissa onwards or perhaps only for a yet later time. For the most ancient times, when the history of continental India is also to be taken into consideration, KEEN is hardly inclined to accept them as authentic sources.

A very trenchant verdict is pronounced by V. A. SMITH in his Asoka on the Ceylonese Chronicles. He says in the plainest fashion: (in this work (i. e. in the Asoka) the Ceylonese chronology prior to B.C. 160 is absolutely and completely rejected, as being not merely of doubtful authority but positively false in its principal propositions/1

Perhaps V. A. SMITH has since modified his judgement. For he says now:2 c These Sinhalese stories the value of which has been sometimes overestimated, demand cautious criticism at least as much as do other records of popular and ecclesiastical tradition/ This sounds less cutting. The warning to handle critically, which the excellent historian considers necessary with regard to the Ceylonese Chronicles, is certainly justified. It applies to all historical documents, and I have no intention at all of disputing the justice of it.

The judgement pronounced by RHYS DAVIDS 3 on Dip. and Mah. sounds much more favourable. He says: f The Ceylon Chronicles would not suffer in comparison with the best of the Chronicles, even though so considerably later in date, written in England or in France/ He also lays stress on the fact that, as is self-evident, those Chronicles contain no pure history. But they represent the traditions of their time and permit us to draw retrospective conclusions as to earlier periods.

Lately H. C. NoEMAN4 has defended the Ceylonese Chronicles, with complete justice as it seems to me, against

1 AwJca, the Buddhist Emperor of India, p. 57.

1 Early History of India (2nd ed., 1908), p. 9.

* India, 1903, p. 274.

4 A Defense of the Chronicle* of the Southern Buddhists, J.R.A,S.

1908, p. 1 foilXIV


undeserved distrust and exaggerated scepticism. I draw attention expressly to this essay because it naturally has many points of contact with my own researches.

If we next consider the two chronicles as a whole, without any prepossessions, it is not easy to understand whence this widespread doubt of their trustworthiness. The presentation of the subject, taken as a whole, may be called modest and simple, indeed dry. True, there is no lack of fables and marvellous tales. But they appear as outward decoration which can be easily omitted. Besides, we always meet with such stories of miracles in connexion with events of a quite clearly defined category, namely, when it is a question of celebrating the splendour and majesty of the Buddhist Order.

Mahinda arrives in Ceylon in marvellous fashion, flying through the air; miraculous phenomena accompany the 'Establishment of the Doctrine*, the arrival of the relics, the planting of the Bodhi-tree, and so forth. None of this can appear strange to us. The ornament with which tradition here decks out the victory of the Order and the true faith enfolds a deeper meaning. The facts in themselves are extraordinarily simple; but to the pious sentiment of the believer they seemed great; and fantasy glorifies them with the many-coloured lights of miracle and legend.

I do not conceal from myself that this judgement of the situation lays itself open to the reproach that our method is simply to eliminate from the tradition all the miraculous stories and consider what is left over as authentic history.1 But I think WINDISCH 2 has shown admirably how, in fact, in the Buddhist tradition, around a relative small nucleus all kinds of additions have collected in time, by which events, originally simple, are withdrawn gradually into the region

1 V. A. SMITH, Asoka, pp. 45-46 : * Most writers have been content to lop off the miraeles and to accept the residuum of the story as authentic history. Such a method of interpreting a legend does not seem to be consistent with sound principles of historical criticism.*

2 Mara und Buddha (Abhandl. d. pML-hut. CL der K. Sticks. Gesellsch. d. Fto, xv, 4, 1895), Buddha's Geburt (ib., xxvi, 2, 1907), Die position dfs Mahavagtu (*&,, xxvii, 14,. 1909).Introduction sv

of the marvellous. 'But we must not therefore pout away the child with the bath. Here, too, the task of Science is to lay bare the grain of truth; not only this, but she must seek the meaning and significance of the mythical crown of rays that has gathered round the nucleus. For the mythical is often the covering of deep thoughts/ l

We shall, of course, be obliged to begin by removing the mythical additions. But we need by no means take the residue as current coin. Here we are concerned to examine how far the tradition is established as trustworthy., by internal or external evidence,, and how far shaken as being untrustworthy.

If we pause first at internal evidence then the Ceylonese Chronicles will assuredly at once win approval in that they at least WISHED to write the truth. Certainly the writers could not go beyond the ideas determined by their age and their social position, and beheld the events of a past time in the mirror of a one-sided tradition. But they certainly did not intend to deceive hearers or readers. This is clear from the remarkably objective standpoint from which they judge even the mortal foes of the Aryan race. That certainly deserves to be emphasized. It is true not only of dominating personalities (such as, to all appearance, Elara was) but also of the two usurpers Sena and Guttika it is said, Dip. 18. 47 and Mah. 21. 11: raj jam dhammena karayum.

Besides, the obvious endeavour to make out a systematic chronology is such as to inspire confidence at the outset. Indeed, whole sections of the Dip. consist entirely of synchronistic connexions of the ecclesiastical tradition with profane history and of the history of India with that of Ceylon.

§ 3. External support of the Chronicles.

The above certainly are, in the first place, only general considerations, the value of which I myself would by no means estimate too highly. Meanwhile it is more important that the Ceylonese tradition has after all found support to a considerable extent from external testimony.

. * WINDISCH, Buddha's Geburt, p. 4.XVI


1. First as to the LIST OF INDIAN KINGS BEFORE ASOKA,* the statements concerning Bimbisara and Ajatasattu as contemporaries of the Buddha agree with the canonical writings and, in respect of the names, with those of the Brahmanic tradition.

The Jaina-tradition has other names; this, however, does not affect the actual agreement. There can be no doubt that the nine Nandas as well as the two forerunners of Asoka: Candagutta and Bindusara, were altogether historical personages. Here also, in the number of years of Candagutta's reign the Ceylonese tradition agrees completely with the Indian. V. A. SMITH,£ too, does not hesitate to accept the number 24 as historical.

Besides the renowned counsellor of Candagutta, the brahman Canakka (Skt. Canakya) is known to the Ceylonese Chronicles. In respect of the length of Bindusara's reign their statements differ from those of the Puranas by three years, in respect of that of Asoka by only one year. The Ceylonese tradition concerning Indian history since the Buddha is, therefore, not unsupported.

2. The CONVERSION OF CEYLON is, according to Dip. and Mah., and finally, according to the unanimous tradition of the country ifcself, the work of Mahinda, a son of Asoka, and his sister Samghamitta. V. A. SMITH calls the stories relating to this in the Chronicles 'a tissue of absurdities'7.3 Asoka himself mentions Ceylon, as he explains, twice in Ms Inscriptions: in the Rock-Edict XIII, among the countries to which he despatched missionaries, and in Bock-Edict II, among those in which he provides for distribution of medicines.4 Since these Edicts belong to the thirteenth year

1 Cf. the tables to § 9.

2 Early History of India, pp. 115-118, Cf. also AsoJca? p. 95.

3 Asoka,. p. 45. OLDENBEEG also (ibid., p. 46) considers the tradition a pure invention.

4 Cf. the translations in V. A. SMITH'S Asoka, pp. 129-133 and

pp. 115-116. The expression cikisaka (=Skt. cikitsa, p.tikiccha)* which SEKAET translates nmtdes, is rendered by BUHLEE (see Z.D.M.O. 48, 1894, p.. 50) * hospitals'.Introduction

of Asoka's reign there appears to be an error in the Ceylonese tradition which puts the conversion. o£ Ceylon as far on as the eighteenth year. On the other hand Asoka, in the opinion of SMITH, would, if he had really handed over his son Mahinda and his daughter Samghamitta to the Church, and had brought about the conversion of the king of Ceylon, certainly not have neglected to bring it into notice. The name (Samghamitta' is, he thinks, from its very meaning, suspicious.

I discuss the arguments in the reverse order, The name Samghamitta is of course that which she herself assumed on entering the Order. That3 beside this name, under which she became a renowned saint of the Buddhist Church, the lay-name fell into complete oblivion can certainly not cause any surprise.

That Asoka makes no mention of Mahinda and Samghamitta in his Edicts is an argumentwm e silentio. That there is any cogency in such an argument V. A. SMITH will surely not maintain. It is indeed very difficult to say in what connexion the king would be obliged to speak of the matter. It can be perhaps expected chiefly in the so-called Minor Bock-Edict I, the Edict of Rupnath, Sahasram and Brahma-giri. But here the reason would again disappear if with FLEET1 we date this edict in the year 256 A.D. In this case, the sending of Mahinda would be about twenty years earlier than the edict, and would belong to past times.

I certainly do not wish to decide here for or against FLEET'S theory. But it is clear that we are standing on too uncertain ground to allow ourselves to proceed without hesitation from an argumentum e silentio.

Now, finally, what as to the mention of Missions to Ceylon in the Asoka Inscriptions earlier than the thirteenth year of the king's reign ?

I may observe that, at the outset, it is not absolutely certain whether by the Tambapanni of the Inscriptions Ceylon is really meant. Possibly the name may designate the

1 'The Conversion of Asoka,' J.RA.S. 1908, p. 486 foil.; * The Last Edict of Asoka; #., p. 811 foil.; 'The Last Words of Asoka/ /&., 1910, p. 1301 foil. . -..,...


Tinnevelli district at the southern extremity of India, where the river Tamraparni flows into the sea.1 But, at the same time, if Tambapanni should be understood to mean Ceylon the authenticity of Dip. and Mah. is not affected in the


Let us look at the positive contents of the tradition. "We are certain of: (1) the name Mahinda as the apostle of Ceylon. Nor is that disputed by V. A. SMITH. Here the Ceylonese narrative finds gratifying support from Hiuen-thsang 2 who mentions Mahendra by name expressly as the man by whom the true doctrine was spread abroad in the kingdom of Simhala. It is certain: (2) that this Mahendra was a near relative of king Asoka. The Chinese pilgrims call him the younger brother 3 of this latter, the Ceylon Chronicles call him his son. Here we have two conflicting reports, and it would be simply arbitrary to prefer the statement of the Chinese pilgrims to the Ceylonese tradition,

But at what result do we arrive if we put together these established facts and the mention of Ceylon- in the earlier Asoka Inscriptions? Simply and solely that which is self-evident, namely, that before Mahinda relations existed between continental India and Ceylon and efforts were made to transplant the Buddhist doctrine to Ceylon.

But with Mahinda this process comes to a successful end. We ean understand therefore that all the interest became concentrated in Ms person, and that tradition wrought together in dramatic fashion that which was a thing of slow continuous development. I consider that this would always and ia all circumstances have been the critical judgment on the

1 Imp. Gfa&tteer of India, s.v« C£ on this subject HULTSZCH,

J.RJL& 1910, p. 1810, n. 4,

1 ST. JULIEN? MJmoirvs sur leg contrfos occidentales, par Hiouen-ii, p. 140; BEAL, Si-yu-ki, Buddhist Meeonfa of the Western

World, trans! from the Chinese of Hitten-tfasang, ii, pp. 246-24?; T. WATTEBS, On Ymn Chwang, Ii 93, 230, 2$4.

3 Besides Hiuen-thsang we have mention by Fa-Man (see LEGGE, A of Buddhitftle Kingdoms by Fd-Jtun, p, 77) of a younger

brother of a monk, without, however, mention of

iiis luoie Q*r allusion to the mission to Ceylon.Introduction xjx

reports of our Chronicles as to the conversion o£ Ceylon. The fact, in essential respects, holds good, but it is a question of putting it in the right light.

Besides, a hint that Mahinda's mission was preceded by similar missions to Ceylon is to be found even in Dip. and Mah., when they relate that Asoka, sending to Devanampiyatissa, with presents for his second consecration as king, exhorted him to adhere to the doctrine of the Buddha.1

Certainly on chronological grounds this cannot be immediately connected with the notices of the conversion of Ceylon to be found in the inscriptions. But it shows us that, even from the point of view of the Chronicles of Ceylon, Buddhism was not quite unknown in that country already before Mahinda's time.

3. The HISTORY OF THE MISSIONS as related in Dip, and Mah.2 receives most striking confirmation in the inscriptions discovered. On the inner lid of the relic-urn which was found in Tope no. 2 of the Sanchi group there is this inscription: Sapurisa(sa) Majhimasa e(relics) of the pious man Majjhima'. On the outer lid is Sapurisa(sa) Kasapagotasa Hemavatacariyasa e (relics) of the pious man Kassapagotta (i.e. of the Kassapa clan), the teacher of the Himalaya'.3 Now Majjhima is, in fact, named in the Mah. as the teacher who converted the Himalaya region and Kassapagotto there appears as his companion in the Dip.4

Again in the superscription of a relic-casket from Tope no. 2 of the Sonari group the same Majjhima is mentioned.

On another urn from the same Tope we again find the name of Kassapagotta, this time with the epithet Kotiputta and again with the designation ' Teacher of the whole Himalaya'.

In a third urn-inscription Gotiputta (i. e. Kotiputta Kassapa-

1 Dip. 12. 5-6 ; Mali. 11. 34-35 ; Smp. 323 5~8.

2 Dip. 8. 1-13 ; Mah. 12. 1-54. Cf. also Smp. 31417-31825.

8 See CUNNINGHAM, The BWsa Topes, p. 287. Cf. RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, pp. 299-301.

* Mah. 12. 6, 41; Dip. 8.10. Cf. Snip. 31719; Mahalodhivamsa (ed. STRONG) 1155, where also Kassapagotta is mentioned together with Majjhima. Cf. also Mah. Tika, 2227.

b2xx Introduction

gotta) appears in connexion with Dadabhisara. This is evidently the Dundubhissara of the Dip. and the Mahabodhi-vamsa who was also among those theras who won the Himalaya countries to the Buddha's doctrine.1

Finally the name of the thera who, according to tradition, presided over the third council under Asoka's rule, is also shown to be authentic by an inscription in a relic-casket from Tope no. 2 of the Sanchi group.2 There is no doubt that by the Sapurisasa Mogaliputasa is meant the Moggaliputta Tissa of the Ceylonese Chronicles.

4. Moreover, the narrative of the transplanting of a branch of the sacred Bodhi-tree from TJruvela to Ceylon finds interesting confirmation in the monuments.

At least GRUJSTWEDEL, in an ingenious and, to me, convincing way,3 points out that the sculptures of the lower and middle architraves of the East Gate of the Sanchi Tope are representations of that event. Since the Sanehi-sculptures belong to the second century B. c. the representation is distant from the event by roughly speaking, only 100 or at most 150 years.

§ 4. Errors in the Clironology of the Earliest Historical Period,

I consider that such objective confirmation of the Chronicles

proves at the very least this much : that their statements are not absolutely untenable and are at least worthy of being tested. Naturally they are not infallible and the longer the interval between, the time of the events and the time when they are related, the greater the possibility of an objective error, and 60 much the more will the influence of legend be noticeable.

As regards the oldest period from Vijaya to Devanampiya-tissa we feel a certain distrust of the tradition and traditional

? L 7., pp. 816-317.

s CUXKXHGHAX, I. /., p. 289.

s GRUXWEDEL, Buddhixt. In Indien, pp. 72-73. Cf. also RHYS

DAVIDS, India, p. 302.Introduction xxi

chronology from the very fact that Vijaya's arrival in Ceylon is dated on the day o£ the Buddha's death.1 This seems to be a Massed account. Besides, there are the round numbers for the length of the single reigns which have in themselves the appearance of a set scheme and involve^ moreover, a positive impossibility in respect of the last two kings of that period., PANDUKABHAYA and MUTASIVA..

According to our Chronicles2 Pandukabhaya was born shortly before the death of Panduvasudeva. Then followed the reign of Abhaya, twenty years, and an interregnum, of seventeen years. Then Pandukabhaya ascends the throne at the age of thirty-seven years. He reigns seventy years. That would bring his age to 107 years !

This, however, is not enough. Pandukabhaya*s successor is his son Mutasiva. He is born of Suvannapali whom Pandukabhaya had already married before the beginning of his reign. Mutasiva must then have been past the prime of manhood when he succeeded to the throne. In spite of this a reign of sixty years is attributed to him.

It seems to me that certain names and events in the tradition may indeed be maintained, but that the last reigns were lengthened in order to make Vijaya and the Buddha contemporaries.

That in respect of certain facts, the tradition is by no means without value for that first period of Ceylonese history, is shown, for instance, by the account of Pandukabhaya* s campaigns,3 which decidedly gives an impression of trustworthiness.

Also after Devanampiyatissa's reign we find matter for doubt.4 A reign of forty years is attributed to the king

1 Mah. 6. 47. In the Dip. 9. 21-22 it is stated, in a somewhat more general way, that at the time of the death of the Buddha (parinib-b an as am aye, not precisely on the day of the death) Vijaya landed in Ceylon. The same in Smp. 32020.

2 Dip. 11. 1, 4; Mah. 9. 28; 10. 106. See previously TUBNOUK, Mahdwanso, Introd., p. li.

3 Mah. 10.26 foil. See below, Appendix C, p. 288 foil.

4 Cf. also on this subject FLEET, J.E.A.S. 1909, p. 840.XXII


mentioned, who is said to have been Mutasiva's second son, although he was no longer young when he ascended the throne. But to him succeeded three younger brothers, Uttiya,1 Mahasiva and Suratissa, each of whom reigned ten (= thirty) years. Nay, after the intervening rule of the two Damilas, Sena and Guttika, which lasted twelve years, a fourth brother, Asela, ascends the throne and also reigns ten years.

The reigns of the sons of Mutasiva, who himself occupied the throne for sixty years, would then cover a period of nioety-two years!

We see clearly that also in the period between Devanampiya-tissa and Dutthagamani there were still gaps in the tradition which were filled in with fictitious construction. For the line of Devanampiyatissa we have again the remarkable round numbers 40 +10 +10 +10 +10.

In the later periods we encounter no such difficulties and impossibilities. The chronology is credible, the numbers appear less artificial and more trustworthy.

But even in that first historical period one fact stands out clearly and distinctly from the wavering traditions concerning the times immediately before and after. That is the reign of Devanampiyatissa and the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon. And with this we approach the general standpoint from which we have to judge the historical tradition as to the earliest and earlier times in our Chronicles.

§ 5. The Tear of the Buddha's Death.

We have to do with a monkish tradition. The starting-point of its chronological statements is the year of the Buddha/s death. For this tradition naturally not every event

nor every historical personage is important to an equal degree,

but chiefly in so far as they were of importance for the development of the Buddhist community. There are isolated

occurrences and personalities connected, even in early times,

1 The name of Uttiya and his consort is confirmed by an inscription In Periya-Puliyankulam (Northern Province). See ArcJmed&gic&l Sur-rty of Ceylon, Annual $@portf 1905 (xx. 1909 j, p. 45.Introduction

with a certain date which announced the time that had passed since the Buddha's death.1 As for the intervening period the traditions concerning it were far less well established and precise, especially from the chronological point of view.

Here fictions were made, building up and completing the tradition from which subsequently, with those fixed points as framework, the chronological system was developed that we find in the Dip. and Mah.7 as also in the Introduction to the Smp0 and again in the later historical literature of Ceylon. IE the Dip-,, the oldest source accessible to us, this system appears already complete. It is most certainly not a creation of the author of the Chronicle but only taken over, in all probability, from the Atthakatha.

One of the fixed dates, which was established at a specially early period, and which evidently forms the corner-stone of the whole system, is the number 218 for the consecration (abhiseka) of Asoka. The Dip, 6. 1, says :?

dve satani ca vassani attharasa vassani ca I sambuddhe parinibbute abhisitto Piyadassano ll

£ 218 years after the Sambuddha had passed into Nirvana Piyadassano (Asoka) was consecrated/ And the Mah. 5. 21 :?

Jinanibbanato paccha pura tassabhisekato Sattharasam vassasatadvayam evam vijaniyam.

'After the Nirvana of the Conqueror and before his (Asoka's) consecration there were 218 years; this should be known/

3 In the same way, to date the Mahavira in the Jaina tradition the number 155 is evidently decisive as being the sum total of the years between his death and the beginning of Candragupta's reign. See Hemacandra's Parisistaparvan, ed. JACOBI, viii. 339 ; Pref., p. 6. If we accept the year 321 B.C. for this last event we have as result 476 B.C. as the year of Mahavira's death. Certainly this is in contradiction with the Buddhist reckoning in so far as, according to Majjh. Nik. II. 24318 foil., the ' Nigantha Nataputta' (i.e. the Mahavira) must have died BEFORE the Buddha. OLDENBERG, Z.DM.Gt. 34, p. 749.XXIV




Since Asota had already reigned four years before he performed the abhiseka ceremony2 his accession falls 214 years after the Nirvana. According to the Ceylonese tradition the reign of Asoka was preceded by that of Bindusara, lasting twenty-eight, and that of Candagutta lasting twenty-four years (Mah. 5. 18; Dip. 5. 100). Thus Candagutta would have ascended the throne 214 ? (28 -f 24 years), L e. 162 years after the Nirvana.3 Now this event is one of the few in the earlier Indian history which we can date with some approach to certainty. It falls in the year 321 B.C. or within two years of this date/ allowing for error.


BUDDHA'S DEATH (321 + 162) = 483 B.C. As he died at the age of eighty years the year of his birth should be put at 563 B.C.

But we must emphatically state that this calculation too is hypothetical, that we are only able to give an approximate and not a perfectly exact result. Moreover, we shall see below that, in the Ceylon Chronicles themselves, there is a contradiction which we can hardly pass by.

First of all the whole calculation, as OLDEN BERG 5 has quite justly insisted, rests on the supposition that the date

1 Slightly different In the Snap., p. 29920, which puts the abhiseka in the year 218 (dvinnaxn vassasatanam npari at^harasarae vasacl. On the tradition on Asoka's age of the Northern Buddhists see § II.

2 Dip. 6. 21-22; cf. Smp. l.L Moreover, Mah. 5. 22 contains the

statement. NORMAN, J.ItA.S. 1908, p. 10, Is mlgtaken when he says that, according to the Mah., accession should be put at the year 218 A.B. and the abhiseka at 222.

a With this calculation cf. FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1906, pp. 984-986 and 1909, p. 1 folL, and particularly p. 28 foil. See also WICKEEMA-&INGHE, Eeyfanica, i, p. 142, n. 7.

4 V. A. SMITH, J.RJ..8.1901, pp. 831-834; of India,


s 19109 po 611.Introduction

218 for Asoka's abhiseka is authentic. It really seems to me that it is just on this very point that scepticism is least necessary. The date is supported by the best testimony and has nothing in it to call for suspicion. The interval of time is certainly not so great that the preserving, within the ecclesiastical world, of a definite tradition a;s to an event of such great importance should be improbable or indeed impossible.

On the other hand we must not forget that the date 321 for Candragupta^s accession, which forms a point of support for the hypothesis, is only approximately correct. A little shifting back or forward is therefore quite possible.

Finally, there is the supposition that the length of Canda-gutta's reign (twenty-four years) and Bindusara^s (twenty-eight) is established with certainty. Now it seems indeed that, with regard to the former, scepticism is quite out of place. Here the northern tradition is in agreement with the southern,1 which is certainly an important point. On the other hand there is a difference of three years in respect of Bindu-sara's reign. Here again there is a possibility that the date may be shifted.

Nevertheless it does seem that on the much-disputed question of the year of the Buddha's death there is a tendency toward unison. Marked differences of view are disappearing, the accepted dates are less far removed one from another.2

The chronology current in Ceylon, Burma, Siam starts out from the middle of the year 544 B.C.3 as the date of the Nirvana. That this date is wrong and contains an error of, roughly speaking, sixty years, is now, we may say, generally admitted. Moreover, FLEET4 has pointed out that this reckoning is by no means based on a continuous tradition

1 Of- below the tables to § 9.

2 For earlier views see FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, pp. 4-5; MABEL DUPE, Chronology of India, p. 7 ; KERN, Manual of Indian JBuddhism, p. 107, n. 6.

3 Not 543 ! See WICXREMASINGHE, EpigrapMa Zeylanica, i, p. 122, n. 7. The year of Buddha, 2444, began on May 13, 1900.

4 ' The Origin of the Buddhavarsha, the Ceylonese Beckoning from the Death of Buddha/ J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 323 foil., esp. 332.Introduction

from early times. It is rather a relatively late fabrication, which, probably does not go back further than the twelfth century A.D.1 How the error of sixty years came into the era certainly still needs explanation.

Again,, the date 477 B.C. as the year of the Buddha's death, which was accepted by MAX MULLEU and CUNNINGHAM, must be given up, It rests on the erroneous premise that the year of Candragupta's accession was 315 B.C.2

V. A. SMITH3 accepts 487 or 486 B.C. as the year of the Nirvana, GOPALA AIYER/ who starts from 269 as the year of Asoka's coronation, the year 486 B.C. Both attach, some importance, it would seem, to the so-called cdotted Record',5 which was continued in Canton up to the year 489 A. D. and marks each year, from the date of the Buddha onwards, with a dot. In the year 489 A. D. the number of dots amounted to 975, which would bring us to the year 486 B.C. as the starting-point.

I would not for my part attach too much importance to this ' dotted Record'. It is singularly improbable that in the course of time?it is a question of nearly a thousand years !? not a single error or oversight should have occurred. The essential, to my thinking, is that the difference between the various reckonings is already reduced by now to three or four years. But if V. A. SMITH, from his own standpoint, arrives at a result so closely approaching that to which the corrected Ceylon-Tradition brings us, he might well have been led to a somewhat milder judgment as to their trustworthiness and their value.

Finally, the whole difference comes down to this: whether, agreeing with the Puranas, we allow Bindusara a reign of twenty-five years, or, in agreement with the Mahavamsa, allow him twenty-eight years. In the former case we come to the

1 As it now appears (see below) in the eleventh cautery. s S.B.E., x, 2nd ed., 1008, pp. 43-47. 8 Early History of India, pp. 41-43.

4 The Date of Buddha; Ind. Ant, xxxvii, 1908, p. 341 foil. a See TAKAKUSU, J.R.AJS. 3896, p.436foil; 1897, p. IIS; FLEET, ik, 1909, p. 9,Introduction


year 486 as the year of the Nirvana, in the latter case to 483 B.C. I£ we then take the 219th year after the Nirvana as the year o£ Asoka's abhiseka, there results in the former case 268/67 B.C., in the latter 265/64 B.C.

It would be of great importance to us if we might refer the date 256 at the end of the so-called ' Minor Rock-Edict I'l to the years elapsed from the Nirvana to the publication of the Edict. This opinion was formerly held, represented particularly by BOHLEK, and F.LEET.2

But recently the interpretation of that Edict was cleared up to a certain extent. The merit belongs to F. W. THOMAS. 3 He was the first to point out that the expressions vivuthena and vivasa (vivutha), which appear in connexion with the number 256, should be derived from vi-vas in the sense ' to be absent from home, to dwell far away'. Then in his second article he has ingeniously demonstrated that the number 256 does not denote years but nights, i, e. nights and days. In the Sahasram text he first discovered the wordlati = ratri in duve sapamnalatisata = Skt. dve satpancasaratrisate.

These discoveries were acknowledged both by FLEET and HuLTZSCH.4 But now opinions diverge. F. W. THOMAS takes it to mean that Asoka published the Edict when on a religious journey. The number would refer to the 256 changes of camp in the course of this tour of inspection.

But FLEET interprets vivutha and vivasa in another way. According to him the allusion is to the renunciation of the household life, to the life far from house and family. He takes it to mean that Asoka after a reign of thirty-seven years had renounced the throne and the world to spend the rest of his life in religious retreat. His dwelling was the mountain

1 The Edict is to be found in Rupnath, Sahasram, in Brahmagiri and elsewhere. V. A. SMITH, AsoJca, p. 138, n. 3.

2 Cf. BtiHLER, Epigraphia Indica,, iii. 138; FLEET, 'The last Edict of Asoka,' J.R.A.S. 1908, p. 811 foil.

3 Ind. Ant. xxxvii, 1908, pp. 22-23, and especially *Les vivasal.i d'Asoka', Journal Asiatique, May-June, 1910, p. 507 foil.

4 FLEET,/The Last Words of Asoka/ J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 1302 foil.; HULTZSCH, < A Third Note on the Rupnath Edict/ #>., p. 1308 foil.XV1U


Tinnevelli district at the southern extremity o£ India, where the river Tamraparni flows into the sea.1 But, at the same time, if Tambapanni should be understood to mean Ceylon the authenticity of Dip. and Mah. is not affected in the


Let us look at the positive contents of the tradition. We are certain of: (1) the name Mahinda as the apostle of Ceylon. Nor is that disputed by V. A. SMITH. Here the Ceylonese narrative finds gratifying support from Hiuen-thsang2 who mentions Mahendra by name expressly as the man by whom the true doctrine was spread abroad in the kingdom of Simhala. It is certain: (2) that this Mahendra was a near relative of king Asoka. The Chinese pilgrims call him the younger brother 3 of this latter, the Ceylon Chronicles call him his son. Here we have two conflicting reports, and it would be simply arbitrary to prefer the statement of the Chinese pilgrims to the Ceylonese tradition.

But at what result do we arrive if we put together these established facts and the mention of Ceylon in the earlier Asoka Inscriptions ? Simply and solely that which is self-evident, namely, that before Mahinda relations existed between continental India and Ceylon and efforts were made to transplant the Buddhist doctrine to Ceylon.

But with Mahinda this process comes to a successful end. We can understand therefore that all the interest became concentrated in his person, and that tradition wrought together in dramatic fashion that which was a thing of slow continuous development. I consider that this would always and in all circumstances have been the critical judgment on the

1 Imp. Gazetteer of India, s.v. Of. on this subject HULTSZCH, J.&A.S. 1910, p. 1310, n. 4.

8 ST. JiTLiEHj Memoires sur Us conMes occidentales, par Hionen-ii, p. 140; BEAL, Si-yu-ki, Buddhist Records of the Western Wortd, transl. from the Chinese of Hiuen-thsang, ii, pp. 246-247; T. WATTEBS, On Yuan Chwanff, ii. 93? 230, 284.

3 Besides Hiuen-thsang we have mention by Fl-hian (see LBGOE, A Rtwrd of Buddhifilc Kingdoms "by Fd-hien, p. 77) of a younger brother of Asota? who became a monk, without, however, mention of his name or allusion to the mission to Ceylon.Introduction x*£

reports of our Chronicles as to the conversion of Ceylon. The fact, in essential respects,, holds good, but it is a question of putting it in the right light.

Besides, a hint that Mahinda's mission was preceded by similar missions to Ceylon is to be found even in Dip. and Mah., when they relate that Asoka,, sending to Devanampiyatissa, with presents for his second consecration as king,, exhorted him to adhere to the doctrine of the Buddha.1

Certainly on chronological grounds this cannot be immediately connected with the notices of the conversion of Ceylon to be found in the inscriptions. But it shows us that, even from the point of view of the Chronicles of Ceylon, Buddhism was not quite unknown in that country already before Mahinda's time.

3. The HISTORY OF THE MISSIONS as related in Dip. and Mah.2 receives most striking confirmation in the inscriptions discovered. On the inner lid of the relic-urn which was found in Tope no. 2 of the Sanchi group there is this inscription: Sapurisa(sa) Majhimasa c(relics) of the pious man Majjhima', On the outer lid is Sapurisa(sa) Kasapagotasa Hemavatacariyasa ((relics) of the pious man Kassapagotta (i.e. of the Kassapa clan), the teacher of the Himalaya3.3 Now Majjhima is, in fact, named in the Mah. as the teacher who converted the Himalaya region and Kassapagotto thero appears as his companion, in the Dip.4

Again in the superscription of a relic-casket from Tope no. 2 of the Sonari group the same Majjhirna is mentioned.

On another urn from the same Tope we again find the name of Kassapagotta^ this time with the epithet Kotiputta and again with the designation ' Teacher of the whole Himalaya',

In a third urn-inscription Grotiputta (i. e. Kotiputta Kassapa-

1 Dip. 12. 5-6 ; Mah. 11. 34-35 ; Smp. 3235~8.

2 Dip. 8. 1-13; Mah. 12.1-54 Cf. also Smp. 31417~31825.

8 See CUNNINGHAM, The BUlsa Topes, p. 287. Cf. BHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, pp. 299-801.

4 Mah. 12, 6, 41; Dip. 8.10. Cf. Snip. 31719; MaMbodhivamsa (ed. STRONG-) 1155, where also Kassapagotta is mentioned together with Majjhima. Cf. also Mah. Tlka, 222r.

b2xx Introduction

gotta) appears in connexion with Dadabhisara. This is evidently the Dundubhissara of the Dip. and the Mahabodhi-vamsa who was also among those theras who won the Himalaya countries to the Buddha's doctrine.1

Finally the name of the thera who, according to tradition, presided over the third council under Asoka's rule, is also shown to be authentic by an inscription in a relic-casket from Tope no. 2 of the Sanehi group.2 There is no doubt that by the Sapurisasa Mogaliputasa is meant the Moggaliputta Tissa of the Ceylonese Chronicles.

4. Moreover, the narrative of the transplanting of a branch of the sacred Bodhi-tree from Uruvela to Ceylon finds interesting confirmation in the monuments.

At least GRUNWEDEL, in an ingenious and, to me, convincing way,3 points out that the sculptures of the lower and middle architraves of the East Gate of the Sanehi Tope are representations of that event. Since the Sanchi-sculptures belong to the second century B. c. the representation is distant from the event by roughly speaking, only 100 or at most 150 years.

§ 4. Errors in the Chronology of the Earliest Historical Period.

I consider that such objective confirmation of the Chronicles proves at the very least this much: that their statements are not absolutely untenable and are at least worthy of being tested. Naturally they are not infallible and the longer the interval between the time of the events and the time when they are related, the greater the possibility of an objective error, and so much the more will the influence of legend be noticeable.

As regards the oldest period from Vijaya to Devanampiya-tissa we feel a certain distrust of the tradition and traditional

1 CUNNINGHAM, I. Ly pp. 316-317.

2 CUNNINGHAM, 1.1,, p. 289.

3 GRVIFWBVEI^ Buddhist. Kunst in Indien, pp. 72-73. Of. also RHYS DAVIBS, Buddhist India, p. 302.Introduction xxi

chronology from the very fact that Vijaya^s arrival in Ceylon is dated on the day of the Buddha's death.1 This seems to be a biassed account. Besides, there are the round numbers for the length of the single reigns which have in themselves the appearance of a set scheme and involve, moreover, a positive impossibility in respect of the last two kings of that period, PANDUKABHAYA and MUTASIVA.

According to our Chronicles2 Pandukabhaya was born shortly before the death of Panduvasudeva. Then followed the reign of Abhaya, twenty years, and an interregnum of seventeen years. Then Pandukabhaya ascends the throne at the age of thirty-seven years. He reigns seventy years. That would bring his age to 107 years !

This, however, is not enough. Pandukabhaya's successor is his son Mutasiva. He is born of Suvannapali whom Pandukabhaya had already married before the beginning of his reign. Mutasiva must then have been past the prime of manhood when he succeeded to the throne. In spite of this a reign of sixty years is attributed to him.

It seems to me that certain names and events in the tradition may indeed be maintained, but that the last reigns were lengthened in order to make Vijaya and the Buddha contemporaries.

That in respect of certain facts, the tradition is by no means without value for that first period of Ceylonese history, is shown, for instance, by the account of Pandukabhaya's campaigns,3 which decidedly gives an impression of trustworthiness.

Also after Devanampiyatissa>s reign we find matter for doubt.4 A reign of forty years is attributed to the king

s Hah. 6. 47. In the Dip. 9. 21-22 it is stated, in a somewhat more general way, that at the time of the death of the Buddha (parinib-b an as am aye, not precisely on the day of the death) Vijaya landed in Ceylon. The same in Smp. 32020.

s Dip. 11. 1, 4; Mah. 9. 28; 10. 106. See previously TUKNOUK, Mahdteanso, Introd., p. IL

s Mah. 10.28 foil. See below, Appendix C, p. 288 foil.

4 Of. also on this subject FLEET, J.RA.S. 1909, p. 340.XXII


mentioned, who is said to have been Mutasiva's second son, although he was no longer young when he ascended the throne. But to him succeeded three younger brothers, Uttiya,1 Mahasiva and Suratissa, each of whom reigned ten (= thirty) years, Nay, after the intervening rule of the two Damilas, Sena and Guttika, which lasted twelve years, a fourth brother, Asela, ascends the throne and also reigns ten years.

The reigns of the sons of Mutasiva, who himself occupied the throne for sixty years, would then cover a period of ninety-two years!

We see clearly that also in the period between Devanampiya-tissa and Dutthagamani there were still gaps in the tradition which were filled in with fictitious construction. For the line of Devanampiyatissa we have again the remarkable round numbers 40 +10 +10 -f 10 +10.

In the later periods we encounter no such difficulties and impossibilities. The chronology is credible, the numbers appear less artificial and more trustworthy.

But even in that first historical period one fact stands out clearly and distinctly from the wavering traditions concerning the times immediately before and after. That is the reign of Devanampiyatissa and the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon. And with this we approach the general standpoint from which we have to judge the historical tradition as to the earliest and earlier times in our Chronicles.

§5. The Year of tlie Buddha's Death.

We have to do with a monkish tradition. The starting-point of its chronological statements is the year of the Buddha's death. For this tradition naturally not every'event

nor every historical personage is important to an equal degree,

but chiefly in so far as they were of importance for the

development of the Buddhist community. There are isolated

occurrences and personalities connected, even in early times,

1 The name of Uttiya and Ms consort is confirmed "by an inscription In Periya-Puliyanknlam (Northern Province). See Arcfauofagicvl $ur~ ftf of Btport, 1905 (ix, 1909), p. 45.Introduction

with a certain date which announced the time that had passed since the Buddha's death.1 As for the intervening period the traditions concerning it were far less well established and precise, especially from the chronological point of view.

Here fictions were made, building up and completing the tradition from which subsequently, with those fixed points as framework, the chronological system was developed that we find in the Dip. and Mah., as also in the Introduction to the Snip., and again in the later historical literature of Ceylon. In the Dip-j the oldest source accessible to us, this system appears already complete. It is most certainly not a creation of the author of the Chronicle but only taken over^ in all probability, from the Atthakatha.

One of the fixed dates,, which was established at a specially early period, and which evidently forms the corner-stone of the whole system^ is the number 218 for the consecration (abhiseka) of Asoka. The Dip, 6. 1, says :?

dve satani ca vassani attharasa vassani ca I sambuddhe parinibbute abhisitto Piyadassano II

c 218 years after the Sambuddha had passed into Nirvana Piyadassano (Asoka) was consecrated/ And the Mah. 5. 21 :?

Jinanibbanato paccha pura tassabhisekato Sattharasam vassasatadvayam evam vijaniyam.

' After the Nirvana of the Conqueror and before his (Asoka's) consecration there were 218 years; this should be known/

3 In the same way, to date the Mahavira in the Jaina tradition the number 155 is evidently decisive as being the sum total of the years between his death and the beginning of Candragupta's reign. See Hemacandra's Parisistaparvan, ed. JACOBI, viii. 389 ; Pref., p. 6. If we accept the year 321 B.C. for this last event we have as result 476 B.C. as the year of Mahavira1 s death. Certainly this is in contradiction with the Buddhist reckoning in so far as, according to Majjh. Nik. II. 24318 foil., the 'Nigantha Nataputta ' (i.e. the Mahavira) must have died BEFOKEthe Buddha. OLDENBERG, Z.DM.G. 34, p. 749." Introduction



Since Asoka had already reigned four years before he performed the abhiseka ceremony2 his accession falls 214 years after the Nirvana. According to the Ceylonese tradition the reign of Asoka was preceded by that of Bindusara, lasting twenty-eight, and that of Candagutta lasting twenty-four years (Mah. 5. 18; Dip. 5. 100). Thus Candagutta would have ascended the throne 214 ? (28 + 24 years), i. e. 162 years after the Nirvana.3 Now this event is one of the few in. the earlier Indian history which we can date with some approach to certainty. It falls in the year 321 B.C. or within two years of this date,4 allowing for error.


BUDDHA'S DEATH (321 + 162) = 483 B.C. As he died at the age of eighty years the year of his birth should be put at 563 B.C.

But we must emphatically state that this calculation too Is hypothetical, that we are only able to give an approximate and not a perfectly exact result. Moreover, we shall see below that, in the Ceylon Chronicles themselves, there is a contradiction which we can hardly pass by.

First of all the whole calculation, as OiDENBERG5 has quite justly insisted, rests on the supposition that the date

1 Slightly different in the Smp., p. 29920, which puts the abhiseka in the year 218 (dvlnnam. vassasatanam npari attharasarae vasse). On the tradition on A&oka's age of the Northern Buddhists see § 11.

2 Dip. 6. 21-22; cf. Smp. LL Moreover, Mah. 5. 22 contains the same statement. NORMAN, J.RJL.S. 1908, p. 10, is mistaken when he says that, according to the Mah., accession should be put at the year 218 A.B. and the abhiseka at 222.

3 With this calculation cf. FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1906, pp. 984-986 and 1909, p. 1 foil., and particularly p. 28 foil. See also WICKBEMA-SIKGHE, Epiffraphia Zeylanica, i, p. 142, n. 7.

4 V. A. SMITH, J.RJL8.1901, pp. 831-8S4; Early Histoi-y of India, pp. 38-39.

8 Archit f&r ReliffiQH&eisjenackqft, 1910, p. ill.Introduction

218 for Asoka's abhiseka is authentic. It really seems to me that it is just on this very point that scepticism is least necessary. The date is supported by the best testimony and has nothing in it to call for suspicion. The interval of time is certainly not so great that the preserving, within the ecclesiastical world, of a definite tradition as to an event of such great importance should be improbable or indeed impossible.

On the other hand we must not forget that the date 321 for Candragupta's accession, which forms a point of support for the hypothesis, is only approximately correct. A little shifting back or forward is therefore quite possible.

Finally, there is the supposition that the length of Canda-gutta's reign (twenty-four years) and Bindusara's (twenty-eight) is established with certainty. Now it seems indeed that, with regard to the former, scepticism is quite out of place. Here the northern tradition is in agreement with the southern,1 which is certainly an important point. On the other hand there is a difference of three years in respect of Bindu-sara's reign. Here again there is a possibility that the date may be shifted.

Nevertheless it does seem that on the much-disputed question of the year of the Buddha's death there is a tendency toward unison. Marked differences of view are disappearing, the accepted dates are less far removed one from another.2

The chronology current in Ceylon, Burma, Siam starts out from the middle of the year 544 B.C.3 as the date of the Nirvana. That this date is wrong and contains an error of, roughly speaking, sixty years, is now, we may say, generally admitted. Moreover, FLEET 4 has pointed out that this reckoning is by no means based on a continuous tradition

1 Cf. below the tables to § 9.

2 For earlier views see FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, pp. 4-5; MABEL DUFF, Chronology of India, p. 7 ; KERK, Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 107, n. 6.

8 Not 543! See WICKREMASINGHE, Epigraphia Zeylanica, i, p. 122, n. 7. The year of Buddha, 2444, began on May 13, 1900.

* ' The Origin of the Buddhavarsha, the Ceylonese Reckoning from the Death of Buddha,' J.R.AS. 1909, p. 323 foil, esp. 332.Introduction

from early times. It is rather a relatively late fabrication, which probably does not go back further than the twelfth century A.D.1 How the error of sixty years came into the era certainly still needs explanation.

Again, the date 477 B.C. as the year of the Buddha's death, which was accepted by MA.X MtJLLEnand CUNNINGHAM, must be given up. It rests on the erroneous premise that the year of Candragupta's accession was 315 B.C.2

V. A, SMITH3 accepts 487 or 486 B.C. as the year of the Nirvana,, GOPALA AiYER,4 who starts from 269 as the year of Asoka's coronation, the year 486 B.C. Both attach some importance,, it would seem, to the so-called 'dotted Record',5 which was continued in Canton up to the year 489 A. D. and marks each year, from the date of the Buddha onwards, with a dot. In the year 489 A. B. the number of dots amounted to 975, which would bring us to the year 486 B.C. as the starting-point.

I would not for my part attach too much importance to this ' dotted Record'. It is singularly improbable that in the course of time?it is a question of nearly a thousand years !? not a single error or oversight should have occurred. The essential, to my thinking, is that the difference between the various reckonings is already reduced by now to three or four years. But if V. A. SMITH, from his own standpoint, arrives at a result so closely approaching that to which the corrected Ceylon-Tradition brings us, he might well have been led to a somewhat milder judgment as to their trustworthiness and their value.

Finally, the whole difference comes down to this: whether, .agreeing with, the Puranas, we allow Bindusara a reign of twenty-five years, or, in agreement with the Mahavamsa, allow him twenty-eight years. In the former case we come to the

1 As it now appears (see below) in the eleventh centurjr.

2 S.B.E., x, 2nd ed., 1908, pp. 48-47.

* Earty History of India, pp. 41-43.

* *The Bate of Buddha; Ind. Ant. xKvii, 1908, p. 341 foil.

6 See TAKAKUSU-, J.R.A.S. 1890, p. 436 foil; 1897, p. 113; FLEET, ? p, ?,Introduction

year 486 as the year of the Nirvana^ in the latter case to 483 B.C. I£ we then take the 219th year after the Nirvana as the year of Asoka's abhiseka, there results in the former case.268/67 B.C., in the latter 265/64 B.C.

It would be of great importance to us if we might refer the date 256 at the end of the so-called c Minor Bock-Edict I'l to the years elapsed from the Nirvana to the publication of the Edict. This opinion was formerly held, represented particularly by BUHLEE and P.LEET.2

But recently the interpretation of that Edict was cleared up to a certain extent. The merit belongs to J\ W. THOMAS/* He was the first to point out that the expressions vivuthena and vivas a (vivutha), which appear in connexion with the number 256, should be derived from vi-vas in the sense ' to be absent from home, to dwell far away'. Then in his second article he has ingeniously demonstrated that the number 256 does not denote years but nights, i.e. nights and days. In the Sahasram text he first discovered the word lati=ra tri in duve sapamnalatisata = Skt. dve satpancasaratrisate.

These discoveries were acknowledged both by FLEET and HuLTZscn.4 But now opinions diverge. F. W, THOMAS takes it to mean that Asoka published the Edict when on a religious journey. The number would refer to the 256 changes of camp in the course of this tour of inspection.

But FLEET interprets vivutha and vivasa in another way. According to him the allusion is to the renunciation of the household lifes to the life far from house and family. He takes it to mean that Asoka after a reign of thirty-seven years had renounced the throne and the world to spend the rest of his life in religious retreat. His dwelling was the mountain

1 The Edict is to be found in Kupnath, Sahasram, in Brahmagiii and elsewhere. Y. A. SMITH, Asoka, p. 138, n. 3.

2 Of. BtJHLER, Epigraphia Indica, iii. 138; FLEET, 'The last Edict of Asoka/ J.B.A.S. 1908, p. 811 foil.

3 Ind. Ant. xxxvii, 1908, pp. 22-23, and especially 'Les vivasal.i d'A^oka', Journal Asiatigue^ May-June, 1910, p, 507 foil.

4 FLEET, 'The Last "Words of Asoka/ J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 1302 foil.; HULTZSCH, ' A Third Note on the Bupnath Edict,116., p. 1308 foil.Introduction

Suvarnagiri near Girivraja in Magadha.1 Hence In the passage which is preamble to the Edict in the Mysore versions Suvarnagiri is named, and not the capital Pataliptitra, as the place where the Edict, the 'last word of Asoka', was published.

Moreover, the number 256 has, according to FLEET, a special significance. It was not by chance that Asoka published the Edict on the 256th day of his life in retreat. At this very time the 256th year since the Nirvana came to an end. Asoka would thus have spent, for each year elapsed since the Buddha's death, one day in religious contemplation as a brahmacarl.

This is a very ingenious idea. But it would be hazardous for the present time to base further conclusions on this bold and seductive combination.

§ 6. Traces of an era in Ceylon reckoned, from 483 B. C.

Recently, however, the date 483 seems to have found further support. Here we must take into consideration an important observation of WiCKREMASiHGHE,2 which completes the proof adduced by FLEET and discussed above, of the late origin of the Ceylonese era, that starts from the year 544, Indications are to be found that in earlier times, and indeed down to the beginning of the eleventh century, an era persisted even in Ceylon which was reckoned from 483 B.C., as the year of the Buddha's death. From the middle of the eleventh century the new era took its rise, being reckoned from the year 544, and this is still in use.

In dealing with the question we have to date the immediate predecessors of king ParSkramabahu I, beginning* with Udaya III (1507 A.B.).3

As to ParSkramabahn I, we have information from inscrip-

1 Of. also on this, FLEET, * The Con¥eraon of Asoka,1 J.M.A.S. 1908, p. 486 foil

s See Epiffrttfkia %eyl&nic®9 i, p. 155 foil.

s The names are given in WiJESlf HA? The Mah&ra^sa* Part II, translated, pp. xxil-xxiiiIntroduction

tions, confirmed and completed by literary data, according to which he was crowned when 1696 years had elapsed since the Buddha's death, that is, in the year 1697 A.B. Eight years later, 1705 A.B., a second coronation apparently took place. In the fourth year afterwards, when 1708 years had gone by since the Nirvana, that is, in 1709 A. B., he held a Buddhist Synod.1 According to the Ceylonese era those are the years 1153, 1161, 1165 A. D. But this date for Parakramabahu is supported by an entirely independent source, namely a South-Indian inscription at the Temple of Tinivallsvara in Arpak-kama. Thus for the second half of the twelfth century the existence of the Ceylon era, reckoned from 544, is established with certainty.

Now according to the Culavamsa2 (56. 16 foil.) the six predecessors of Parakramabahu, from Parakrama Pandn onwards, reigned 107 years* Thus the accession of the last-named prince falls at 1590 A. B. or, according to the Ceylonese era, 1046 A.B. Moreover, this date is confirmed by the South-Indian Manimangalam inscription, which is dated in the same year,3

According to the latter, Parakrama Pandu was conquered and killed in this year by the Cola king Eajadhiraja I, It Is true the Culavamsa gives Parakrama Pandn a reign of two years, but we must rather take the accession and death of the king as falling in one and the same year, 1590 A. B. = 1046 A. D. Thus it is proved, at the same time, that the Ceylon-era also existed in the middle of the eleventh century.

But from a South-Indian inscription we can also fix a date for Udaya III among the predecessors of Parakrama Pandu, a date which throws a completely new light on the whole reckoning of eras.

1 See the Qalvihara-Inse. of Polonnaruwa, 11, 1-4 (ED. MULLEE, Ancient Inscr. of Ceylon, pp. 87, 120); Nikaya-sangraha, ed, WICK-REHASXNGHE, pp. 2G2S, 221 Cf. Epigr. ZeyL i, p. 123.

2 I designate thus the later continuation of the Mahavamsa from 37. 51 onwards.

5 HULTZSCH, South Indian Inscriptions^ iii, no. 28, p, 53; Epigr. L pp. 80, 155.Introduction

Since, according- to the Ctilavamsa,1 the time between the accession of Udaya III and that o£ Parakrama Pandu amounts to ninety-three years eight days, and, as we saw above, the latter ascended the throne in 1590 A. B., we have consequently for the accession of this former king the date 1497 A. B. But this year, according to the Tanjore inscription of king Bajendra Coladeva, must be about the year 1015 A. D.

The inscription2 gives an account of a military expedition to Ceylon. This invasion by Cola corresponds as to its details with one which, according to the Culavamsa 53. 40 foil., occurred under Udaya III at the beginning of his reign. KIELHORN has calculated the time of Coladeva's accession as between the end of 1011 and the middle of 1012 A. D.; the expedition falls between the fourth and sixth year of the reign, that is, between 1015 and 1018. These years must coincide with the years 1497 and 1498 A. B. Of the 1497 years ( ? 1015) remain 482, which fall within pre-Christian times. In other words : THE BUDDHA DIED 483 B. c.

So, with WICKBBMASINGHE (L 1.9 p. 157) we must state the matter thus. The author of that part of the Culavamsa which deals with the kings from Udaya III to Parakrama-bahu I lived at a time when the present era, reckoned from 544 B. c., was in use. He was acquainted with three well-established dates,, 1497,1590, and 1692 A. B., for the accession of Udaya III, Parakrama Pandu, and Parakramabahu I. But he did not know that the first of the three dates was based on quite a different era, reckoned from 483 B.C. The interval between Udaya III and Parakrama Pandu amounted,, in his view, to ninety-three years, but was in reality only thirty-one years (1015-1046 A. ».).

Certainly, considering the detail in which the events of the period from Udaya III to Parakrama Pandu are described by the Culavamsa, it is difficult to say at what point we should undertake to strike out the surplus of sixty-two years. The

1 See WIJESINHA, 7. /.» p. xiii.

3 HCLTZSCH, South Indian Inscr. ii, no. 9, pp. 90-93; KXBLHOBH, JSyigtraphia Indica} vii, p. 7 ? Epfgr. Zeyl. i, p. 79.Introduction

principal part must perhaps fall within the reign of Mahinda V and the interregnum that followed^ for which thirty-six years and twelve years are set down. But that the tradition regarding the period in question is not well established is easily explained by the unrest and confusion which prevailed at that time.

§ 7. The dates of Devanampiyatissa and Duttha-gamani.

The tradition according to which Asoka was consecrated king 218 years after the Nirvana certainly arose in India. The first envoys of Buddhism brought it to Ceylon with them,, and here A CHRONOLOGICAL CONNEXION WAS ESTABLISHED

BETWEEN THE REIGN OP ASOKA AND THAT OF DEVANAMPIYATISSA, under whom Buddhism made its entry into Ceylon.

That Devanampiyatissa and Asoka were really contemporaries we have no reason to doubt. On the one hand the Ceylonese tradition concerning the missions is supported by the discoveries in the Bhilsa-topes. On the other hand we know from Asoka's inscriptions that as a matter of fact an eager missionary-activity prevailed in his time.

According to the Dipavamsa DEVANAMPIYATISSA was consecrated king 236 years after the Buddha's death,1 i.e. in the 237th year. According to the Mah. 11. 40 the consecrating of Devanampiyatissa took place on the first day of the bright half of the ninth month, Maggasira (October?November).

Now since, according to Dip. 11. 14, the consecration of Tissa was later by a certain number of years?I shall discuss the passage further on?AND six MONTHS later?than, the abhiseka of Asoka, this latter event must have taken place

1 Dip. 17. 78 :

dve satani ca vassani chattimsa ca samvacchare sambuddhe parinibbute abhisitto Devanampiyo. Observe that the formula used is the same as in 6. 1 for dating Asoka's abhiseka. See above, p. xxiii. The date 236 is also to be found in the NiMya-samgraha, ed. WICKBEMASITOHE, p. 103, and it results in Dip. and Mah. as the sum total of the reigns of all the kings from Vijaya to Devanampiyatissa.xxxii Introduction

in the third month Jettha (April-May)/ and in fact,, as we know, in the 219th year after the Nirvana.

According to the tradition prevailing in Ceylon2 the Buddha died on the full-moon day of the second month of the year Vesakha (March-April), according to our reckoning : of the year 483 B. c. Thus on the same day 265 B. c. the year 218 A.B. would have come to an end. A month later,, roughly speaking, Asoka would be consecrated. In the month Vesakha, 247 B.C. the year 236 A.B. came to an end. In the autumn of the same year the first coronation of Devanampiyatissa took place. A second coronation3 of this king was celebrated in the following Vesakha (March-April), 246 B.C.

But there are certain statements which are not in agreement with this reckoning. In a passage in the Dip.4 it is said that Mahinda came to Ceylon 236 years after the Nirvana. And it is said expressly that this arrival took place on the full-moon day of the third month Jettha (April-May).5 But a new Buddha-year had begun in the preceding month. Thus if Tissa's first consecration falls in the 237th year A.B., then Mahinda's arrival falls in the 238th, that is, not 236 but 237 years had elapsed since the Nirvana,

This contradiction was discovered by FLEET 6 who made an ingenious attempt to explain it.

The full-moon day of Vesakha as the day of the Buddha's death is open to doubt. This day recurs only too frequently in the Buddha's life. On the other hand FLEET points out

1 On the names of the months in the Indian calendar see our transl., note to 1. 12.

2 Mah. 3. 2; Buddhaghosa in Sum. I. 610 and Smp. 2833> 4. Cf. Dip. 5. 1 foil, for-the same results.

8 Dip. 11. 39; Mah. 11.42.

4 Dip. 15. 71 :

dve vassasata honti chattimsa ca vassa tatha Mahindo nama namena jotayissati sasanam.

5 Dip. 12. 44; 17. 88 (thirty days after the second consecration !); Mah. 13. 18. At Dip. 11. 40 read tato masam atikkamma. See OLDENBERG, note on this passage.

6 'The Day on which Buddha died.1 J.JR.A.S. 1909, p. 1 ML; particularly 6, 11, 31.Introduction

that according- to a notice in Hiuen-thsang* the sect o£ the Sarvastivadins puts the date of the Nirvana, contrary to the usual statement, at the eighth day of the second half of the eighth month of the year, Kattika (Sept.-Oct.).1 Following this FLEET reckons the day of the Buddha's death as falling on October 13, 483 B.C.

If we take this day as our point of departure the above-mentioned contradiction disappears. The year 218 A.B. came then to an end on October 13, 265, and Asoka was not crowned in this year, but in the year 264 B.C. in the third month.2 The year 236 A.B. ends on October 13, 247 B.C., a month later in the year 237 A. B. Tissa was consecrated king;3 in the same year, five months later, there followed the second4 coronation, and yet one month later the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon.

We have then the following dates :?

1. October 13, 265, end of the year 218 A.B.

2. April 25, 264, Asoka's abhiseka.

3. October 13, 247, end of the year 236 A.B.

4. November 6, 247, Tissa's first coronation.

5. April 16, 246,, Tissa's second coronation.

6. May 16, 246, Mahinda comes to Ceylon.

But here I must point out a difficulty which shows, to say the least, that our sources are not always exact in their calculation of time supposing- we do not accept a variation by even one year. The death of Mutasiva, and therefore also the first crowning of Devanampiyatissa, we find transferred to the seventeenth year of Asoka, in Snip. 321l, and, as it appears^ also in Dip. 11. 14.5

1 See BEAL, Buddhist Records of the Western World, ii, p. 33 ; STANISLAS JULIEN, Memoires, i, pp. 334-335.

2 The day, according to FLEET, is April 25. J.E.A.S. 1909, pp. 26 and 31.

8 According to FLEET, I. L, p. 32, on November 6.

4 According to FLEET, LL, on April 16,

5 The phrasing in the Smp. Asokadhainmarajassa sattara-same vasse idha Mutasivaraja kalam akasi Devan.ampiya-tisso rajjam papuni is not at all ambiguous. The Dip. expresses*



But now even if we set out from April 25, 264 (not 265) B.C. as the date of Asoka's abhiseka, the seventeenth year is already ended on the same day of 247. Then Tissa's coronation, as the dates 218 and 236 have already shown, falls, without any doubt, in the eighteenth (not seventeenth) year of Asoka.

But that notice in the Snip, is not an isolated example. At Mak 20. 1 the planting of the Bodhi-tree in Anura-dhapura is transferred to the eighteenth year of Asoka. This, too, does not agree with the reckoning elsewhere. There can be no doubt that that event falls in the nineteenth year of Asoka.1 Naturally, together with that chronological statement, other dates based upon it and given by the Maha-vamsa 20. 2 foil, are shifted also.

It suffices to point out these discrepancies. They are merely to show that caution is after all not out of place.

2. Further, there is an interesting date connected with the time of YATTAGIMANI. We have, namely, according to Mah. 33. 80-81, an interval of 217 years 10 months and 10 days between the founding of the Mahavihara by Devanampiya-tissa and that of the Abhayagiri-vihara by Vattagamani.2

The date of the consecration of the Mahavihara can be exactly ascertained by the Ceylon chronology. On the full-moon day of the month Jettha Mahinda came to Ceylon. This was, according to FLEET'S calculation,,3 May 16 (246 B.C.). A day later, on May 17, Mahinda came to the capital and

itself less clearly; however, by the words tamhi sattarase vasse chamase ca ana gate I can only understand that there were six months still to come to complete the seventeenth year.

1 We can hardly use the passage Dip. 12. 42-43 for chronology. But it seems to give the correct reckoning, the nineteenth year of Asoka, for Mahinda1s arrival in Ceylon.

3 The same date, possibly taken from the Mak, is to be found in the Nik Samgr., p. 11s6. The Mah. Tika, p. 115 (on Mah. 5. 11-13), gives as the date of the schism of the Dhammarucika of the Abhaya-giri the round number of 217 years after the founding of the faith in Ceylon.

8 J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 28. For the following cf. Mah. 14. 42 ; 15 11, 24.Introduction

spent the night in the Mahameghavana. This the king presented to Mahinda and his companions as an arama on the following day, May 18, 246 B.C. This then is the day of the founding of the Mahavihara. We are brought then to the end of March 28 B. c. for the founding of the Abhayagiri-vihara.

I now believe that we ought to attach special importance precisely to those dates which state generally the interval between two important events. The date number 218 in connexion with Vattagamani was also known in later times.

It is implied in the number 454 of Vattagamani in the Galvihara-Inscription of Polonnaruwa.1 For this has evidently arisen from the addition of 236 (the date of Devanampiya-tissa) to 218.

Moreover, there can be no doubt as to the statement in Mah. 33. 78 foil, that the founding of the Abhayagiri-vihara took place in the second half of the reign of Vattagamani. Therefore I do not hesitate to place the beginning of this second half of Vattagamanias reign at the end of the year 29 or the beginning of the year 28 B. c.

Of course this leads us into certain difficulties when we add up the figures of the individual reigns between Devanampiya-tissa and Vattagamani according to the readings accepted in my edition. From these figures it results that Vattagamani ascended the throne for the second time in the year 39 B. c. "We have then a difference, in round numbers, of about ten years.

This difficulty disappears if we read2 Mah. 21. 11, with the Singhalese MSS. (duve) dvavisavassani, not with the Burmese duve dvadasa vassani, to give thus to the Damilas Sena and Guttika twenty-two and not twelve years* reign. To be sure the Dip. (18. 47) has dvadasa vassani, which certainly must be taken into account. On the other hand the later Ceylonese literature (Thupavamsa, Pujavaliya, Raja-

1 ED. MULLEK, Ancient Inscriptions of Ceylon, p. 87 (Sara siya supsenses hawuruddak). See FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 330.

2 In my edition I originally accepted the former reading, however in the ' Corrections ' (p. 368) I have given the preference to dvadasa.



valiya1) only gives the number 22. In any case at the time the Tliup. was composed, according to it, the date stood so in the Mali.

Naturally, to be consequent, we must also read Mah. 27. 6 in the prophecy concerning Dutthagamani, with the Sinhalese MSS, cha cattalisa satam '146' or cattalisa satam f 140 \ From the point of view of textual criticism the latter reading seems to me to be the safer; also I should be inclined to believe that in this connexion a round number would be more appropriate.

I confess that I only brought myself unwillingly to depart from the reading of the Burmese MSS. They contain elsewhere, without doubt, the better text. Perhaps we must conclude that, in regard to Sena and Guttika, the Burmese recension adopted the reading of the Dip. and that, in accordance with this, in Mah. 27. 6, also the number was altered to chattimsasatavassani to do away with the mistake thus caused in the addition total.

Taking as a basis the date 483 B. c. we can provisionally draw up a list of the kings according to Dip. and Mah.2

§ 8. List of the Ancient Kings of Ceylon.

Length < 3f Reign Buddh

No. Name Dip. Mali. Dip. Mab. Era 483B.C. Christian Era

Y. M. D. Y. M. B.

1 Viiavfl .... 942 7 74 S3 ? " *JQ 1?88 483 445

o 8 4 & Interregnum . Panduvisudeva Abbaya . . . Interregnum . Pandukabhaya . Mutasiva . . . 11.9 10.5 10.7 11.11 11.4 11.5 f"17 7fi> 8.5 9.25 10.52 10.105 10.106 11.4 2 __ __ so ------- 20 ------- 17 ------- 70 ------- 60 ------- 1 ----------- SO -------- 20 -------- J7 -------- 70 -------- 60 -------- 88-39 39-69 69-89 89-106 10B-176 176-23B 445-444 444-414 414-S94 394-377 377-307 807-247

236 ------- 236 --------

1 For,tlie passes see Dip. and Mali., p. 120.

2 See FLEET'S list, J.E.A.SL 1909, p. 350. The particular aim of tliis Introduction

obliges me, on my side, to draw up a table to enable the reader of the translation to a rapid survey.Introduction


Name Dip. Mah. Length of Reign Buddh. Era 483 B.C. Christian Era

Dip. Mah.

Y. M. D. Y. M. D.

Devanampiyatissa. TJttiya .... 17.92 17.93 18.45 18.46 18.47 18.48 18.49 18.54 20.7 20.8 20.9 20.12 20.13 20.14 20.15-17 20.19 20.22 20.24 2025 20.26-30 20.35 21-30 21.33 21.37 21.38 21.40 21.41 20.28 20.57 21.1 21.8 21.11 21.12 21.14 (27.6) 32.35, 57 33.4 33.19 33.28 33.29 33,37 33.56-61 33.102 34.1 34.13 34.15 34.18-27 34.30 34.37 34.69 35.1 35.9 35.12 35.14 35.27 40 ------- 10 ------- 10 ------- 10 ------- 12 ------- 10 ------- 44 ------- 40 ------- 10 ------- 10 ------- 10 ------- 22* -------- 10 ------- 44 ------- 236-276 276-286 286-296 296-806 306-328 3S8-338 388-382 382-406 406-424 424 424-433 433-439 439s 439-454 454-466 466-480 480-492 492-495 495-499 499-521 521-549 549-561 561-571 571-574 574-575 575 575-578 B.C. 247-207 207-197 197-187 157-177 177-155 155-145 145-101 101-77 77-59 59 59-50 50-44 44 44-29 29-17 17-3 3 B.C. -9 A. D. 9AJD.-12A.D. A.D. 12-16 16-38 38-66 66-78 78-88 88-91 91-92 92 92-95

Mahasiva .... Suratissa .... Sena . ) Guttika \ ' ' '

Elara ....

Dutthagamani . . Saddhatissa . . . Thulathana . . . Lanjatissa . . . Khali atanaga . . (Maharattaka) . Vattagamani . . Five Damilas Pulahattha (3 y.) Bahiya(2y.) . . Panayamava (7y.) Pilayamava (7 m.) Da'thika (2 y.) . . Vattagamani . . MahaeuliMahatissa Coranaga .... Tissa . . .

136 ------- 146 -------

24 ------- 18 ------- ? 1 30 96 ? 6 ------ ------ 1 24 ------- 18 ------- ? 1 10 9 ? 15 6 -------

57 7 11 57 1 25

? 3 ? ? 5 ? 14 7 ? 12 ------- 14 ? ? 12 ------- 3 -------

Siva . . . . \ Vatuka ... Darubhatikatissa V Niliya .... Anula ...'..) Kutaka,nnatissa . . Bhitika'bhaya . . Mahadathikamaha-_ -naga .... Amandagamani Kanirajanutissa . Culabhaya . Sivall . . Interregnum . .

60 ------ 60 3 ?

22 ------ 12 ------ 98 ? 3 ----- - 1 ------ 22 - ------ 28 ------- 12 ------- 98 ? 3 ------ ?1 __ __ ? 4 ?

1 According to the Burmese MSS. only 12 years. See p. xxxv.

2 See the same figure Nik. samgr. 1014.XXXVH1


Length of Reign.


No. Name Dip. Mah. Dip. Mah. Era 483B.C. Christian Era

Y. M. D. Y. M. D.

40 Ilanaga .... 2U3 35.45 6 ------- 6 ------- 578-584 95-101

41 Candamukhasiva . 21.45 35.46 87 ? 87 ? 584-593 101-110

42 Yasalalakatissa . . 21.46 35.50 87 ? 78 ? 593-601 110-118

43 Subharaja . . . 21.48 35.56 6 ------- 6 _ ? 601-607 118-124

44 Vasabha .... 22.11 35.100 44 ------- 44 ------- 607-651 124-168

45' Vaiikanasikatissa . 22.12, 27 35.112 3 ------- 3 ------- 651-654 168-171

46 (3-i^abahiikagani ani 22.14, 28 35.115 22 ------- 22 ------- 654-676 171-193

47 Mahalfanaga . . 22.17, 29 35.123 6 ------- 6 ------- 676-682 193-199

180 2 ? 182 3 ?

48 Bhatikatissa. . 22.22, 3&! 56.1 24 ------- 24 ------- 682-706 199-223

49 Kanitthatissa . 22.25, 31 36J5 18 ------- 18 ------- 706-724 223-241

50 Khujjanaga . . 22.32 36.18 2 ------- 2 ------- 724-726 241-243

51 Kuncanaga . . 22.33 3619 ?j __ __ 1 , __ __ 726-727 243-244

52 Sirinaga I . . 22.36 36.23 19 ------- 19 ------- 7if-¥461 244-263

5.1 Voharikatlssa * . 22.45 36.27 22 _____ 22 ------- 746-768

54 Abhayanaga 1 . 22.38 36.51 22 ------- 8 ------- 768-776 285-293

55 Sirinaga II . . 22.46 36.54 2 ------- 2 ------- 776-778 293-295

56 Vijayakumara . 22.51 36.57 1 ------- 1 ------- 778-779 295-296

57 Samghatissa . . 22.52 36.64 4 ------- 4 ------- 779-788 296-300

58 Samghabodhi . 22.53 36.73 2 ------- . 2 ------- 783-785 300-302

59 G-othakabhaya . 22.60 36.98 13 ------- 13 ------- 785-798 302-315

60 Jetthatissa . . 22.65 36.132 10 ------- 10 ------- 798-808 315-325

01 Mahasena. . . 22.66 37.1 27 ------- 27 ------- 808-835 325-352

167 ------- 153 -------

Total sum . . 836 9 11 834 7 25

Of conrse the dates set down can only be regarded as having an approximate value. For the Chronicles, mostly, give the reign of each individual king rounded off in whole

years. Rajavali and Pujavali reckon the sum total at 844 years, 9 months 25 days, the Mkayasamgraha reckons the time up to Mahasena^s accession at 818, and thus the time

up to his death at 845 years.2

1 The Dip. places Abhayanaga before Voharikatissa. This appears to be the cause of the mistake in the figures. The same length of rpigB. is ascribed to Voharikatissa as to his predecessor, who is really his successor. According to Nik. samgr. 12® Voharikatissa ascended the throne 752 years, 4 months 10 days after the Buddha's death.

s Bajavali, eel B. GUNASBKABA, p. 4222; Ptjiv., ed. idem, p. 2IP; Nik. S., ed. WICKBEJCASINGHE, p. 14W.Introduction

From Devanampiyatissa to Mahasena's death 609 years elapsed, according to the later sources.1 But this only proves that the accession of the former should be dated 236 A.B. (609 + 236=845), but naturally nothing can be deduced from this statement to aid us in dating the Nirvana itself.

I will now supplement my list with the names and dates of the immediate successors of Mahasena :?2

62. Siri-Megbavanna 27 years 352-379 A. D.

63. Jetthatissa ' * 9 ? 379-388 ?

64. Buddhadasa 28 ? 388-416 ?

65. Upatissa 42 ? 416-458 ?

66. Mahanama 22 ? 458-480 ? 67-fSotthisena to) 9Q ,on KAQ

75. IPithiya J 29 - 480-509 ?

76. Dhatusena 18 ? 509-527 ,,

77. Kassapa 17 ? 527-544 ?

For this later period we now have an interesting Indian-Ceylonese synchronism which appears to confirm the reckoning having as point of departure 483 B. c.

SYLVAIN Llsvi3 has communicated the following passage from the account of the Chinese Wang Hiiien ts'e. The king of Cheu-tzeu (L e. Ceylon), by name Chi-mi-kia-po-mo (i. e. Sri-Meghavarman *)_, sent two bhiksus to India to the monastery erected by Asoka near the sacred tree of the Buddha in Bodh Gay a. They found no lodging here and subsequently told their king. He sent an embassy to the king then ruling over India^ San-meou-to-lo-kiu-to (i. e. Samu-dragupta), and sought permission to build on the sacred spot a monastery for Ceylonese pilgrims. Thus the synchronism of king Siri-Meghavaima, the successor of Mahasena, with Samudragupta is confirmed. The latter,, according to

1 See Epigr. ZeyL i, p. 143.

2 Cf. Clilav. 37.99,104,178,208,247 (according to the numbering of the Colombo edition of 1877: Mah. 37. 49, 54,128, 158, 197); 38. 1, 112; 39. 58. As to numbers 62, 64, 77, it is said that they died in the twenty-eighth (or twenty-ninth or eighteenth) year. So it is possible that the dates have again been made later by one year.

s Jbwm. As. 1900, pp. 316 foil., 401 foil.

4 The form of this name, as given by the Chinese narrator, results from a confusion between varna and varman.xl Introduction

V. SMITH/ reigned from 326 to (about) 375, the former, according to our reckoning, from 483 as the year of the Nirvana 352-379 A.D.

According to Chinese sources2 another embassy came from Ceylon to China, sent by king Kia-ehe, i. e. Kasyapa, in the year 527 A. D. Evidently this is a reference to Kassapa I whose reign, according to my list, did in fact begin about 527.

§ 9. The Indian Kings from Bimbisara to As oka.

In the table on the next page I have brought together the names of the kings from Bimbisara, the contemporary of the Buddha, to Asoka, according to the Ceylonese, the Burmese, the Nepalese, and the Jaina tradition. On this I will first make the following observations.

The BURMESE TRADITION 3 is undoubtedly dependent on the CEYLOKESE, as represented by Dip. and Mah. Buddhaghosa 4 is also in complete agreement with the Mah. He certainly ascribes a reign of eighteen instead of eight years to Anuruddha and Munda, but the sum total of the reigns of all the kings reckoned up by him at the conclusion is only correct if we alter that eighteen to eight.

The NEPALESE list o£ the Asokavadana5 comes perhaps midway between the Ceylonese and the Jaina tradition. It is specially remarkable that in this too appears the name of

1 Early History of India, p. 266 foil. (of. Ind. Ant. 1902, p. 257). See also FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 348. s SYLVAIN Livi, /. /., p. 42; foil. Cf. now also E. R. AYBTON,

J.R.A.8. 1911, p. 1142, on a new fact which speaks in favour of the

reckoning from 483 B.C. On the other hand a difficulty presents itself with respect to the embassy of Mo-ho-nan (i.e. Mahanama) to China in the year 428 A.D. (SYLV. LEVI, pp. 412, 421). At the time there reigned in Ceylon not Mahanama but his elder brother Upatissa II. The former did not ascend the throne till 458 A.D.

8 See on this BIGANDET, TJie Life or Legend of Gaudama ike (I860), pp. 347, 361-363, 371-872, 374-375.

4 Snip, :i2ln foil Cf. also Sum. 15323 foil, where the kings from Bimldilm to N%adasa are enumerated,

6 Cf, BCKNOVF, Introduction £~359. It Is noteworthy that the name of Candragupta isTABLE OF INDIAN KINGS

IHpaViimsa Y&irs Mahavamsa Years Burmese trad. Years Asokavadana Years Jain a trad. Years Puranas Years

Bimbiafira 52 Bimbisara 52 Bimbisara Bimbisara £renika Sisunaga 40

(8,66 69) (2. 29-80)

A jataaattu l 82 Ajatassattu * 32 Ajatassattu 35 Ajatasatru Kunika Kakavarna 36

(8,60-61) (2. 81-82)

Udayabhadda 16 Udayabhadda 16 Udayabhadda 15 Ujayin or U day in 60 Ksemad barman 20

(5.97) (4.1) Udayibhadda

? Anuruddha j g Anuruddha ) Ksatraujas 40

? - Munda j Munda j Munda Bimbisai'a 28


Nftgadasa 24 Nfigadasaka 24 Kagadasaka 4 Ajatasatru 25

(11.11) (4.4)

Susunaga 10 Susunaga 18 Susunaga 82 Darbhaka or

(5. 98) (4,6) Darsaka or

Kfilftsoka ? Kalasoka 28 Kalasoka 28 Kakavarnin Harsaka 25

(4.44; 5, 25, 80) (47) Sahalin Udayin 33

Ten Sons of Ten Sons of Bhaddaseiia Tulakuci Nandivardhana 42'

Kalftsoka 22 KaJa«oka 22 and 8 Brothers 83 Mahamandala Mahanandin 43

(5, 99) (5. 14) Prasenajit

? - Nine Nandas 22 Uggasen an anda Nanda Nine Nandas Mahapadma 100

(6. 15) and 8 Brothers 21 and 8 Sons

Candagutta 24 Candagutta 24 Candagutta 24 Candragupta Candragupta 24

(5. 100) (6. 16-18)

BindusSra ? Bindusara 28 Bindusara 27 Bindusara Bindusara Bindusara 25

(5, 101) (6.18)

Asoka 87 Asoka 87 Asoka Asoka Asoka Ajsoka 36

(5. 101) (20. 1-6)

1 The Tibetan tradition appears to be very similar to the Ceylonese. According to it Ajatasatru reigned thirty-two years and Dharmaisoka fifty-four years, from the first to the latter were ten generations of kings, ROCKHILL, Life of the Buddha (1907), p. 233.xlii Introduction

Munda whom the Jainas do not know but who is mentioned in the Anguttara-Nikaya.1 Thus the Ceylonese tradition is in this point confirmed by the Northern tradition.

The JAINA list is based on the Parisistaparvan of Hema-candra.2 It is, I think, generally admitted 3 that in this list Srenika and Kunika correspond to the Bimbisara and Ajata-sattu of the Pali sources. On the other hand the names from Anuruddha-Munda downwards to the Nandas are missing. But among these names those of both Munda and Kalasoka are well established by other testimony, as we shall see presently.

The PUEANIC list has the series Bimbisara-Ajatasatru? Udayin (=Udayabhadda) in common with the Ceylonese. But the Puranas insert yet another king before the last-named, and the Ceylonese Chronicles place those three kings at the head of the whole list; the Puranas range the corresponding four kings in the second half of the list. Moreover, I cannot say that the Purana list inspires me with much confidence. The tradition as to individual names is very unstable in the different Puranas. The same is the case with the dates of the individual reigns, although the totals agree fairly well.4

The question then arises: which list merits the most confidence, the Ceylonese, the Jaina, or that of the Puranas ? JACOBI 5 is disposed to give the preference to the Jaina list. He adheres to the view that Kalasoka, 'the black Asoka/ and Kakavarnin (Kakavarna), 'the crow-coloured/ are one and the same person. That is certainly correct and is confirmed by the fact that Kalasoka in the Pali sources is named

1 A. III. 57M foil. OLDENBERG has already, Z.DM.G. 34 (1880), p. 752, stated this fact.

3 Ed. JACOBI (BibL Ind.), I. 22 foil.; VI. 22 foil., 231 foil.; VIII. 1 foil, 297 foil.; IX. 14 foil.

s JACOBI, The Kalpasutra of WiadmMhu (Abhandl fur die Kunde de* MorgenL vii. l)f Introduction, p, 2. The combination Srenika «= Bimbisara occurs ROCKHILL, Life of Buddha (1907), p. 67.

4 See MABEL BUFF, Tke Chronology of India, Table to p. 322.

8 J%? Kalpasutm, Inttod.; also Z. D. N. G. 34, pp. 185-186, Of. OLDENBERG, Z. D. if. G. 34, p. 750 foil; and further, JACOBI, Z. D.M. G. 35, p. mi MlIntroduction x^i *

as the successor of Susunaga and Kakavarna in the Puranas as the successor o£ Sisunaga.1 Here at least the Southern and the Northern tradition are in agreement.

JACOBI moreover believes Kakavarnin = Kalasoka to be identical with the TJdayin of the Jaina tradition, the Udaya-bhadda2 of the Southern Buddhist sources* The ground for his belief is that it is said of both Udayin and Kalasoka that they removed the royal residence from Rajagrha to Patali-putra. He believes that the Ceylonese tradition has made two kings out of one person, has inserted various new kings between them and has thus artificially filled up the gap of 100 years which, according to the Ceylonese view, had elapsed between the Nirvana and the Second Council. The list of kings as finally drawn up by JACOBI is this :?

Bimbisara (Srenika).

Ajatasatru (Kunika).

Munda (=Darsaka, Harsaka,, &c.).

Udayin (Kal&soka,, ICakavarnin),

Nanda dynasty.

I confess that, in agreement with OLDENBEUG/ I do not feel convinced by JACOBINS grounds for identifying Kalasoka with Udayin. The removal of the residence from Eajagrha to Pataliputra is attributed to Udayin by the Jainas,4 and by the Brahmans (in the Puranas), to Kalasoka in the Burmese tradition5 which, beyond a doubt, comes from Ceylon. Hiuen-thsang attributes it to king Asoka whose lifetime he places a hundred years after the Nirvana. He does in fact know only ONE Asoka whom he names Wu-yau, or, as rendered once phonetically, '0-shu-kia.6 But to all appearance he combined

1 The identification of Kalasoka with Kakavarna has not been taken into account by V. A. SMITH (J.R.A.S. 1901, p. 839 foil), who completely denies the existence of Kalasoka.

2 The name is written Udayibhadda, Mah. 4. 1, 2 in the Sinhalese MSS. The same in B. I. 5025 foil.

3 Z.DM.G. 34, p. 751 foil.

4 Parisistaparvan, VL 33 foil., 175 foil.

5 See RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist Suttas (S. B. E. xi), Introd., p. xiii.

6 BBAL, Buddhist Records, ii, p. 85 foil.; ST. JULIEN, MJmoires, i, p. 414 foil.xliv Introduction

two different kings in one person. For if he attributes the founding of Pataliputra to an Asoka; this cannot possibly fit in with the historical Dharmasoka of the third century B.C. For we know that Pataliputra was already, under Candra-gupta, the capital of the country. Thus when Hiuen-thsang says that '0-shu-kial or Wu-yau founded the city of Pataliputra he repeated a tradition which originally referred not to the Asoka of the third century but to an earlier king,, who must have lived before Candragupta.

I shall return once more to this subject. Here I will only observe that Hiuen-thsang, in any case with respect to the removal of the royal residence, is against the tradition of the Jamas and nearer to the Burmese. We can say then that the removal is attributed by the Jainas and Brahmans to Udayin, by the Buddhists to Kalasoka.

Is really the only solution to conclude that the two names were one and the same person ? May it not be conjectured with equal or yet more probability that we have here simply a difference in the tradition among the Jainas and Brahmans on the one hand and the Buddhists on the other? Besides even in the Brahmanic tradition Kakavarna = Kalasoka and Udayin are again two different personages. Here then the same duplication must have occurred as in the Southern Buddhist tradition. It becomes therefore the more difficult to accept JACOBI'S hypothesis. It seems greatly preferable to conclude that the Jaina list is defective. In this list Munda too is missing, who seems to be sufficiently established by the Asokavadana and the mention in the Anguttara-Nikaya.

If finally the choice lies between the list of the Puranas and that of the Ceylonese Chronicles, which seems to be more probable and trustworthy., I do not hesitate to give the preference wholly and unreservedly to the latter.

In the Paranas, Nandivardhana and Mahanandin2 must

3 The former in SEAL, p. 90, the latter p. 85. Both names are thus used indifferently in connexion with the same event. This proves that we ought not to conclude, with OLDENBERG- (Vin. Pit. i, Introd., p. xxxiii, n. 1), that the two names represent a remembrance of two different Asokas.

1 It teems that Nandivardhana is to represent the ten sons of Kill-Introduction x*v

fill up some gap or other in the chronology. The reigns of these two together are put down at eighty-five years! But no deeds whatever are recorded.1

Again, in the Puranas yet another king, called Darsaka, fee., is inserted between Ajatasatru and Udayin. That is certainly an error. The Pali canon indubitably asserts/ that TJdayi-bhadda was the son of Ajatasattu and probably also his successor. Otherwise the reign of the father and son would extend over eighty-three years.

Moreover that the two generations of the Nan da,, namely Mahapadma and his eight sons, together reigned for a century is a statement that does not bear the stamp of probability.

The chief difference between the Puranas and the Ceylonese sources lies in the place taken by Kalasoka (Kakavarna) and his father. In the former they are placed at the head of the .whole dynasty, in the latter they are ranged after Bimbisara and Ajatasattu and their immediate successors. Thus, before all, the question is which of the two traditions we decide to accept and whether any reasons can be adduced for our decision.

Now we see that the tradition of Ceylon in its details always finds support from without. Its greater fullness of detail, generally speaking, as against the Jaina list finds a parallel in the Puranas.3 In this respect the Southern Buddhist and Brahmanic traditions support each other.

In all forms the tradition as to the series is well established :? nine Nandas?Candragupta?Bindusara?Asoka, The succession Bimbisara?Ajatasattu-?Udayabhadda is confirmed by the Jaina list and the Asoka vadana. Munda, entirely absent from the Jaina list and the Puranas, is named in the

soka. At least the Mahabodhivamsa (ed, STRONG, p. 98) includes a prince of this name among them. Mahanandin looks like a duplicate of Nandivardhana.

1 Even V. A. SMITH, Early History of India, p. 86, has to admit that they are mere (nominis umbrae'.

2 In the Samannaphala-suttanta, D. I. 5025 foil. The same according to the Tibetan tradition. EOCKHILL, Life of Buddha (1907), p. 91.

3 Also in Tibetan sources. See note to the Table.xlvi


Buddhistic canon and in the Asokavadana. And in the way the Asokavadana puts Kakavarnin AFTER Udayin and Munda as the Ceylon Chronicles place their Kalasoka, not BEFORE them as the Puranas place their Kakavarna.

Thus the greater probability seems to be in favour of placing Kakavarna and with him naturally his father Sisunaga in the second half of the series of kings,, not in the first.

I believe then that with respect also to the series of Indian kings before Asoka, the Ceylonese tradition is more valuable than that of the Brahmans and Jainas. The last-named is certainly defective. But as to the Puranas I am compelled to think that when the dynasty before Candragupta had once received the name £aisunaga, then in order to exalt its greatness and antiquity, the eponymos and his immediate successors, including Bimbisara and his successors, were placed at the head of the whole series of kings. This would end in a reversal in the order of the first and second half.

At the present time greater stress is laid, and with justice, on the importance of research in Northern Buddhism.1 It is most important for the understanding of the development of Buddhism. Still I believe that if we wish to learn the origins of Buddhism, and especially the history of those origins, we shall have to draw chiefly upon the Pali sources.

The dates of the Indian kings according to the Southern Buddhist tradition are the following:?

(1) Bimbisara2

2. Ajatasattu

3. Udayabhadda

4. Animiddha)

5. Munda J

6. Nagadasaka

7. SusunSga

8. Kalasoka

9. Ten sons of Kalasoka

11. Nine Nandas

12. Candagutta

13. Bindusara

14. Asoka (a) before and (b) after the abhi seka

1 ?f. e.g. WALLBSEB, Z.D.M.G. 1910, p. 238, in a discussion of DE LA VALISE POUSSIN'S Bouddhteme.

* As to the chronological relation between Bimbisara and the

B.B. 60? B.B. 8 B.C. 543? B.C. 491

8-A.B. 24 491? 459

A.B. 24? A. B. 40 459? 443

? 40- ? 48 i 443? 435

48- 72 435? 411

72- 90 411? 393

90? 118 393- 365

118? 140 365- 343

140- 162 343? 321

162- 186 321? 297

186? 214 297? 269

214- 219 269- 264

219- 256 264? 227


§ 10. The Acariyaparampara and Indian-Ceylonese synchronisms.

In the chronological system on which the Dip, and Mali, are based the succession of the great teachers from Upali down to Mahinda plays an important part. This acariya-parampara is of interest because in it there is a continuous synchronological connexion between the history of Ceylon and that of India. Here the system appears carried out in detail and completed.1

Of course the dates must not be considered altogether authentic. Besides, for the most part they fall within the most uncertain period of Indian-Ceylonese history, before the accession of Devanampiyatissa. They only show how in Ceylon the several names and events of tradition were fitted into the framework of the few well-established leading- dates.

It seems doubtful too that the theras mentioned, with the exception of Upali and M6ggaliputtatissa, were Vinaya-pamokkha if indeed this should be taken to mean one having recognized authority in the Church.

Sonaka did not even take part in the Second Council which took place in his time. The leading personages in this were Bevata, Sabbakami, Sambhuta Sanavasi and Yasa. Evidently it was only a question of proving that the ' Succession of TeachersJ of Mahinda could be traced back to Upali, the great authority in the Vinaya at the time of the Buddha.

The list is as follows:?

Buddha more precise statements are furnished by Dip. 8. 56 foil, and Mah. 2.28 foil. According to these the two met for the first time when the Buddha was thirty-five and Bimbisara thirty years of age, i.e. 528 B.C. This was the year 15 of Bimbisara's reign. After that Bimbisara reigned yet another thirty-seven years (till 491 B. a). He was succeeded by Ajatasattu. Eight years after his accession the Buddha died. 1 See NORMAN, J.R.A.S. 1908, pp. 5-6. The list of the patriarchs according to the Northern tradition is quite different. In this the succession is: (1) Zasyapa, who presided over the First Council; (2) Ananda; (8) Sanakavasa; (4) Upagupta, the president of the Second Council; (5) Daitika or Dhitika; (6) Kala, who was principally concerned in the conversion of Ceylon. See BEAL, * Succession of Buddhist Patriarchs' (Ind. Ant. ix, 1880, p. U8 foil.).xlviii Introduction

1. UPALI.1 (a) At the time of the Buddha's death (483 B.C.) he had completed forty-four years from his upasampada. So we should have for this last the date 527 B.C. Buddha's death, according to tradition,, coincides in time with the coming o£^ Vijaya to Ceylon and with the 8th year of Ajatasattu. Vijaya dies in the 14th year of Udayabhadda, i.e. 446 B.C., in the 16th year of the same king, i.e. 444 B.C., Panduvasudeva is crowned king in Ceylon.2

(b) Upali after the Buddha's death becomes Chief of the Vinaya and remains so for thirty years. The sum total of his years, reckoned from the upasampada, amounts to seventy-four. He dies therefore 453 B.C. after, as Dip. 4. 38 says, Udaya had reigned six years.

2. DASAKA.3 (a) He is ordained by Upali, when the latter has completed sixty years of his priesthood, or sixteen years after the Buddha's death, i.e. 467 B.C. This agrees with the statement that it happened in the year 24 of Ajatasattu and in the year 16 of Vijaya. According to Mah. 5. 106 he was then twelve years old, thus the year of his birth was 479 B. c.

(b) Dasaka is (after Upali) for fifty years Chief of the Vinaya, i. e. he dies 403 B. c.5 or according to the Dip., in the year 8 of Susuiiaga. In Ceylon meanwhile (Dip. 11. 10) Panduvasudeva has died in the year 21 of Nagadasaka, i.e. 414 B. c., and Abhaya has been crowned king.

3. SoNAKA.4 (a) He is ordained a priest by Dasaka when the latter has completed forty-five years from his upasampada, therefore 422 B.C. Thus according to Dip. 4. 41. But according to Dip. 5. 78 Dasaka had only been forty years a priest when Sonaka was ordained by him. This brings us to 427 B. c. Here therefore the tradition is uncertain. It also points to the year 10 of Nagadasa or the year 20 of Panduvasudeva as the year of Sonaka's ordination, i.e. 425 or 424 B.C.

1 Dip, 4. 34. 38; 5. 76, 95, 103.

2 Dip. 11. 8. The number of years of Vijaya's reign (38) brings us to 445 as the year of his death. The length ®of the interregnum is given Dip. 11. 9, Mah. 8. 5, as one year.

.3 Dip. 4. 27-28, 43; 5. 91, 95, 96, 98, 104. 4 Dip. 4. 41; 5f 78, 79,32, 95,96, 99, 105.Introduction xlix

(b) Sonaka is Chief of the Vinaya for forty-four years and a priest for sixty-six years. Since Dasaka died 403 B. c. Sonaka's death would fall in 359 B* c. This would bring us again to 425 as the year of ordination. The statement that Sonaka died in the year 6 of the reign of Asoka's sons points also to 359 B»C. as the year of his death. The most probable date of Sonaka's ordination is, however, 423 or 422 B. c.., as we shall see from Siggava^s chronology. According to Mah. 5. 115 Sonaka was fifteen years old when he met Dasaka. He was therefore born in 438 or 437 B. c. In Ceylonl the year 11 of the interregnum between Abhaya and Pandukabhaya corresponds to the year 10 of Kalasoka (=383 B.C.) and the year 58 of Pandukabhaya to the year 2 of Candagutta (= 319s. cf).

4. SIGGAVA ,2 (a) Sonaka confers ordination on Siggava forty years after his own upasampada. At that time Kalasoka had reigned ten years and half a month. In Ceylon eleven and a half years of the interregnum after Abhaya had elapsed. Thus we come to the year 383 (or 382) B. c. and to the year 423 (or 422) as the year of Sonata's upasampada.

(#) Siggava is a priest for seventy-six years and dies in the year 14 of Candagutta. This coincides with the year 307 B. c. There must be an error in the statement that he was head of the Church for fifty-five years. Since Sonaka's death may be reckoned with all probability as occurring in the year 359, Siggava, if he died in 307, can only have held this office fifty-two years.

The year of Siggava's birth, since he was eighteen years old at the time of his meeting with Sonaka (Mah. 5. 120), falls in the year 401 B.C.

5. (a) MoGGALiPUTTATissA^3 He is ordained by Siggava sixty-four years after the latter's upasampada, in the year 2

1 Dip, 5. 69, 81; 5, 80.

2 Dip* 4. 44-46 (cf, with this the note in OLDENBERG'S edition);.

5. 73, 95, 96, 106.,

3 Dip. 5. 69, 81, 95, 96, 101, 107, Belies of (Moggaliputta)tissa, attested by an inscription, have been found in the Sanchi-tope no* 2. See CusHiNGHAar, Ehika Topes, p. 289.



of Candagutta and 58 of Pakundaka (i.e. Pandukabhaya)., therefore 319 B.C.

(I) He is Chief of the Vinaya for sixty-eight years after Siggava and dies eighty years after ordination, twenty-six years after Asokaj>sabhiseka( = 264 B.C.). The first two statements accord with 239 B.C., the last with 238 B.C. However, if we place the consecration of Asoka as early as the year 265, which results (see above, p. xxxii) from dating the Buddha's death on the full-moon day of Vesakha, then even according to this reckoning Moggaliputta's death should be placed at 239 B.C.

6. MAHINDA.1 (a) Mo^galiputta ordains Mahinda in the year 6 of Asoka, (reckoned from the abhiseka) or the year 48 of Mutasiva. This brings ns; in both cases, if we take the spring of 265 as that of Asoka's abhiseka, to the time between the spring of 259 and 258. Mahinda was born2 204 A.B. i.e. 279 B. c., thus he was ordained at the age of twenty.

Mahinda comes to Ceylon twelve and a half years after his ordination and eighteen years after Asoka's abhiseka,3 as we have already seen, in the spring 246 B.C.

(U) He dies in the year 8 of Uttiya's reign and on the 8th day of the bright half of the month Assayuja.4 The year of his death is therefore 199 B.C.


Priest Chief of Vinaya

1. Upali . . . 44B.B.? 30A.B. = 527 B.C.? 453B.C. from 1 A.B.

2. Dasaka . . 3GA.B.-94 , = 467 -403 ? ? 30 ?

3. Sonaka . . 00 ^ ? 124, = 423 -359 ?

4. Sig^ava , . 100,, ?176, = 383 -307 ? » 124 ?

5. Moggaliputta 164,, -244, = 319 -239 ?

6. Mahinda . . 224 ? -284, = 259 -199 ?

1 Dip. 5. 82. The time between the ordination of Moggaliputta

and that of Mahinda is here stated to be sixty-six years. It would

be correct to say sixty, as OLDENBERG has already observed.

2 Dip. 6. 20 foil; 7. 21-22; Hah. 5. 209. & Dip. 12. 42; Hah, 13,1,5.

4 Dip. 17. 93, 95; Hah. 20. 32-33.Introduction


Year of Ceylon King Year of Indian King Year of Christian Era

Vijaya 1 = Ajatasattu 8 483 B.C.

16 = j<» 24 467

37 = Udayabhadda 14 446

Panduvasudeva 1 = »j 16 444

20^ Nagadasaka 10 425/4

Abhaya 1 = >» 21 414

Interregnum 11 = Kalasoka 10 383

Pandukabhaya 58 = Candagutta 2 319

Mutasiva 1 = 5? 14 307

48 = Asoka 6 259

§ 11. Tne Buddhist Councils.

According to the Southern Buddhist tradition three Councils, as is known, took place, the first immediately after the death of the Buddha, the second a hundred years later under Kalasoka, the third 236 years after the Nirvana in the reign of Dhammasoka.

There has heen repeated discussion,, especially in recent times, as to the authenticity or non-authenticity of the history of the Councils.1 I am not able, within the limits of this introduction,, to go into all the details. I will rather restrict myself, in the first place, to a resume of that which is recorded in the Pali sources as to the Councils. By way of comparison I will then indicate the most important statements of the Northern Buddhist tradition. Finally, I will endeavour to extract the historical kernel which, in my opinion, is contained in the Ceylonese tradition concerning those events.

1 I would refer chiefly to MINAYEFP, Eecherches sur le Bouddhisme, p. 13 foil.; OLDENBERG, ' Buddhistische Studien/Z.D.Jf.G1. 52, p. 613 foil.; KEEN, Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 101 foil; T. A. SMITH J.R.A.S. 1901, p. 842 foil.; L. BE LA YALLEE Poussisr, 'Les premiers GoBciles (bouddMques),' Le MusSon, N.S. 6. 1905, p. 213 foil. (cf. 'The Buddhist Councils/ Ind. Ant. 1908, pp. 1 foil., 81 ML); B. 0. FRANKE, *Thc Buddhist Councils at Rajasraba and Vesall/ J.P.T.S. 1908, p. 1 foil; EHYS DAVIDS, Dialogues of the Buddha, iL 76, 77. The Chinese accounts of the First Council have been brought together by SUZUKI, * The first Buddhkt Council,* in theMonist^ sdv. 2, 1904, p. 25S folL

d2Hi Introduction

I can only incidentally, where it appears to me to be absolutely necessary, take up a position with regard to views of other inquirers, and must avoid many explanations which suggest themselves, in order not to overstep the space allotted to me.

First, with regard to the SOUTHERN BUDDHIST SOUUCES for the history of the Councils, the principal, both in age and importance, are Khandhaka XI and XII of the Cullavagga in the Vinaya-Pitaka l which deal with the First arid Second Council.

Then follow the Dip. and Mah. with accounts of the three Councils 2 and also the historical Introduction to Buddha-ghosa's Samantapasadika.3 Moreover, Buddhaghosa treats of the First Council, frequently with the same wording, in the Introduction to his Sumangalavilasinl.4 As secondary sources we may mention the Mahabodhivamsa5 and Sasanavamsa,6 and also in the Sinhalese language principally the Nikaya-Samgraha.7

The NOETHEBN BUDDHIST ACCOUNTS will be mentioned in treating of the several Councils.

The First Council.

The account in C.V. is this :

Malifikassapa, travelling with his disciples from Pava to Kusinara, hears of the death of the Buddha. The monks are profoundly grieved, but Subhadda comforts them with the frivolous utterance that they can now do what they will, and that they are freed from an irksome control.

Thereupon Mahakassapa proposes to undertake a samglti of the Dham ma and the Vinaya, that the doctrine may thus

1 OLDBNBERG, Vin. Pit. ii, p. 234 foil. CLS.JB.K xx, p. 370 foil

? GEIGEB, Z>F/>. and Mah. p. 108 foil. In the Dip. there is a double

account of each Council. 8 See OLBENBEEG, Vin. Pit. iii, p. 283 foil. 4 Ed. RHYB DAVIDS and CABPEHTEB, i. (P.T.S. 1886), p. 2 foil.

? Ed. STROM IP.T.S. 1891), p. 85 foil.

? Ed. M. BODE (P.T.S. 1897), p. 3 foil.

7 Ed. WlCKBEXASINGHB, 1890, pp., 8, 4S 8.Introduction *"*

be kept pure. To this end 500 monks are chosen, among whom, by the wish of the assembly, is Ananda,, though he is not yet an Arahant.

The Council takes place in Rajagaha and passes off in the manner described in the Mah.

Some points are to be added from the C.V. namely:

(1) Ananda relates that the Buddha had, in his presence, declared the community of monks empowered after his death to do away with the less important precepts,1 if they wished. Since they are not able to agree in deciding what is to be understood by this expression, they resolve not to do away with any precept.

(2) Certain reproaches are cast upon Ananda. Although he is not conscious of any fault he acknowledges himself guilty from respect for the Assembly.

(3) The thera Purana enters Rajagaha. He is called upon to take part in the work of the Assembly. He renders due acknowledgment to this work but prefers to hold by that which he himself has heard from the Master's lips.

(4) Ananda further relates how the Buddha, before his death, had also pronounced the monk Channa liable to the brahmadanda penance. The fulfilling of this duty is entrusted to Ananda. Channa is deeply troubled. With zealous endeavour he attains to arahantship, upon which the penance is remitted.2'

As regards the time at which the First Council was held, the Dip. 1. 24; 5.4 mentions the fourth month after the Master's death. This was the second Vassa-month, i.e. Savana, the fifth month of the year.3

This reckoning is based on the tradition according to which the Buddha died on the full-moon day of the month Vesakha.

Buddhaghosa and the Mah. agree with this statement.4 The latter certainly mentions the bright half of Asalha the

1 Khuddanukhuddakani sikkhapadani. SeeMahaparinib-banasutta,D.II. 154.

2 I omit the episode of Udena, C.Y. XL 13-14.

3 See M.V. III. 2. 2 (OLDENBEEG, Vin. Pit. i, p. 137). * Smp. 28582-S5, 28684; Sum. 610~20, 8"-"/Mah. 3.Iiv Introduction

fourth month of the yearl as the beginning of the Council, but adds that the first month was spent in preparations, thus the proceeding did not begin till the month Savana.

It is an obviously later addition which we find in the Sum., that not only the Vinaya and the Dhamma, in all their details, but also the Abhidhamma are established at the First Council.

The same is found in the later tradition.

Among the NORTHERN BUDDHIST SOURCES dealing with the First Council I mention the Mahavastu.2 Here, in agreement with the Southern tradition Kasyapa is given as the originator of the Council, the number of the bhiksus taking part in it is stated to be 500 and the place the Sapta-parna grotto near Eajagrha.

There is, besides, an account in the second volume of the Dulva, the Tibetan Vinaya of the Sarvastivadin sect.3 The fixing of the Canon took place, according to this source, in the following order ; (1) Dharma, by Ananda ; (2) Vinaya, by Upali; (3) Matrka (i.e. Abhidharma) by Mahakasyapa himself. It is worthy of remark that the Dulva puts the accusations brought against Ananda in the time before the beginning of the proceedings, thus before his attainment of arahantship.

Fa-Man and Hiuen-thsang4 also mention the First Council. Tire former gives the number of the bhiksus as 500, the latter as 1,000; the former speaks in a general way of 4 -a collection of sacred books', the latter expressly mentions also the redaction of the Abhidharma by Mahakasyapa.

The Second Council.

According* to C.V. XII. the Second Council takes place 100 years after the Buddha's death, and is brought about

by the dasa vatthuni5 of the Vajji monks of Vesall, which

1 The £031 moon of Asalha of the year 488 fell, .according to .f ACQBI'S reckoning (see FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 20) on June 24.

;1 Ed SJBCABT, i, p. 69 foil

' See ROCKRILL, Lift of the, (1907), p. 148 foil.

4 BEAU JReeonto, i, pp. k-lxi; iit pp. 162-164; ItEGGEr

ll"0rtl* of Bwltikivtic Kingdoms* p. 85.

?" ON ton pvinU, according to the PSli-tradition, .see below inIntroduction *v

signified a relaxing of monastic discipline. In the further course of its narrative, too,, the C.V. agrees with the Mah. and the rest of the SOUTHERN BUDDHIST SOURCES. The contrast comes out distinctly between the city-dwelling monks of Vesalland the Arahants living in solitary retreat (a ran flak a, Vin. II. 2996).and of strict tendencies.

Yasa^s speech in presence of the Vesalian upasakas is given in full extent. The disciple of Revata, whom the Vajji monks bring over to their side (Mah. 4. 30) is called Uttara. It is also characteristic that the orthodox monks before they undertake the refutation of the heresies first assure themselves of the consent of SabbakamT, the Samghathera at that time.1

The number of those taking part in the Council is given unanimously as 700.2 The Dip. and the Mah. set the time of the Council in the eleventh year of the reign of Kalasoka (=383-382 B.C.), later documents put it in the tenth year.3 The locality is generally considered to be the Valikarama.4 Only the Dip, (5.29) mentions the Kutagarasala of the Mana vana monastery, I do not think we need attach any importance to this discrepancy, which probably takes its rise in some misunderstanding.

Still it is of importance that the Dip. 5. 30 foil, states, to complete the narrative, that the heretical monks held a separate Council, called Manasamgiti, and that they here

the Translation, note to 4. 9. See for further observations L, DE LA VALLEE POUSSIN, Le Muaeon, N.S. vi (1905), p. 276 foil.; Ind. Ant. 37 (1908), p. 88 foil.

1 C.V. XII. 2. 4-6 = Yin. II, p. 80S19 foil

2 C.V. XII. 2. 9 ( = Vin. II. 30785); Dip. 4. 52 ; Mah. 4. 62 ; Snip. 2947. But when the Dip. 5. 20 speaks of 1,200,000 who took part in the Council it does not contradict itself in this. By this naturally exaggerated number the Dip. means those who took part in the General Assembly. Mah. 4. 60 and Snip. 2949 give for this the same number.

3 Dip. 4.44,47; Mah. 4.8. Cf. Mahabodhiv. 966; Sasanav. 71 ~3 ; Nik. Samgr. 4n.

4'Mah. 4. 50,63 ; Smp. 9415; Mahabodhiv. 9620 ; Sasanav. 613; Nik. Samgr. 64. .Ivi Introduction

made out a different redaction of the Canonical Scriptures. With this may be compared the brief notice in Mah. 5. 3-43 according to which the heretical monks of the Second Council, under the name Mahasamghika, formed a separate sect, as the first branching-off from the orthodox doctrine.

In the NORTHERN TRADITION we have accounts of the second Council in the Dulva,1 from the Tibetan historian Taranatha2, from. Fa-Man and Hiuen-thsang.3

As according to the Southern sources so according to these accounts the ten points of the Vajji monks form the starting-point of the movement.

As to the date there is great uncertainty. In the same way, with respect to the place, the tradition wavers between Vaisall and P&talipufcra.4 Of the famous theras of the Second Council mentioned in the Southern scriptures we meet the following in the Northern:?Sarvakama = Sabbakami, Yasa=Yasa, Salha = Sslha, Sambhuta = Sambhuta Sana-vasl, Revata= Revata, Kuyyasobhita (?) = Khujjasobhita and Ajita = Ajita.

The TMrd Council.

With respect to the Third Council we must, in the first place; depend on SOUTHERN" BUDDHIST SOURCES since it has up to this time been accepted that the Northern Buddhist took no account of this Assembly of the Church. Our oldest source is the Dip. 7. 34-43, 44-59; then comes Smp. 30627 foil, then Mah. 5. 228 folK Respecting the course of events we may refer to the translation following below, since no essential differences exist

The president of the Council was Tissa Moggaliputta, the place Pataliputta, also called Kusumapura ' the city of flowers *. As date, the year 236 A,B. = 247 B.C. is given, Dip. 7. 37, 44.s

1 See ROCKHILL, Life of the Buddha, pp. 171-180,

3 Turan'tikait Oescfiichte des Buddhismus in Indien, Qbersetzt von

SCHIEFNEB, p. 41 foil. Cf. WASSILJTEW, Der EuddMsmus, p. 61 foil *' BEAL, 11., i, p. llv ; iiT pp. 74-75 ; LEGGE, L /., p. 75.

4 On these wavering traditions see below*

£ Cf. I p. 8*^ ; Nik. Samgr. 94. When Dip. L 24, 25 sajhIntroduction

The Mah. 5. 280 says that the Council was concluded in the seventeenth year of the reign of Asoka. It lasted, according to both chronicles, nine months. Thus., according to FLEET'S1 reckoning, the Council began in the middle of January 247 B.C. and came to an end at the end of October in the same year.

Now with respect to the trustworthiness of the Southern Buddhist accounts of the Councils I have arrived at the following conclusion. Here, as elsewhere, a genuine historical reminiscence underlies the tradition. This holds good of all three Councils. A general framework of facts is given with some few data deeply engraved in memory. But within this framework, even in the oldest form of the tradition, all-kinds of details were introduced which correspond to the opinions and circumstances of later times. We must keep to the most general statements if we would come near the historical truth. Everything special and particular should be looked upon with a certain scepticism.

For the FIRST COUNCIL we need not hesitate to extract as the historical kernel of the tradition, the fact that, after the Buddha's death, his nearest disciples assembled in the capital of the country to establish the most important rules o£ the Order as, according to their recollection, the Master himself had laid them down. This may then have formed the groundwork of the later Vinaya. That the Buddhist canon was established then and there in the form in which we now have it, a form that can only be the fruit of centuries of development,2 is naturally out of the question. We see indeed how

that the First Council took place four months after the Nirvana and the TMrd Council 118 years later there is here a manifest error, for which the clumsiness of the author of the Dip, is responsible. The date 118 is evidently reckoned from the Second Council, mention of which has dropped out, and it refers, as in Mah. 5. 100, not to the beginning of the Third Council, but to the birth of Moggaliputta Tissa. See Dip. 5. 55.

1 J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 426.

2 See RHYS DAVIDS, Dialogues, i, x~xx ; Buddhist India, p. 161 foil.; OLDENBEBG, Vin. Pit. i, p. x foil.Introduction

the tradition itself adds new details. Speaking at first only of Vinaya and Dhamma it then, in a later form, makes the Abhidhamma also take its rise in the First Council.

In my interpretation I attach special importance to the episode of Purana (see p. liii). It gives the impression of a genuine historical reminiscence, the more so since it is just of such a nature as to diminish, the authority of the theras of the First Council. There was therefore certainly no reason to invent this story. As a statement of fact, however, it has no meaning unless there had really been beforehand some proposal to establish the teachings of the Buddha.

Certainly not very much more than this can be proved to be historical in the account of the First Council. The narrator in the C.V. adheres in his narrative to the Mahaparinibbana-sutta (D. Sutta XVI = D. II, p. 72 foil.). This has been convincingly demonstrated by OLDENBEEG1 and in greater detail by FnANO.2 I should not therefore like to attach most importance, as does L. BE LA VALLEE Poussix/ precisely to the episode of Ananda's failings and the punishment of Channa. They may very well have been incorporated in the account only because they exist in the Sutta D. XVI.4 It is not even certain whether it was just the frivolous words of Subhadda that brought about the holding of the Council., here too it may be that the narrator has only followed the Sutta in making this fact a motive for the Council.

In that case OLDENBERG'S 5 objection to the historical character

1 Fin. Pit. i, p. »vi foil. 2 J.P.T.S. 1908, p. 8 foil.

3 Ind. Ant 1908, pp. 15-16, 18.

4 FRANKS, LL, p. 18, foil., observes very aptly that in C.V. XI and XII the precept of D. XYI. 6. 2 (= D. II, p. 154) concerning the use of bhante and avu8O,has been strictly retained. Here, again, the narrator's dependence, as to form, on the MaMparinibbana-sutta is evident Because he found the precept in the sutta, he retains it in hie account. But when FEAKKE then goes so far as to argue that the accounts of tiie Council in C.V. were only invented to illustrate that question of etiquette, that they were therefore * more or less readings in ** good form ^ for bhikkhus in all events and circumstances', there are assuredly few who will follow him, I am quite unable to do so.

5 L. L Cf. also RHYS DAVIDS, Budtlhitt Suttos (S.B.E. xi), GeneralIntroduction ^'x

of the First Council disappears. He is o£ opinion that, since Subhadda's words are mentioned., in the MahSparinibbtina-sutta, there must also have been some allusion to the Council if it really was brought about by those words. According to my view the Council? or whatever this assembly of monks in Bajagaha may be called?is the established fact (see above). If the introduction of the narrative in the C.V. really should not be in agreement with the Sutta D. XVI., which I will only assume but without yielding* the point, then the fact of the Council itself is not put aside. In that case the narrator, looking for a motive or means of introducing the Council, found it in that passage of the Sutta, a connexion which did not correspond to the reality,1

The SECOND and THIKD COUNCIL must be discussed together. It is historically confirmed, I think, that the first schism in the Church proceeded from Vesali and that the dasa vatthuniof the Vajji-monks brought it about. But it is doubtful when this separation resulted, where it took place, and whether after this Second Council yet a third took place and at what time.

According to the Southern Buddhist tradition, as we saw, the Second Council was held in Vesali itself under king Kalasoka in the year 383/2 B. c., the third under Dhammasoka in Pataliputta in the year 247 B.C. The first led to the separation of the Mahasamghikas from the Theravada. The second led to the expulsion from the community of certain elements wrongfully intruded there.

My opinion now is that this distinction between two separate Councils is in fact correct. The Northern Buddhists have mistakenly fused the two into one as they confounded the kings Kalasoka and Dhammasoka one with another. But traces of the right tradition are still preserved

Introduction, p. xi foil. JACOBI, Z.D.M.G. 34, p. 185, is, however, not inclined to give such great weight to the argumentum e silentio.

1 BHYS DAVIDS, Dialogues, ii. 76,77, has discussed the value of the evidence as to the First Council, and arrived at a somewhat similar conclusion.k Introduction

in the wavering uncertain statements as to the time and place of the Council.

According to the Tibetan tradition in the Dulva1 the first schism occurred 160 years after the death'of the Buddha, when king Dharma&ka reigned in Kusumapura. But the same source (ROCKHILL,, p. 186) also records an assembly which took place in Pataliputra 137 years after the Nirvana, under Mahapadma and Nanda.

In Chinese sources 2 we find the same uncertainty. The Council that led to the first schism is in these placed now 100, now 116, now 160 years after the Buddha's death*

As the place of the Council Fa-hian and Hiuen-thsang3 mention Vaisall. But according to the Dulva (R., p. 182} the schism arose in Kusumapura (i. e. Pataliputra). Taranatha (p. 41) speaks of the ten points taught by the heretical monks of Vaisall and which gave occasion for a Council that took place in Kusumapura. The Chinese sources too (see- St. J., L I.) mention Pataliputra.

Evidently, as has been said, the failure to distinguish between the two Asokas was the cause of the whole confusion. This is plain from the fact that with respect to this king's date we find the same contradictions in the Northern sources. Hiuen-thsang knows only one Asoka, Dharmasoka, the historical king of the third century B.C. But he puts him 100 years after the Nirvana, that is, he gives him the period of the earlier Asoka. For hardly any scholar will admit now, I believe, that Buddha died in the fourth century B.C.; moreover, Hiuen-thsang, as we saw (see above, p. xliv), names also Dhar-maSoka as the founder of Pataliputra, although we know beyond dispute that Pataliputra was the capital of the country before his time. He has thus transferred to Dharmasoka, the son of Candragupta, a tradition which related to an earlier king.

1 According to Bluwya, in EOCKHILL, Life of the Buddha, p. 182.

2 ST.JuLiw,J 3 See above, p. M, n. 3. Fa-Man, however, does not express himself so definitely asIntroduction 'x*

In the Tibetan sources Asoka is generally dated 100-160 years after the Nirvana. But there is beside this an allusion which, in agreement with the Southern tradition, places him 234 years after the Buddha.1

Taranatha says2 that in the Tibetan Vinaya the date 110 A.B. is given for Asoka, but that in the other sources the dates are 210 and 220.

Lastly, in the Chinese Tripitaka there are, according to TAKAKUSU, four dates for Asoka: 116 A.B.,, 118 A.B., 130 A.B., and 218 A.B. The last-mentioned date, however, is found apparently only in the Chinese Sudarsana-vibhasa Vinaya, which is a translation of Buddhaghosa's Samantapasadika,3

But there is something more. The Northern writings are very familiar with the ten points raised by the monks of Vaisali and the schism produced by them. But they also know of another division 4 associated with the names of the monks Mahadeva and Bhadra. These latter set up five dogmas which were also expressed in brief aphorisms and which led to a schism. In Vasumitra's account 5 the confusion is complete when he relates that somewhat more than 100 years after the Nirvana, under king Asoka in Pataliputra the schism of the Mahasamghikas resulted from the five dogmas, which are then described. Here then, finally, the five dogmas of Mahadeva are confounded with the ten points of the Vaj ji-monks.

It is perhaps not too daring to conjecture that in this division associated with the name of Mahadeva there is a reminiscence of the proceedings that brought about the Third Council. But this conjecture is now also confirmed by an acute observation of L. BE LA VALL&E POUSSIN. He

1 See ROCKHILL, I. l.t p. 283.

2 Transl. by Schiefner, p. 42.

3 A Record of the Buddhist; Religion by I-TSITO, transl. by TAKAKUSU, p. 14, n. 1, p. 217.

4 See esp. TaranStha, p. 51; Bhavya in ROCKHILL, 7. ?., p. 186; WASSILJEW, Der JBuddhfemus, i, pp. 62-63.

5 See ROCKHILL, L L, p. 187, n. 1.Ixii Introduction

establishes the factl that the five dogmas of Mahadeva belong to those which are combated in the Kathavatthu. But the Kathavatthu was composed (see Mah. 5. 278) by Moggali-putta Tissa on the occasion of the Council of Pataliputta.

Thus a new link has been found between the Northern and Southern tradition of the Third Council.2 I adhere, therefore, to the assumption that a second Council took place under Kalasoka and a third under Dha-mmasoka.

The course of events at the Second Council may, taken as a whole, be as the Southern and Northern sources relate. The '10 points' are historical, and we must also regard as historical the names of the theras concerned in refuting them/'5 Moreover, the division of the community, till then united, into two schools is, as I believe, a fact. But we must not exaggerate our notion of the harshness of this separation.

With the toleration peculiar to the Indians the different sects have always mutually recognized each other and kept up relations with each other. I may refer to the beautiful utterance attributed by Vasumitra to the Buddha concerning the

3 Buddhist notes. The five Points of Mahadeva and the Kathavatthu, J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 418 foil.

2 T. A. SMITH, J.R.A.S. 1901, p. 827 foil, and particularly p. 839 foil, argues thus: As there are two different traditions concerning the time of the Second Council the Southern tradition has invented a second Aso&a in addition to the historical one, and out of one Council has made two. It will be seen that niy argument follows the exactly opposite course: as there were two Asokas the Northern tradition has confounded the two Councils which took place in their time, SMITH'S argument has the defect of not explaining how the different tradition regarding the Second Council arose.

* That an extraordinarily great age is attributed of certain theras need hardly be brought forward as testimony against the general trustworthiness of the account (KEEN, Manual, p. 105). These are the embellishments by which it was intended to exalt the authority of the theras. In like manner an age of 150 years is attributed to the first Patriarch of the Bhyana Sect in China, Bodhidharma, (SuzuKi, J.RT.S. 1906-7, pp. 11,13.) Besides, the Yasa of the Second Council was certainly not the Yasa who in M.V. I. 7 foil, appears as a contemporary of the Buddha* He Is distinguished from this latter bj theIntroduction

twelve future schools: < These schools will be the repositories of the diversified fruits of my scriptures without priority or inferiority?just as the taste of sea-water is everywhere the same?or as the twelve sons o£ one man all honest and true, so will be the exposition of my doctrine advocated by these schools/1

We may conjecture that the Second Council contributed to the completion of the Vinaya and the Dhamma, though C.V. XII does not expressly speak of it. That may have been taken as a matter of course. Besides, in the concluding-words (C.V. XII. 2. 9) the second Council, like the first, is designated Yinayasamglti.

At the time of the Third Council the canonical literature of the Dhamma and Vinaya, as we now have it in the Pali recension, was evidently completed in essentials. This is proved by mention of portions of the canon in the inscription of Bairat. Here Asoka recommends seven scriptures for particular study. Of these scriptures six can be pointed out with more or less certainty in the Pali canon.2

And now, besides, the literary movement is proceeding which leads to the compilation of the Abhidhamma. We see this from the allusion, already mentioned above, in Mah. 5. 278, according to which Moggaliputta Tissa in order to refute the errors which brought about the Third Council, composed his Kathavatthuppakarana. But this work belongs to the Abhidhamma.

The importance of the Councils, from the standpoint of the orthodox, lay in the elimination of tendencies which could no longer be regarded as consistent with the faith. But of higher importance was the resolve formed in Pataliputra to bear Buddhism beyond the borders of its narrower home. With this Buddhism entered on its victorious progress through the Eastern World.

1 See BEAL, Ind. Ant. iz, 1880, p. 300.

2 OLDEKBEBG, Vin. Pit. I, p. xl; Z.D.M.G. 52, p. 634 foil., against MIHAYEFF, Recherches sur le Bmddhisme, pp. 83-92 ; RHYS DAVIDS,


A. == Anguttara-Nikaya (ed. MORRIS and HARDY, 5 vols., Pali Text

Soc. 1885-1900). Vol. vi, Indexes by Miss HUNT, 1910. Asl. = Attbasalim (ed. E. MULLER, P.T.S., 1897). B.E. =* SanskriirWorterbuch von BOHTLINGK und BOTH, 7 vols., St.

Petersburg, 1855-1875.

C.V. = Ciillavagga (the Yinaya Pitaka, ed. OLDENBERG, vol. ii, 1880). D, = Dfglia-Nikaya (ed. BHYS DAVIDS and CARPENTER, 3 vols.,

P.T.S. 1890-1911).

Dip. = Dipavamsa (ed. and transl. OLDENBERG, 1879). LA. = Indian Antiquary. J.As. = Journal Asiatique. Jai = Jataka (ed. FAUSBOLL, 7 vols., 1877-1897). J.P.T.S. = Journal of the Pali Text Society. J.2LA.S. == Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society. Kanib. Hah. « Kambodja Mahavamsa (s. HARDY, J.P.T.S, 1902-3,

p. 61 foil.)-M. « Majjhima-Nikaya (ed. TRENCKNER and CHALMERS, 3 vols., P.T.S.


Mah. ed, « Mahavamsa (ed. W. GEIGBE, P.T.S. 1908). M.Bv. = Mahabodhivamsa (ed. STRONG, P.T.S. 1901). M.V. = MubSvagga iThe Vinaja Pitaka, ed. OLDEXBERG,VO!. i, 1879). P.D. = Dictionary of the Pali Language, by GUILDERS, 1875. Vin. Pit. = The Vinaja Pitaka, ed. OLDENBERG, 5 vols., 1879-1883. S. « Samvutta NikSya (ed. PEER, 5 vols., P.T.S. 1884-1898 ; vol. 6;

Indexes by Mrs. RHYS DAVIDS, 1004). S.B.B. = Sucred Books of the Butldhista. S.B.E. « Sacred Books of the East.

Snip. «a Samanta-P^ldika ilntrod. to S. In Yin. Pit. ii, p. 2S3 foil). Sum. «= Saiaaijgala-Vila^iiii «ed. RHYS DAVIDS and CARPENTER, vol. it

P.T.S. I-SS8). 2.D.M.G. » Zeitschrift dtir Deutselicn MorgenlandiBchenGeaellschaft.Map of ANCIENT CEYLON


0 10 20 30 40 50

Ancient Names thus > Panjali Modern Names thus:- ^Jaffna

_ ? (gama) = Village pHpabbataj- Mountain » (vapi)=Tank


flelivapigamao CSPademya Vavunik-kulam




HAVING made obeisance to the Sambuddha the pure, sprung 1 of a pure race, I will recite the Mahavamsa, of varied content and lacking nothing. That (Mahavamsa) which was compiled 2 by the ancient (sages) was here too long drawn out and there too closely knit; and contained many repetitions. Attend ye 3 now to this (Mahavamsa) that is free from such faults, easy to understand and remember, arousing serene joy and emotion and handed down (to us) by tradition,?(attend ye to 4 it) while that ye call up serene joy and emotion, (in you) I Sit passages that awaken serene joy and emotion.

On seeing the Sambuddha Dipamkara, in olden times, our 5 Conqueror resolved to become a Buddha, that he might release the world from evil. "When he had offered homage to that 6 Sambuddha and likewise to Kondanna and to the sage Mangala, to Sumana, to the Buddha Revata and likewise to the great sage Sobhita, to the Sambuddha Anomadassi, to 7 Paduma and to the Conqueror Narada, to the Sambuddha Padumuttara and to the Tathagata Sumedha, and to Sujata, 8 to Piyadassi and to the Master Atthadassi, to Dham-madassi and Siddhattha, to Tlssa and the Conqueror Phussa, 9 to Vipassi and the Sambuddha Sikhi, and the Saip-buddha Vessabhu, the mighty one, to the Sambuddha

1 Bead janayanta, referring the participle to the subject implied

in sunotha. The terms pasada 'serene joy* and samvega 'emotion' occur also In the postscripts of the single chapters of the Mah, Pasada signifies the feeling of blissfnlness, joy and satisfaction In the doctrine of the Buddha, sain vega the feeling of horror and recoil from the world and its misery. See also 23. 62 with note.

B2 Mahavamsa 1.10

10 Kakusandha, and likewise to Konagamana, as also to the blessed Kassapa,?having offered homage to these twenty-four Sambuddhas and having received from them the prophecy of

11 his (future) buddhahood he, the great hero, when he had fulfilled all perfections1 and reached the highest enlightenment^ the sublime Buddha Gotama, delivered the world from suffering.

12 At Uruvela/ in the Magadha country, the great sage, sitting at the foot of the Bodhi-tree, reached the supreme enlighten-

13 ment on the full-moon day of the month Vesakha.3 Seven weeks he tarried there, mastering his senses/ while that he himself knew the high bliss of deliverance and let (others)

14 behold its felicity.5 Then he went to BaranasI and set rolling the wheel of the law; and while he dwelt there through the rain-months, he brought sixty (hearers) to arahantship.6

15 When he had sent forth these bhikkhus to preach the doctrine, and when he had converted the thirty companions of the

1 The ten parami. Of. Jat. i, p. 20 foil. The idea is late and not

found in the four Nikayas. See BHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 177 ; KERN, Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 66.

2 Budclh Gaya or Bodh Gaya in Gaya district, Bengal.

8 The second month, in the ordinary Indian lunar year, answering in the time of Buddha to part of March and part of April. ' The names of the Indian lunar months are as follows:?

|1) Citta = February: March or March : April.

f 2 * Vesakha = March: April or April: May.

(3; Jettha = April: May or May: June.

(4t As a] ha = May: June or June: July.

(5) Sarana = June: July or July: August.

(6} Potthap&da = July : August or August: September.

(7) Assayuja = August: September or September : October.

(H» Kattika *= September: October or October: November.

<9j Maggasira = October: November or November : December. fid) Phiissa = November: December or December: January. Ill i Mttgha = December: January or January: February.

fl!2;Phagguna = January: February or February; March. Stfe FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 6.

* Van. A play on this word and vasi * he tarried'.

* With the whole cf. Mah. ed., p. ill.

fi S\i||liim arahatam aki. Arahatam as a gen. plural is dej»endent on fee numeral. Literally: he made sixty arahants.I. 24 The Visit of the Tathagata 3

company of Bhadda * then did the Master dwell at Uruvela 16 the winter through, for the sake of converting the thousand jatilas2 led by Kassapa, making them ripe (for deliverance).

Now since a great sacrifice by Kassapa of TJruvela was near 17 at hand, and since he saw that this latter would fain have him away,3 he, the victorious over enemies, went to seek alms 18 among the Northern Kurus;4 and when he had eaten his meal at evening time near the lake Anotatta,5 the Conqueror, 19 in the ninth month of his buddhahood, at the full moon of Phussa,6 himself set forth for the isle of Lanka,, to win Lanka for the faith.7 For Lanka was known to the Conqueror as 20 a place where his doctrine should (thereafter) shine in glory; and (he knew that) from Lanka, filled with the yakkhas, the yakkhas must (first) be driven forth.8

And he knew also that in the midst of Lanka, on the fair 21 river bank, in the delightful Mahanaga garden, three yojanas long and a yojana wide, the (customary) meeting-place for 22 the yakkhas, there was a great gathering of (all) the yakkhas dwelling in the island. To this great gathering of 23 that yakkhas went the Blessed One, and there, in the midst of that assembly, hovering in the air over their heads, at the 24 place of the (future) Mahiyangana-thupa,9 he struck terror

1 For the conversion of the Tims a Bhaddavaggiya see M.V. I. H.

2 Ja til a, ascetics wearing the hair long and matted. See M.V. L 15 ff.

3 Lit. after he had known this latter's wish that he should not come.

4 The Uttara Kuru are a half-mythological people, dwelling in the north of India.

5 One of the seven great lakes, situated in the Himalaya mountains. fi The tenth month of the lunar year. See note on 1, 12.

7 Lit. to purify, to cleanse (visodhetum), Lanka = Ceylon.

8 From the nata (N. Si F.) in the first line another nata (N. PI. M.) must be understood with yakkha nibbasiya (Part. Fot. Pass., Skr. nir-vas, Caus.) in the second line of the verse, to complete the sentence.

8 According to tradition the Bintenne-dagaba (TENNENT, Ceylon, ii, pp. 420-421), on the right bank of the Mahawseliganga,which is called mahaganga or simply ganga in the Mah.

B24: Mahtivamsa i. 25

25 to their hearts by rain, storm, darkness and so forth.1 The yakkhas, overwhelmed by fear, besought the fearless Vanquisher to release them from terrors, and the Vanquisher,

26 destroyer of fear/ spoke thus to the terrified yakkhas : * I will banish this your fear and your distress, 0 yakkhas, give ye here

27 to me with one accord a place where I may sit down/ The yakkhas thus answered the Blessed One: ' We all, O Lord, give you even the whole of our island. Give us release from

28 our fear/ Then, when he had destroyed their terror, cold and darkness, and had spread his rug of skin 3 on the ground

29 that they bestowed on him, the Conqueror, sitting there, made the rug to spread wide, while burning flame surrounded it. Daunted by the burning heat thereof and terrified, they stood

30 around on the border. Then did the Saviour cause the pleasant Giridipa 4 to come here near to them, and when they had settled

31 there, he made it return to its former place. Then did the Saviour fold his rag of skin; the devas assembled, and in

§2 their assembly the Master preached them the doctrine. The conversion of many kotis of living beings took place,5 and countless were those who came unto the (three) refuges and the precepts of duty.6

1 Lit. lie made for them a means of terror, consisting of rain, storm,

darkness and so forth.

2 Lit. who confers fearlessness (or freedom from peril), a play on the words abhaya and bhaya. See 37. 30.

3 Lit. piece of hide.

* It would be a mistake to look for a clear geographical statement. The underlying notion here expressed is simply that the yakkhas were driven back to the highlands (giri) in the interior of the island. They are still to be found in Ceylon in later times. The meaning of dipa was formerly a wider one ; a later tradition has brought it to mean * island* in our sense. Cf. also Nagadipa as name of a part of Ceylon itself (1. 47 -with note).

3 The term dnammabhisamaya (see GUILDERS, P. IX, s. v.) Hieans *the attainment by an unconverted man of one of the four paths1 (of sanctification). Kofi is an indefinite great number, according to the Indian system equal to ten millions,

1 Saranesn ca sflesu fhlta is the expression for the adherence of the laity. They take their refuge (sarana) in the Buddha, his doctrine and hig community, and undertake to keep certain binding commandments. , See to L 62,j. 44 The Visit of the Tathagata 5

The prince of devas, Mahasumana of the Sumanakuta- S3 mountain/ who had attained to the fruit of entering into the path of salvation/ craved of him who should he worshipped, something to worship. The Conqueror, the (giver of) good to 34 living beings, he who had pure and blue-black locks, passing his hand over his (own) head^ bestowed on, him a handful of hairs. And he, receiving this in a splendid golden urn,, when he had 35 laid the hairs upon a heap of many-coloured gems, seven cubits round, piled up at the place where the Master had sat,, covered 36 them over with a thiipa of sapphire and worshipped them.

When the Sambuddha had died, the thera named Sarabhu, 37 disciple of the thera Sariputta, by his miraculous power received, even from the funeral pyre, the collar-bone of the Conqueror and 38 brought it hither (to Lanka), and, with the bhikkhus all around him, he there laid it in that same cetiya, covered it over with 39 golden-coloured stones,3 and (then he), the worker of miracles, having made the thupa twelve cubits 4 high, departed again from thence. The son of king Devanampiyatissa's brother, named 40 Uddhaculabhaya, saw the wondrous cetiya and (again) covered 41 it over and made it thirty cubits high. The king Dutthaga-mani, dwelling there while he made war upon the Damilas, built a mantle cetiya over it eighty cubits high. Thus was 42 the Mahiyangana-thupa completed. When he had thus made 43 our island a fit dwelling-place for men, the mighty ruler, valiant as are great heroes, departed for Uruvela.

Here ends the Visit to Mahiyangana,

Now the most compassionate Teacher, the Conqueror, 44 rejoicing in the salvation of the whole world, when dwelling

1 Sumanakuta is the Adam's Peak.

2 Sotapatti is the stage of a sotapanna ' who has entered the stream', who has attained to the first grade of sanctification, a converted man. As to the second and third grade see the notes to 15.18 and 13.17.

8 On medavannapasana, stones of the (golden, or cream) colour of fat, fat-coloured, see Mah. ed , p. 355. 4 See note to 15. 167.6 MaMvamsa 1.45

45 at Jetavana1 in the fifth year of his buddhahood, saw that a war, caused by a gem-set throne, was like to come to pass

46 between the nagas Mahodara and Culodara, uncle and nephew, and their followers; and he, the Sambuddha, on the uposatha-

47 day of the dark half of the month Citta, in the early morning, took his sacred alms-bowl and his robes, and, from compassion for the nlgas, sought the ISFagadlpa.2

48 That same naga Mahodara was then a king, gifted with miraculous power, in a naga-kingdom in the ocean, that

49 covered half a thousand yojanas. His younger sister had been given (in marriage) to the naga-king on the Kannavaddhamana-

50 mountain; her son was Culodara. His mother's father had given to his mother a splendid throne of jewels, then the naga

51 had died and therefore this war of nephew with uncle was threatening; and also the nagas of the mountains were armed with miraculous power.

52 The deva named Samiddhisnmana took a rajayatana-tree

53 standing in Jetavana, his own fair habitation, and, holding it like a parasol over the Conqueror, he, with the Teacher's leave,

54 attended him to that spot where he had formerly dwelt,3 That very deva had been, in his latest birth, a man in Nagadlpa. On the spot where thereafter the rajayatana-tree stood, he

55 saw paecekabuddhas taking their meal. And at the sight his heart was glad and he offered branches to cleanse the alms-

56 bowl. Therefore he was reborn in that tree in the pleasant Jetavana-gardea, and it (the tree) stood afterwards outside at

r»7 the side of the gate-rampart.4 The God of all gods saw (in this) an advantage for that deva, and, for the sake of the good which should spring (therefrom) for our land, he brought him hither (to Lafika) together with his tree.

58 Hovering there in mid-air above the battlefield the Master,

1 A park and monastery near Savatihi in the Kosala country (see VOGEL, J.&JL.S. 1908, p. 971 foil.), presented to the Master by

jat. i n foil

2 Apparently the north-western pari of Ceylon. Bee 20, 25, with the note,

1 1* e. to Kigatllpa.

* Kotfhaka 'battlemented dwelling or gateway \ See M.V. Till 15, 5; C.V. IV. 4, 6 ; S.B.E. xvii, p. 219, m 1; », p. 11, n. LI. 69 The Visit of the Tatliagata 1

who drives away (spiritual) darkness, called forth dread darkness over the nagas. Then comforting" those who were distressed 59 by terror he once again spread light abroad. When they saw the Blessed One they joyfully did reverence to the Master's feet. Then preached the Vanquisher to them the 60 doctrine that begets concord, and both [nagas] gladly gave up the throne to the Sage.1 When the Master, having 61 alighted on the earth, had taken his place on a seat there, and had been refreshed with celestial food and drink by the naga-kings, he, the Lord-, established in the (three) refuges 2 62 and in the moral precepts3 eighty kotis of snake-spirits, dwellers in the ocean and on the mainland.

The naga-king Maniakkhika of Kalyam/ mother's brother 63 to the naga Mahodara, who had come thither to take part in the battle, and who, aforetime, at the Buddha's first coming, 64 having heard the true doctrine preached, had become established in the refuges and in the moral duties, prayed now to the Tathagata: (Great is the compassion that thou hast 65 shown us here, O Master ! Hadst thou not appeared we had all been consumed to ashes. May thy compassion yet light also 66 especially on me, 0 thou who art rich in loving-kindness, in that thou shalt come yet again hither to my dwelling-country,

0 thou peerless one/ When the Lord had consented by his 67 silence to come thither, he planted the rajayatana-tree on that very spot as a sacred memorial, and the Lord of the Worlds 68 gave over the rajayatana-tree and the precious throne-seat to the naga-kings to do homage thereto. ' In remembrance that 69

1 have used these do homage to them,5 ye naga-kings!

1 I. e. the Buddha.

2 I. e. buddha, dhamma, samgha*the Buddha, Ms doctrine and his community'. The Buddhist confession of faith consists in the words buddham saranam gacchami, dhammam s. g., sam-gham s.g. 'I take niy refuge in the B. &c.*

8 The panca sllani, which are binding on all Buddhists, are abstention from destruction of life, theft, adultery, lying, and from the use of intoxicating liquors. Of. note to 18. 10.

4 Now Kaelani, name of a river which falls into the sea near Colombo.

5 Lit. ' Do homage to them as to a memorial consisting in objects used by me.'8 MaMvamsa 1. 70

This, well beloved, will bring to pass blessing and happiness

70 for you.' When the Blessed One had uttered this and other exhortation to the nagas, he, the compassionate saviour of all the world, returned to Jetavana.

Here ends the Visit to Nagadipa.

71 In the third year after this, the naga-king Maniakkhika sought out the Sambuddha and invited him, together with the

72 brotherhood. In the eighth year after he had attained to buddhahood, when the Vanquisher was dwelling in Jetavana,

73 the Master, set forth surrounded by five hundred bhikkhus, on the second day of the beautiful month of Vesakha, at the full-moon, and when the hour of the meal was announced the

74 Vanquisher, prince of the wise, forthwith putting on his robe and taking his alms-bowl went to the Kalyanl country, the

75 habitation of Maniakkhika. Under a canopy decked with gems, raised upon the spot where (afterwards) the Kalyam-cetiya was built, he took his place, together with the brother-

76 hood of bhikkhus, upon a precious throne-seat. And, greatly rejoicing, the naga-king with his following served celestial food, both hard and soft, to the king of truth, the Conqueror, with his followers.

77 When the Teacher, compassionate to the whole world, had preached the doctrine there, he rose, the Master, and left the

78 traces of his footsteps plain to sight on Sumanakuta. And after he had spent the day as it pleased him at the foot of this mountain, with the brotherhood, he set forth for Dlghavapi.1

79 And there the Master seated himself with the brotherhood at the place where the cetiya (thereafter) stood, and gave himself

80 up to meditation, to consecrate the spot. Then arose the Great Sage from that place, and knowing well which places were fit and which unfit he went to the place of the (later) Mahamegba-

8! vanarama.2 After he had seated himself with his disciples at

1 The Dlghavupi is probably the Kandlya-katta tank in the Eastera Province, about 30 miles SSW. from Batticaloa. A large is

?aid to be ia the neighbourhood of the tank. PAEKEB, Ancient

2 The Mafeameglaavaiia was a park south of the capital Antiridba-j. 84 The Visit of the Tatliagata 9

the place, where the sacred Bodhi-tree came afterwards to be, the Master gave himself up to meditation; and likewise there where the Great Thupa1 stood (in later days) and there also 82 where (afterwards) the thupa in the Thuparama 2 stood. Then when he rose up from meditation he went to the place of the (later) Silacetiya/ and after the Leader of the assembly (of 83 bhikkhus) had uttered exhortation to the assembly of devas, he, the Enlightened, who has trodden all the paths of enlightenment, returned thence to Jetavana.

Thus the Master of boundless wisdom, looking to the 84 salvation of Lanka in time to come, and knowing in that time the highest good for the hosts of asuras and nagas and so forth in Lanka, visited this fair island three times,?he^ the compassionate Enlightener of the world;?therefore this isle radiant with the light of truth, came to high honour amono-faithful believers.

Here ends the Yisit to Kalyani.

Here ends the first chapter, called ' The Visit of the Tathagata', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

pura and was presented to the priesthood as an arama or monastery by the king Devanampiyatissa. See 15. 8 foil, and note to 11. 2.

1 The Ruwanwseli-dagaba of Anuradhapura. SMITHER, Architectural Remains, Amirddhapura, p. 23 foil.; PARKER, Ancient Ceylon, p. 279 foil.

2 A monastery in Anuradhapura. SMITHER, L c., p. 1 foil.; PARKER L c., p. 263 foil. Cf. note to 17. 30.

3 I.e. * Stone-cetiya,'now Selacaitya in Anuradhapura. SMITHER, I.e., p. 55; PARKER, I c., p. 297 foil.CHAPTEE II


1 SPRUNG o£ the race of king Mahasamniata was the Great Sage. For in the beginning of this age of the world there

2 was a king named Mahasammata^ and (the kings) Roja and Vararoja, and the two Kalyanakas/ Uposatha and Mandhatar

3 and the two, Garaka and Upaeara, and Cetiya and Mucala and he who bore the name Mahamueala, Mucalinda and Sagara

4 and he who bore the name Sagaradeva; Bharata and Anglrasa and Ruei and also Sunicr, Patapa and Mahapatapa

5 and the two Panadas likewise, Sudassana and Neru, two

6 and two;2 also Accima. His sons and grandsons, these twenty-eight princes whose lifetime was immeasurably (long),

7 dwelt in Kusavatl, Bajagaha, and Mithila.3 Then followed a hundred kings/ and (then) fifty-six, and (then) sixty,

1 I. e. Kalyana and Yarakalyana. Dip. 3. 6.

2 Panada and Mahapanada, Sudassana and Mahasudassana, Neru and Habaneru.

s Kosavatl is the later Kusinara. See note on 3. 2. Rajagaha, now Rijgir, was the capital of Magadha, and Mithila, situated in the Bengal district Tirhut, that of Videha.

4 The dynasties from Accima to Kalarajanaka are dealt with in detail in Dip. 3. 14-37. Besides (i) the number of tbe princes sprung of each dynasty, the (ii) capital cities of each period, and (iii) the last king of each line are mentioned. The numbers and names are these:

100 at Pakula (?) the last being Arimdana. 56 ? Ayujjba ? ? Duppasaba.

80 ? BlrSnasi ? ? Ajitajana.

Eapllanagara ? ? Brahmadatta,

88 ? Hattbipum ? ? Kambalavasabba.

82 M Ekacakkbu ? ? Purindadadeva.

28 ? VajirS ? ? Sadbina.

22 ? Mudhutu ? ? Dbammag-utta,II. 15

The Race of MaMsammata


eighty-four thousand, and then further thirty-sis, thirty-two, 8 twenty-eight, then further twenty-eight, eighteen, seventeen, fifteen, fourteen ; nine, seven, twelve, then further twenty- 9 five; and (again) twenty-five, twelve and (again) twelve, and yet again nine and eighty-four thousand with Makhadeva 10 coming at the head, and (once more) eighty-four thousand with Kalarajanaka at the head ; and sixteen even unto 1 1 Okkaka; these descendants (of Mahasammata) reigned in groups in their due order, each one in his capital.

The prince Okkamukha was Okkaka's eldest son; Nipuna, 12 Candima, Candamukha and Sivisamjaya, the great king 13 .Yessantara, Jali, and Sihavahana and Sihassara : these were his sons and grandsons. Eighty-two thousand in number were 1 4 the royal sons and grandsons of king Sihassara; Jayasena was the last of them. They are known as the Sakya kings 15 of Kapilavatthu.1 The great king Sihahanu was Jayasena's

18 at Aritthapura the last being Sitthi.

17 ? Indapatta jj ? Brahinadeva.

15 ? Ekacakkhu 37 »» Baladatta.

14 ? Kosambi J" 73 Bhaddadeva.

9 ? Kannagoccha f> J9 Naradeva.

7 ? Rojananagara >5 JJ Mahinda.

12 ? Campa >* ,, Nagadeva.

25 ? Mithila jy ?» Buddhadatta.

25 ? Rajagaha ?» 7i Diparnkara.

12 ? Takkasila ?> J> Talissara.

12 ? Kusinara » »> Purinda.

9 ? Malitthiya » ?> Sagaradeva.

Tbe son of Sagaradero was Makhadeva ; the dynasty of Makhadeva (84,000) reigned in Mithila. The last prince was Nemiya, father of Kalarajanaka. These were followed by Samamkura, then by Asoka ;

this was followed by a dynasty of 84,000 princes reigning in BaranasL The last was Vijaya, He was followed by Vljitasena, Dhammasena, Nagasena, Samatha, DisampatI, Benn, Kusa? MahSkusa, Navaratha, Basaratha, Kama, Bilaratha, CIttadassi, Atthadassi, Sujata, Okkaka, and so OB. The same in AtthakathE, Mah. T. SPMSS"8. The Kamb. Mah., y. 729-789, follows the Tika.

1 The site of KapilaYatthu, the capital of the Sakya tribe and Ootama Buddha's birthplace. Is probably the present Tilaura Kot In Nepal. See RHYS DAVIDS, Bvddkitf India, p. 18 n.12 Mahavamsa II. 16

16 son, and Jayasena's daughter was named Yasodhara. In

17 Devadaha there was a prince named Devadahasakka,, Anjana and Kaccana were his two children. Kaccana was the first

18 eonsort of Slhahanu, but the Sakka Anjana's queen was Yasodhara. Anjana had two daughters, Maya and Pajapatl,

19 and also two sons, Dandapani and the Sakiya Suppa-

20 buddha. Bat Slhahanu had five sons and two daughters : Suddhodana^ Dhotodana, Sakka-, Sukka-/ and Amitodana, and Amita and Pamita; these were the five sons and two daughters.

21 The royal consort of the Sakka Suppabuddha was Amita;

22 she had two children: Bhaddakaecana and Devadatta. Maya-arid Pajapatl were Suddhodana's queens, and the son of the great king Suddhodana and of Maya was our Conqueror.

23 Of this race of Mahasammataj thus sueceeding3 was born, in unbroken line, the Great Sage, he who stands at the head

24 of all men of lordly birth. The eonsort of the prince Siddhattha, the Bodhisatta, was Bhaddakaecana; her son was Eahula.

25 Bimbisara and the prince Siddhattha were friends, and

26 friends likewise were the fathers of both. The Bodhisatta was five years older than Bimbisara; twenty-nine years old

27 was he when he left (his father's) house. When he had striven sis years and thereafter had attained to wisdom, he,

28 being thirty-five years old, visited Bimbisara. The virtuous Bimbisara was fifteen years old when he was anointed king

29 by his own father, and when sixteen years had gone by since his coming to the throne, the Master preached his doctrine.

30 Two and fifty years lie reigned; fifteen years of his reign passed before the meeting with the Conqueror, and yet thirty-seven years (of his reign) followed in the lifetime of the Tathagata,

31 Bimbisara's -son, the foolish Ajatasattu, reigned thirty-two

32 years after he, the traitor, had slain (his father). In the eighth year of Ajatasattu the Sage entered into nibbana and thereafter did he, Ajatasattu, reign yet twenty-four years.

1 L e* Sakkodana and Sukkodana.II. 33 The Eace of Mahasammata 13

The Tathagata, who has reached the summit of. all virtue, 33 yielded himself up,, albeit free, into the power of imperma-nence. He who shall contemplate this (same) dread-begetting impermanence shall attain unto the end of suffering.

Here ends the second chapter, called c The Eace of Maha-saminata', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.CHAPTEE III


1 WHEN the Conqueror the incomparable, he who has the five eyes/ had lived eighty-four years and had fulfilled all his

2 duties in the world,, in all ways, then at Kusinara2 in the holy place between the two sala-trees,3 on the full-moon day of the month Vesakha., was the light of the world extinguished.

3 Beyond all reckoning In numbers, did bhikkhus assemble there and khattiyas and brahmans, vessas and sudd as, and

4 gods likewise. Seven hundred thousand leading bhikkhus were among them, the thera Mahakassapa was at that time the samghatthera.

5 When he had performed all rites due to the (dead) body of the Master and the bodily relics, the great thera, desiring that

6 the doctrine of the Master might long endure, did, seven days after the Lord of the World, gifted with the ten powers,4 had passed into nibbana, bethinking him of the evil words of the

7 aged Subhadda 5 and also bethinking him that he (the Master)

1 The five eyes possessed by the Buddha are the bodily eyes (mamsacakkhu), the heavenly eye (dibba0) by winch he sees everything that comes to pass in the universe, the eye of understanding (knowledge), the eye of omniscience, and finally the Buddha-eye by means of which he beholds the saving truth.

2 A town of the clan of the Mallas, in the territory of the present Nepal.

8 Skotw Robusta.

4 On the dasa balani, ten kinds of knowledge, peculiar to a Buddha, see KEEN, Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 62; CHILDEKS, P.D., s.v. balam.

B Vud$ha = vuddhapabbajita 'who had not become a monk till he was old '. On the speech of Subhadda, see C.V. XL 1.1 = Vin. Pit ft. 284. KEEN, IZ., pp. 15 The First Council 15

had given him his garment/ and had (thereby) made him equal with himself, and (bethinking him) that the Sage had commanded the establishing of the holy truth, and (lastly) that 8 the Sambuddha's consent existed to make a compilation of the holy dhamma2 appointed to this end five hundred eminent 9 bhikkhus, who had overcome the asavas,3 repeaters of the ninefold doctrine and versed in all its separate parts; but there was one less (than five hundred) because of the thera Ananda.4 And the thera Ananda also,, again and again entreated by 10 the bhikkhus, resolved to (join with them in) that compilation of the dhamnia, for it was not possible without him.

When these theras, pitiful toward the whole world,, had 11 passed half a month?seven days in the funeral ceremonies and seven in homage of the relics?and had resolved thus: 12 1 Spending the rainy season in Rajagaha, we will make a compilation of the dhamma-, no other (monks) must be permitted to dwell there *; and when they had made their pilgrimage 13 over Jambudlpa/ consoling here and there the sorrowing people, they, moved with desire that the good might long 14 endure,6 betook them in the bright half of the month Asalha to Rajagaha, (the city) richly provided with the four things needful.7

After the theras, with Mahakassapa at the head, unwavering 15 in virtue, familiar with the thought of the Sambuddha,

1 The Buddha gave his garment to Kassapa. On the second saram depend civaradanam 'the giving of the robe\ and samatte t hap an am * putting on a footing of equality', and then further anuggaham katam and anumatim satim (Ace. Si. F. of Part. Pres. of afcthi). Of. Mah. ed., pp. xxx and li.

2 Katum sacldhammasamgitim, Cf. the note on 8. 17.

3 Ehinasava 'one in whom the four asavas are extinct1 is the epithet of an arahant. On asava, see RHYS DAVIDS, Dialogues of the Buddha, i. 92; ii. 28.

4 A place must he kept for Ananda. & The continent of India.

6 A play upon the word suklrapakkha, used in the sense, * bright half of the month,' and also ' pure, holy side or party'.

7 The four pace ay a of a bhikkhu are clothing, food given as alms, a dwelling-place, and medicines.16 MaMvamsa in. IG

16 had arrived at that place to spend the rainy season there, they busied themselves during* the first of the rain-months with repairing all the dwellings, when they had announced this to Ajatasattu.

17 When the repair of the vihara was finished they said to the

18 king: 'Now we will hold the council/1 To the question, f "What should be done?' they answered:f A place (should be provided) for the meetings/ When the king had asked : c Where (these were to he) ?' and the place had been pointed out by them,

19 he with all speed had a splendid hall built by the side of the Yebhara Rock by the entrance of the Sattapanni grotto, (and

20 it was) like to the assembly-hall of the gods. When it was adorned in every way he caused precious mats to be spread

21 according to the number of the bhikkhus. Placed on the south side and facing the north a lofty and noble seat was prepared

22 for the thera, and in the middle of the hall a high seat was prepared for the preacher,2 facing the east and worthy of the blessed (Buddha) himself.

23 So the king bade them tell the theras : ' My work is finished/ and the theras addressed the thera Ananda, the joy-bringer :

24 cTo-morrow, Ananda, the assembly (comes together); it behoves thee not to take part in it since thou art still preparing thee (for the highest state),3 therefore strive thou, unwearied

25 in good/ Thus spurred on, the thera put forth due effort

1 Dhammasamgiti is the term for assembly of the church, council. The original meaning is general recitation of the canonical texts which, indeed, takes place in an assembly of the church and in the following manner: an eminent thera recites the texts sentence by sentence and the assembly repeats them after him in chorus. In this way dhammasamgiti is connected with dhamma-samgaha, by which we understand a settling or redaction of the canonical texts, which also can only be carried out in the manner stated. Comp. J.P.T.S. 1909, pp. 31, 32.

f Therasana is the seat for the president, who directs the assembly; dhammasana the same for the monk who recites, the word uttama is to be taken literally.

8 Still a sekh-a, i. e. not an arahant, who has reached the highest degree. This is preceded by seven grades of preparation; he who is still at one of these is sekha *a learner1. See J.P.T.S. 1909, p. 36 The First Council 17

and reached the state of an arahaiit without being confined to any one of the four postures.1

On the second day of the second month of the rainy season 26 the bhikkhus met together in that splendid hall. Leaving a 27 fitting place vacant for Ananda, the arahants seated themselves on chairs, according to their rank. The thera Ananda, to make 28 known to them that he had reached the state of an arahant, went not with them thither. But when some asked: Where is the thera Ananda? he took the seat prepared for him, 29 rising out of the ground or passing through the air.2

Together the theras chose the thera Upali to speak for3 the 30 vinaya, for the rest of the dhamma4 they chose Ananda. The great thera (Mahakassapa) laid on himself (the task) of 31 asking questions touching the vinaya and the thera Upali (was ready) to explain it.

Sitting in the thera's chair, the former asked the latter the 32 questions touching the vinaya; and Upali, seated in the preacher's chair, expounded (the matter). And as this best 33 master of the vinaya expounded each (clause) in turn all (the bhikkhus) knowing the custom, repeated the vinaya after him.

Then the thera (Mahakassapa) taking (the task) upon himself 34 questioned concerning the dhamma, him5 the chief of those who had most often heard (the word), him the treasure-keeper6 of the Great Seer (the Buddha); and the thera 35 Ananda, taking (the task) upon himself, taking his seat in the preacher's chair, expounded the whole dhamma. And 36

1 Lit. free from the iriyapatha; the four postures of an ascetic are understood here. They are described as: standing, sitticg, walking, lying down. Ananda became an arahant at the moment when lie was on the point of lying down.

2 Lit. ' the path of the light.' Ananda shows that he can use the miraculous powers particular to an arahant.

3 Lit. 'as burden bearer for.' Cf. B.R., SkL Wtb., s.v. dhuram-dhara (4).

4 The vinaya contains the rules of monastic discipline, the dhamma the dogmatic teaching.

5 I. e. Ananda.

6 Kosarakkha, according to the Tika = dhammabhanda-garika, i. e. treasurer of the truth or the true doctrine.

CV. 135 The Third Council 37

with senses restrained1 and did not answer his greeting, he asked the brotherhood about this matter. They said : c Those 124 who are deep in a trance give no reply.' (So he asked) ( How come they forth from (the trance) ?' And the bhikkhus said: * At a call from the master, or a call from the brotherhood, or 125 when the allotted time is ended, or at the approach of death they come forth (from the trance).' 126

As they saw, speaking thus, that these (youths) were destined for holiness,2 they caused the call from the brotherhood to be given; and (the thera) awoke from the trance and went to them. The youth asked: 'Wherefore didst thou not 127 speak to me, venerable one ? * The (thera) answered: f We were enjoying that which is for us to enjoy.' The (young man) said: ' Let us also enjoy this.' He answered: * Those 128 only can we cause to enjoy it who are like unto us/

Then, with their parents' leave, the young Siggava and 129 Candavajji and their five hundred followers likewise received the pabbajja and (afterwards) the upasampada-ordination from the thera Sonaka. With him as their master the two eagerly 130 studied the three pitakas and attained to the six supernormal powers.3

Thereafter when Siggava knew that Tissa had been born 131 into this world, the thera, from that time, frequented his house for seven years. And not for seven years did it befall 132 him to hear the words ' Go further on ' (said to him). But in the eighth year did he hear those words ' Go further on.', in that house. As he went forth the brahman Moggali, who was 133 even then coming in, saw him and asked him: f Hast thou received aught in our house?' And he answered: 'Yes.' When (Moggali) went into his house he heard (what had 134 befallen) and when the thera came to the house again, on the second day afterwards, he reproached him with the lie. And 135

1 Samapattisamapannam. * There are eight samapattis, attainments or endowments, which are eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation,' CHILDEES, P.D. s.v. See SPENCE HAKDY, Manual of Buddhism, p. 170, and J.P.T.S., 1909, p. 61.

2 See note to 5. 45.

3 On the six abhiiina, see note to 4. 12.CHAPTER IV


WHEN Ajatasattu's son Udayabhaddakal had slain him he, 1 the traitor, reigned sixteen years. Udayabhaddaka's son 2 Anuruddhaka slew (his father) and Annraddha's son named Munda did likewise. Traitors and fools, these (sons) reigned 3 over the kingdom; in the reign of these two (kings) eight years elapsed.

Munda's son Nagadasaka slew his father and then did the 4 evildoer reign twenty-four years.

Then were the citizens wroth., saying: * This is a dynasty 5 of parricides/ and when they had banished the king Nagadasaka they met together and (since) the minister known by the 6 name Sustmaga was proved to be worthy, they anointed him king, mindful of the good of all. He reigned as king eighteen 7 years. His son Kalasoka reigned twenty-eight years. At the 8 end of the tenth year of Kalasoka3s reign a century had gone by since the parinibbana of the Sambuddha.

At that time in Vesall many bhikkhus of the Vajji-elan 2 9 did shamelessly teach that the Ten Points3 were lawful, namely 'Salt in the horn', £Two fingers' breadth3, c Visiting 10

1 In the Sinhalese MSS. this name appears in the form 'Udayi-bhaddaka'. Cf. D. 1. 5025 Udayibh0 or Udayabh0 (E. MTJLLEB, J.P.T.S. 1888, p. 14). The Dip. 4. 88, 5. 97, 11. 8 has Udaya(bhadda).

2 On the confederacy of the Yajjis see RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, pp. 25-26. On Yesali, tbid.t p. 40. According- to V. SMITH (Edrly History of India, p. 27, n. 1; J.E.A.S. 1902, p. 267 foil.) its site is the modern Basar (N. lat. 25° 58' 20", E. long. 85° 11' 30") in the District Muzaffarpur, north of Patna.

5 The history of the Second Council is also given in the C.Y. XII. Cf. Vmaya Texts, iii (S.B.E. xx), pp. 886 foil. Here C.Y. XII. 1. 9; 2. 8) the single points are explained:

(i) Sirigilonakappa, the custom of putting salt in a horn vessel, in order to season unsalted foods, when received.

(ii) Dvangulakappa, the custom of taking the midday meal,

c 220 Mali&vanisa IV. 11

the village', ' Dwelling', < Consent', < Example yUnehurned

11 milk', When this came to the ears of the thera Yasa, the son of

12 the brahman Kakandaka, gifted with the six supernormal powers/ who was wandering about in the Vajji country,, be betook himself to the Mahavana (vihara) 2 with the resolve to

13 settle the matter. In the uposatha-hall those (monks) had placed a vessel made of metal and filled with water and had said to the lay-folk: cBestow on the brotherhood kahapanas3

14 and so on/ The thera forbade them with the words 'This is unlawful; give nothing !' Then did they threaten the thera

even after the prescribed time, as long as the sun's shadow had not passed the meridian by more than two-fingers' breadth.

(iii) Gamantarakappa, the custom of going Into the village, after the meal, and there eating again, if invited.

(iv) Avasakappa, the custom of holding the uposatha-feast separately by bhikkhus dwelling in the same district.

(v) Anumatikappa, the carrying out of official acts by an incomplete chapter, on the supposition that the consent of absent bhikkhus was obtained afterwards.

(vi) Acinnakappa, the custom of doing something because of the preceptor's practice.

(vii) Amathitakajfpa, taking unchurned milk, even after the mealtime.

(viii) Jalogikappa, drinking unfermented palm-wine.

(is) Adasakam nisidanam, the use of mats to sit on which were not of the prescribed size, if they were without fringe.

(x) Jataruparajatam, accepting gold and silver.

1 Chalabhinna. The six abhinna are (i) the power of iddhi, (ii) the heavenly ear, i. e. supranonnal power of hearing, (iii) the power to read the thoughts of others, (iv) the knowledge of former existences, (v) the heavenly eye, i. e. supranormal power of seeing, (vi) the abandonment of the asavas. The last of these abhinfta is one of the signs of an arahant. See RHYS DAVIDS, Dialogues of ike Buddha, L 62; AOTG, Compendium of Philosophy, pp. 60-63 ? 224 foil.

2 The MahSvana-monastery is mentioned by Fa-Hian. See BEAL, Buddhist Records of the Western World, i, p. 52.

s Kahapana(Skr.karsapana) is a square copper coin, weighing 1464 grains = 948 grams. See EAPSON, Indian Coins, p. 2 ? EHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 100.. 25

The Second Council 21

Yasa with the penance called the Craving of pardon from lay-folk.1 He asked for one to bear him company and went 15 with him into the city proclaiming to the citizens, that his teaching was according to the dhamma.

When the bhikkhus heard what (Yasa's) companion had to 16 tell, they came to thrust him out and surrounded the thera' s house. The thera left It, rising up and passing through the 1 7 air,, and halting at Kosambl, he forthwith sent messengers to the bhikkhus of Pava and Avanti;2 he himself went to the 18 Ahoganga-monntain and related all to the thera Sambhuta Sanavasi.3

Sixty great theras from Pava and eighty from Avanti, all 19 free from the asavas/ came together on the Ahoganga. The bhikkhus who met together here from this and that region 20 were in all ninety thousand. When they had all conferred together they, knowing that the deeply learned thera Revata 21 of Soreyya5 who was free from the asavas, was the chief among them at that time, went thence to seek him out.

When the thera heard this resolution (by his divine ear) he 22 set out at once, wishing to travel easily,6 upon the way to VesalL Arriving day by day in the evening at the spot 23 whence the sage had departed in the morning (the theras) met him (at last) at Sahajati.

There the thera Yasa, as the thera Sambhuta had 24 charged him to do, at the end of the recital of the sacred word, addressing himself to the great thera Bevata, questioned him on the Ten Points. The thera rejected them, and 25

1 Patisaraniyakamma, see KERIST, Manual, p. 87, note 8.

2 Kosambi on the Yamuna was the capital of the Vatsas or Vamsas. Pava that of the Mallas ; Avanti was the region of Ujjeni ; BHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, pp. 36, 26, 28. Instead of Paveyyaka" some of the Sinhalese MSS. read Patheyyaka. But also at M.Y. VII. 1. 1 (=Fw. Pit. i. 2535) the Burmese MSS. have Paveyyaka.

3 See Yin. Texts, iii (S.B.E. xx), p. 394, note 2.

4 Anasava, see p. 15, n. 3.

5 Not far from Takkasila in W. India, see Parajika, 1. 4= (Vin. Pit. iii, p. 11) ; KERN, Manual, p. 36.

6 Cf. for the detailed description, C.V. XII. 1. 9 = Vin. Texts, iii

. xx), p. 396.22 MaMvamsa IV. 26

when he had heard the matter, he said: ' Let us make an end

(of this dispute)/ 26 The heretical bhikkhus, too, in order to win support, sought

the thera Revata. Preparing in abundance the things needful 17 for ascetics/ they took ship with all speed and went to Saha-

jati, bestowing food sumptuously when the mealtime came.2

28 The thera Salha, free from the asavas, who lived at Sahajati, having thought on the matter, perceived: ' Those of Pava

29 hold the true doctrine/ And the great god Brahma drew near to him and said: ' Stand thou firm in the doctrine/ and he replied that he would ever stand firm in the doctrine.

30 They3 took those needful things (that they had brought as gifts) and sought the thera Revata, but the thera did not take their part and dismissed (the pupil) who took their part.4

31 They went thence to Vesali, shameless they went from there

32 to Pupphapura,5 and told king Kalasoka: e Guarding our Master's perfumed chamber we dwell in the Mahavana-vihara

33 in theTajji territory; but bhikkhus dwelling in the country are coming, great king, with the thought: We will take the vihara for ourselves. Forbid them !'

34 When they had thus misled the king they went (back) to VesalL Here in Sahajati eleven hundred and ninety thou-

35 sand bhikkhus were come together under the thera Revata,

36 to bring the dispute to a peaceful end. And the thera would not end the dispute save in the presence of those with whom

1 Sanianaka parlkkhara (as a gift to Revata) is that which a monk is allowed to call Ms own, such as robes, the alms-bowl, &c. Cf. GUILDERS, s.v. parikkharo.

2 The underlying meaning is that they indulged in riotous living

on their journey. VIssagga has the implied sense of something rich and luxuriant. The Tlka paraphrases bhattavissaggam with

bhattaparlvesanain, bhattaparibhogam.

8 I. e. the Yajjlan monks.

* On this passage see Mah. ed., pp. xxv-xxvl. However, I now prefer the reading pakkhagahlm, since the passage evidently refers to Bevata'e disciple Uttara (C.V. XIL 2. 8), who allowed himself to be won over by the Vajjian monks.

5 Pupphapuraj the City of Mowers, a name of Ptttaliputta (now Patna), capital at that time of the kingdom of Magadha.IV. 48 The Second Council 23"

it had begun;1 therefore all the bhikkhus went thence to Vesali.

The misguided king likewise sent his ministers thither, but 37 led astray by the design of the devas they went elsewhere. Arid the monarch, when he had sent them,, saw himself 38 in a dream, that night, hurled into the hell called Loha-kumbhi. The king was sorely terrified and, to calm his fears, 3<> his sister, Nanda, the then free from the asavas, came to him, passing through the air. ;

c An ill deed is this that thou hast done! Reconcile thee 40 with these venerable bhikkhus, the true believers. Placing thyself on their side, protect thou their faith. If thou dost 41 so, blessed art thou ! * she said, and thereon vanished. And forthwith in the morning the king set out to go to VesalL He went to the Mahavana (monastery), assembled the con- 42 gregation of the bhikkhus there, and when he had heard what was said by both of the (opposing) sides, and had decided, himself, for the true faith, when moreover this prince was 43 reconciled with all the rightly believing bhikkhus and had declared that he was for the right belief, he said: c Do what 44 ye think well to further the doctrine,7 and when he had promised to be their protector, he returned to his capital.

Thereafter the brotherhood came together to decide upon 45 those points ; then, in the congregation (of monks), aimless 2 words were spent. Then the thera Revata, who went into the 46 midst of the brotherhood, resolved to settle the matter by means of an ubbahika.3 He appointed four bhikkhus from 47 the East, and four from Pava, for the ubbahika to set the dispute to rest. Sabbakami and Salha, one named Khujjaso- 48 bhita, and Vasabhagamika, these were the theras from the

1 Mulatthehi vina, lit.c without those who were at the root.*

2 Anaggani bHassani taimless5 or 'inexact' speeches. The reading anagganibhassani (Ed. Col. nantani bh°) is confirmed by C.V. IV. 14. 19 and XII. 2. 7.

3 Ubbahikaya ' by means of a Eeferat\ the settlement of a dispute being laid in the hands of certain chosen brethren. For the rule on this, see C.V. IV. 14. 19 ff.; Fin, Texts, iii (S.B.K anc), p.-49ff.24 Mahavamsa IV. 49

49 East; Revata, Sanasambhuta, Yasa, the son of Kakandaka, and Sumana, these were the four theras from Pava.

50 Now to decide on those points the eight theras who were free from the asavas betook them to the quiet and solitary

51 V alikarama. There, in the beautiful spot prepared for them by the young Ajita,1 the great theras took up their abode, they who

52 knew the thoughts of the Greatest of Sages. And the great thera Revata, skilled in questioning, questioned the thera

53 Sabbakami successively on each one of those points. Questioned by him the great thera Sabbakami thus gave judgment: e All

54 these points are unlawful, according to tradition/ And when, in due order, they had ended (their task) in this place, they did all again, in like manner, with question and answer, in the

55 presence of the brotherhood. And thus did the great theras refute the teaching of those ten thousand heretical bhikkhus who maintained the Ten Points.

56 Sabbakami was then the samghatthera on the earth, one hundred and twenty years did he number since his upasam-padl.

57 Sabbakami and Sllha, Revata, Khujjasobhita, Yasa, the son of Kakandaka, and Sambhuta Sanavasika, the six theras,

58 were pupils of the thera Ananda; but Vasabhagamika and

59 Sumana, the two theras, were pupils of the thera Anuruddha. These eight fortunate theras had beheld the Tathagata in

60 time past. One hundred and twelve thousand bhikkhus had come together, and of all these bhikkhus the thera Revata then was the chief.

61 At that time the thera Revata, in order to hold a council,

the true faith might long endure, chose seven hundred

62 out of all that troop of bhikkhus; (those chosen were)

endowed with the four special sciences, under-of meanings and so forth/ knowing the tipitaka.

2 The daharenSjitenettha is confirmed by C.V. XII.

2. 7: aiha klio saxpgiio lyasmantam pi Ajitam sammanni

bhikkhBnaiji SsanapanSlpakaip (Yin. Pit. i£. 305s4).

8 PabhinnattfcSdii&SBanain is explained* in the Tika as

atthapa(mipbhid2dipabh6dagatan5n3;nai!i; atthadippa-

LhedAgateha pafisaipblildSiigijetii iamannagatanaip tlrv. 66 The Second Council 25

All these (theras met) in the Valikarama protected by 63 Kalasoka, under the leadership of the thera Revata, (and) compiled the dhamma.1 Since they accepted the dhamma 64 already established in time past and proclaimed afterward they completed their work in eight months.

When these theras of high renown had held the Second 65 Council,, they, since in them all evil had perished, attained in course of time unto nibbana.

When we bethink us of the death of the sons of the 66 Universal Teacher, who were gifted with perfect insight,, who had attained all that is to attain, who had conferred blessings on (the beings of) the three forms of existence,2 then may we lay to heart the entire vanity of all that comes into beino*3 and vigilantly strive (after deliverance).

Here ends the fourth chapter, called ' The Second Council', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

attho; adiggahanenettha dhammapatisambhidadini na-nani gahitani. The compound means therefore literally, 'who possess the specialized knowledge of the attha and so forth/ that is, the four patisambhida. By this term is understood 'a transcendent faculty in grasping the meaning of a text or subject (attha) ; in grasping the Law of all things as taught by the Buddha (dhamma) ; in exegesis (nirutti); readiness in expounding and discussion (patibhana)'. See Patisambhida-magga 1. 88.

1 Akarum dhainmasamgaham. See note to 3. 17.

2 The three forms of existence are kamabhava, rupabhava, arupabhava 'sensual existence, corporeal existence, formless existence' (CHILBEES, P.D. s.vv.), that is, existences in the three worlds so named, which together form that part of the universe called the sattaloka, * wo rid of beings.' In this the kamaloka includes the eleven lowest worlds, the rupaloka the sixteen higher, and the arupaloka the four highest, celestial worlds.

3 Samkhatasarakattam: samkhata is a synonym, of sam-khara, and means in the widest sense the material and transitory world. See CHILDEES, s. v. samkharo.CHAPTEE V


1 THAT redaction of the true dhamma, which was arranged at the beginning by the great theras Mahakassapa and others,

2 is called that of the theras. One and united was the school of the theras in the first hundred years. But afterwards

3 arose other schools of doctrine,1 The heretical bhikkhus, subdued by the theras who had held the Second Council/ in

4 all ten thousand, founded the school which bears the name Mahasamghika.3

From this arose the Gokulika and Ekavyoharika (schools).

5 From the Gokulika arose the Pannatti sect and the Bahulika, from these the Cetiya sect. (Thus) there are six, with

6 the Mahasamghika, and yet two more (groups) parted from the followers of the Thera-doctrine: the Mahimsasaka and

7 the Vajjiputtaka bhikkhus. And there parted from them likewise the Dhammuttariya and the Bhadrayanika bhikkhus, the Chandagarika, the Sammitland the Vajjiputtiya bhikkhus,

8 From the Mahimsasaka bhikkhus two (groups) parted, the bhikkhus who held by the Sabbattha-school and the Dhamma-

9 guttika bhikkhus. From the Sabbattha sect arose the Kassa-piya, from these arose the Samkantika bhikkhus, from these

10 last the Sutta sect. These are twelve together with (those of) the Thera-doctrine; thereto are added the six: schools named and these together are eighteen.

11 Thus in the second century arose seventeen schools, and

12 other schools arose afterwards. The Hemavata and the

1 Acariyavada stands in contrast to theraYada. This latter is the true and orthodox church community, the other expresses collectively the various sects which arose in the course of time.

f Tehi samgitiklrehi therein dutiyehi, lit. *by those the

second council-holding theras'. 3 I.e. the * Great Community \v. 21 The Third Council 27--

Rajagiriya and likewise the Siddhatthaka1, the first Seliya bhikkhus, the other Seliya, and the Vajiriya : these six 13 separated (from the rest) in Jambudfpa, the Dhammaruci and the Sagaliya separated (from the rest) in the island of Lanka.1

Here ends the Story of the Acariya-schools.

The sons of Kalasoka were ten brothers, twenty-two years 14 did they reign. Afterwards, the nine Nandas 2 were kings in 15 succession; they too reigned twenty-two years.

Then did the brahman Canakka3 anoint a glorious youth, 16 known by the name Candagutta, as king over all Jambudipa, 17 born of a noble clan, the Moriyas, when, filled with bitter hate, he had slain the ninth (Nanda) Dhanananda.

Twenty-four years he reigned, and his son Bindusara reigned 18 twenty-eight. A hundred glorious sons and one had Bindusara ; 4 Asoka5 stood high above them all in valour, splendour, 19 might, and wondrous powers. He, when he had slain his 20 ninety-nine brothers born of different mothers, won the undivided sovereignty over all Jambudipa. Be it known, 21 that two hundred and eighteen years had passed from the nibbana of the Master unto Asoka's consecration.

1 The Nikaya-samgraha (ed. WICKEEMASINGHE, pp. II32 and 139} informs us that the Dhammaruci branched off from the Thera-vadins 454 years A. B., and the Sagaliya from the former 795 years A. B. The former event took place under Vala-gain-ba (Yattagamani Abhaya, see Mah. 33. 95 if.), and the latter under Gothabhaya (see Mah. 36. 110 if.).

2 The Mah. Tika, pp. 117-119, gives a detailed account of the Nanda dynasty; also Kamb. Mah. V. 953-994.

3 On the Moriya dynasty and on Canakka and Candagutta see Mah. Tika, pp. 119-123; Kamb. Mah. V." 995-1090. Candragupta's minister, Canakya, is also known to play an important part in the Mudraraksasa. See SYLVAIST LEVI, Le ThMtre Indien, pp. 226 ff. A work on politics, ascribed to him, the Kautillyasastra, still exists. HiLLEBRANDT, Uler das J£autiliya£astra und Verwandtes. Cp. also I.A.. 38, 1909, pp. 257 ff.

4 On Bindusara and on Candagutta's death see Mah. Tika, pp. 124, 125 ; Kamb. Mah. Y. 1092-1128.

5 On Asoka's birth and early youth, see Mah. Tika, pp. 125-128; Kamb. Mah. V. 1129-1198,28 Mahavamsa, V. 22

22 Four years after the famous (Asoka) had won for himself the undivided sovereignty he consecrated himself as king in

23 the city Pataliputta. Straightway after his consecration his command spread so far as a yojana (upward) into the air and downward into the (depths of the) earth.1

24 Day by day did the devas bring eight men's loads of water of (the lake) Anotatta; the king dealt it out to his people.

25 From the Himalaya did the devas bring for cleansing the teeth twigs of naga-creeper, enough for many thousands,

26 healthful fruits, myrobalan and terminalia and mango-fruits from the same place, perfect in colour, smell, and

27 taste. The spirits of the air2 brought garments of five colours, and yellow stuff for napkins, and also celestial drink

28 from the Chaddanta-lak.e.3 Out of the naga-kingdom the nagas (brought) stuff, coloured like the jasmine-blossom and without a seam, and celestial lotus-flowers and collyrium and

29 unguents; parrots brought daily from the Chaddanta-lake

30 ninety thousand waggon-loads of rjice.4 Mice converted this rice, unbroken, into grains without husk or powder, and

31 therewith was meal provided for the royal family. Perpetually did honey-bees prepare honey for him, and in the forges bears

32 swung the hammers. Karavlka-birds, graceful and sweet

33 of voice, came and made delightful music for the king. And being consecrated king, Asoka raised his youngest brother Tissa, son of his own mother, to the office of vice-regent.

Here ends the Consecration of the pious Asoka.

34 (Asoka's) father had shown hospitality to sixty thousand

1 The sense of this passage, not rightly understood up to the present time, is evidently this: not only men upon the earth but also the spirits of the air and the earth heard and obeyed Asoka's command.

2 The maru (Skfc. marut) in contrast to the deva in 24.

3 Here follow two spurious verses, 'To die(?) in this city there came gazelles, boars, birds into the kitchens and willingly perished. Leopards were used to take the herds to pasture and lead them to their stalls, gazelles and boars were used to wateh over fields, plots, and ponds and so forth.'

* On parrots furnishing hill paddy, see JaL i, pp. 3251-3, S276 foil. ; MOEEIS, J.P.T.S. 1884, p. 107.y. 46 The Third Council 29

brahmans, versed in the Brahma-doctrine, and in like manner he himself nourished them for three years. But when he 35 saw their want of self-control at the distribution of food he commanded his ministers saying-: ' (Hereafter) I will give according* to my choice.5 The shrewd (king) bade (them) 36 bring the followers of the different schools into his presence,, tested them in an assembly, and gave them to eat, and sent them thence when he had entertained them.

As he once, standing at the window, saw a peaceful ascetic, 37 the samanera Nigrodha, passing along the street, he felt kindly toward him. The youth was the son of prince 38 Sumana, the eldest brother of all the sons of Bindusara.

When Bindusara had fallen sick Asoka left the govern- 39 ment of Ujjem conferred on him by his father, and came to Pupphapura,1 and when he had made himself master of 40 the city, after his father's death, he caused his eldest brother to be slain and took on himself the sovereignty in the splendid city.

The consort of prince Sumana, who bore the same name 41 (Sumana), being with child, fled straightway by the east gate and went to a candala village, and there the guardian 42 god of a nigrodha-tree 2 called her by her name, built a hut and gave it to her. And as, that very day, she bore a 43 beautiful boy, she gave to her son the name Nigrodha, enjoying the protection of the guardian god. When the 44 headman of the candalas saw (the mother), he looked on her as his own wife, and kept her seven years with honour. Then, 45 as the thera Mahavaruna saw that the boy bore the signs of his destiny,3 the arahant questioned his mother and ordained 46 him, and even in the room where they shaved him4 he

1 See note to 4. 31. UJJENI, Skr. Ujjayini, now Ujjain in the Gwalior State, Central India, was the old capital of Avanti. RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 3 foil.

2 Nig-rodHa ~ Ficus Indica, banyan-tree.

3 Upanissaya includes all those qualities, aptitudes and marks of an individual, which show that he is qualified to attain ara-hantship.

4 The shaving of the hair is one of the ceremonies at the reception of a novice into the order.30 MaMvamsa v. 47

attained to the state of arahant. Going thence to visit5 his

47 royal mother, he entered the splendid city by the south gate, and following the road that led to that village, he passed

48 (on his way) the king's court. Well pleased was the king by his grave bearing, but kindly feeling arose in him also by reason of a former life lived together.

49 Now once, in time past, there were three brothers, traders in honey; one was used to sell the honey, two to get the

50 honey. A certain paccekabuddha was sick of a wound ; and another paccekabuddha, who, for his sake, wished for honey,

51 came even then to the city on his usual way for seeking alms. A maiden, who was going for water to the river-bank, saw

52 him. When she knew, from questioning him, that he wished for honey, she pointed with hand outstretched and said : ' Yonder is a honey-store, sir, go thither.'

53 The trader, with believing heart, gave to the buddha who came there a bowlful of honey, so that it ran over the edge.

54 As he saw the honey filling (the bowl) and flowing over the edge, and streaming down to the ground,, he, full of faith,

55 wished: 'May I, for this gift,, come by the undivided sovereignty of Jaznbudipa, and may my command reach forth a yojana (upward) into the air and (downward) under the earth.

66 To his brothers as they came, he said : ' To a man of such and such a kind have I given honey; agree thereto since the

57 honey is yours also.7 The eldest brother said grudgingly:

* It was surely a candula, for the eandalas ever clothe them-

58 selves in yellow garments.' The second said : 'Away with thy paccekabuddha over the sea ! J But when they heard his promise to let them participate of the reward, they gave their

59 sanction. Then the (maid who) had pointed out the store wished that she might become the royal spouse of the (first), and (desired) a, lovely form with limbs of perfect outline.1 ..

00 Asoka was lie who gave the honey, the queen Asamdhi-was the maid, Nigrodha he who uttered the word

* *, Tissa lie who had wished him away over the sea.2 fil He who had the word ' candala ' lived (in expiation

means literally ' with invisible joints \ i, lit. * who bad spoken of the further shore/Y. 69 The Third Council 31

thereof) in a candala village, but because lie Had desired deliverance, he also, even in the seventh year, attained unto deliverance.1

The king, in whom kindly feelings had arisen towards that 62 same (Nigrodha), summoned him in all haste into his presence; but he came staidly and calmly thither. And the king said 63 to him: ' Sit, my dear, upon a fitting seat.' Since he saw no other bhikkhu there he approached the royal throne. Then, 64 as he stepped toward the throne, the king thought: ' To-day, this samanera will be lord in my house! * Leaning on the 65 king's hand he (the monk) mounted the throne and took his seat on the royal throne under the white canopy. And seeing 66 him seated there king Asoka rejoiced greatly that he had honoured him according to his rank.2 When he had refreshed 67 him with hard and soft foods prepared for himself he questioned the samanera concerning the doctrine taught by the Sambuddha. Then the samanera preached to him the cAppamadavagga'.3 68

And when the lord of the earth had heard him he was won to the doctrine of the Conqueror, and he said to (Nigrodha): 69 c My dear, I bestow on thee eight perpetual supplies of food/ And he answered: £ These will I bestow on my master.5 4

1 The stop should be put after a si. Patthesi refers to the existence as madhu vanij a. When the eldest brother had transferred the patti (*reward') to his younger brothers each one of them uttered a p.attbana, that of the third was mokkha, i.e. the attainment of arahantship.

2 Sambhavetvana gunato is an allusion to 63. The king leaves it to Nigrodha to choose his own place since he does not know his rank. From the fact of Nigrodha's seating himself on the throne Asoka perceives that a monk of the highest rank is before him, and he rejoices that he did not assign a lower place to him.

3 I.e. the section entitled 'unwearying zeal'. There are eleven minor vaggas in the Samyutta-Nikaya, bearing this title, and nine Appamadasuttas.

4 Upajjhayassa. Every novice on his entrance into the order chooses an up ajj hay a *a master', and an acariya * teacher1. It appears from M.Y. I. 25. 6 ff., 32. 1 if., that there is no difference between the functions of the two. The acariya seems, according to M.V. I, 32.1, to be only the deputy or substitute of the upaj-jhaya.32 Maliavamsa Y. 70

70 When again eight (supplies) were bestowed on him he allotted these to his teacher; and when yet eight more were bestowed

71 he gave them to the community of bhikkhus. And when yet again eight were bestowed, he, full of understanding, consented to accept them. Together with thirty-two bhik-

72 khus, he went on the following day, and when he had been served by the king with his own hands, and had preached the doctrine to the ruler, he confirmed him with many of his train in the refuges and precepts of duty.1

Here ends the Visit of the samanera Nigrodha.

73 Thereon the king, with glad faith, doubled day by day (the number) of bhikkhus (receiving bounty), till they were

74 sixty thousand. Putting aside the sixty thousand teachers of false doctrine,2 he bestowed alms perpetually on sixty thousand bhikkhus in his house.

75 Having commanded costly foods, hard and soft, to be prepared speedily, in order to feast the sixty thousand bhik-

76 khus, and having caused the town to be gaily decked, he went to the brotherhood and bade them to his house; and after he had brought them thither, had bestowed hospitality on them and largely provided them with the things needful

77 for ascetics,3 he questioned them thus: f How great is (the content of) the dhamma taught by the Master ?' And the thera Moggaliputta-Tissa answered him upon this matter.

78 When he heard: (There are eighty-four (thousand) sections of the dhamma/ the king said: 'Each one of them will I honour with a vihara.'

79 Then bestowing ninety-six kotis (of money) in eighty-four

80 thousand towns, the ruler bade the kings all over the earth

1 Bee note to 1. 82.

8 Titthiyanain. Those whom his father (according to v. 34) had already supported and whom Asoka did in fact entertain, with certain fhang»*s. He now gradually substituted Buddhist monks. Verses

73 and 74 are suspicions, since the Tiki does not comment on them. 3 $ 5 m i 131 a k a, see note to 4. 2tlV. 92 The Third Council 33

beg-in (to build) viharas and he himself began to build the Asokarama.1

With the grant for the three gems,2 for Nigrodha and for 81 the sick,, he bestowed in (support of) the faith for each of them a hundred thousand (pieces of money) each day. With the 82 treasure spent for the Buddha the (priests) held thupa-offerings3 of many kinds continually in many viharas. With the treasure 83 spent for the dhamma the people continually prepared the four things needful for the use of bhikkhus who were learned in the doctrine. Of the loads of water borne from the 84 Anotatta-lake he bestowed four on the brotherhood, one every day to sixty theras who knew the tipitaka; but one he had 85 commanded to be given to the queen Asamdhimitta, while the king himself had but two for his own use. To the sixty 86 thousand bhikkhus and to sixteen thousand women (of the palace), he gave day by day those tooth-sticks called naga-lata.4

When, one day, the monarch heard of the naga-king- 87 Mahakala of wondrous might, who had beheld four Buddhas, who had lived through one age of the world, he sent for him 88 to be brought (into his presence) fettered with a chain of gold; and when he had brought him and made him sit upon the throne under the white canopy, when he had done homage 89 to him with (gifts of) various flowers, and had bidden the sixteen thousand women (of the palace) to surround him, he (the king) spoke thus : ' Let us behold the (bodily) form of the 90 omniscient Great Sage, of Him who hath boundless knowledge, who hath set rolling the wheel of the true doctrine/ The naga-king created a beauteous figure of the Buddha, 91 endowed with the thirty-two greater signs and brilliant with the eighty lesser signs (of a Buddha), surrounded by the 92

1 The Asoka monastery in the capital Pataliputta.

2 Ratanattayam. The three gems are Buddha, dhamma,samgha:

Buddha, Ms doctrine and community, see note on 1. 32.

3 Tfaupapuja. The tope (th up a) is never missing from a Buddhist

monastery. Festivals of which a tope is the centre are frequently

mentioned in the Mahavamsa.

4 The nlga-creeper. See 5. 25.34 MaMvamsa Y. 93

fathom-long rays of glory and adorned with the crown of flames.1 At the sight thereof the king was filled with joy and amaze-

93 ment and thought: f Even such is the image created by this (Mahakala), nay then, what (must) the (real) form of the Tatbagata have been !' And he was more and more uplifted

94 with joy, and for seven days without ceasing did he, the great king of wondrous power, keep the great festival called the * Feast of the eyes '.2

Here ends the Entrance (of Asoka) into the doctrine.

95 Now the mighty and believing king and thera Moggaliputta had already in former times been seen, by the holy ones.3

96 At the time of the Second Council, the theras, looking into the future, saw the downfall of the faith in the time of that

97 king. Looking around in the whole world for one who should be able to stay that downfall, they saw the Brahma Tissa4

98 who had not long to live (in the Brahma heaven). To him they went and prayed him, the mighty in wisdom, to bring this downfall to nought by being reborn himself among men.

99 And he granted their prayer, desiring that the doctrine should shine forth in brightness. But to the youthful Siggava and

1(10 Candavajji the sages spoke thus: 'When a hundred and

eighteen years are passed the downfall of the religion will

101 begin. "We shall not live to see that (time). You, bhikkhus,

1 On the signs of a Buddha, see the Lakkhana Snttanta In D. Ill,

p. 142 foil, and GBUKWEDEL, Buddhistische Ktimt in Imdien, p. 138 foil.

s AkkhipQja. It corresponds to our * consecration*. See Yin. Ill 300.

8 Vasihi « A li? those who have the senses tinder control'. In tihe

MabSv. follows here (w. 127S-1S38) an episode relating to Asoka puts his consort to the test, she having boasted of acquired. He requires of her that she shall provide, between one iky and another, robes for the 60,000 monks. With the help of tfc*» £0d Ktjbem, remembers the kindness shown by her to the (see abo?ef VY. 51 foil), she accomplishes what the of her. 4 T;s«a, a iwellar In the Brahml heaven.V. 112 The Third Council 3 5

have had no part in this matter * therefore you merit punishment, and your punishment shall be this: that the doctrine 102 may shine forth in brightness, the Brahma Tissa, mighty in wisdom, will be reborn in the house of the brahman Moggali. As time passes on one of you shall receive the boy into the 103 order, another shall carefully instruct him in the word of the Sambuddha.

There was a thera Dasaka?disciple of the thera TJpali. 104 Sonaka was his (Dasaka's) disciple, and both those theras were disciples of Sonaka.

In former times there lived in Vesali a learned brahman 105 named Dasaka. As the eldest of three hundred disciples he 106 dwelt with his teacher, and at the end of twelve years having come to the end of (studying) the vedas, he, going about with the (other) disciples, met the thera Upali, dwelling at the Valika-monastery, after he had established the sacred 107 word (in council), and sitting down near him he questioned him concerning hard passages in the vedas, and the other expounded them to him, e A doctrine is come after all the 108 doctrines, O brahman, yet all doctrines end in the one doctrine; which is that one ?'

Thus spoke the thera concerning the name (of the true 109 doctrine), but the young brahman knew it not. He asked: ' What manta is this ?' and when the answer was given: f The manta of the Buddha/ he said: fImpart it to me,' and the 110 other answered: i We impart it (only) unto one who wears our robe/

And he (Dasaka) asked his teacher and also his father and mother on behalf of that manta.2 When he with three 111 hundred young brahmans had received from the thera the pabbajja the brahman in time received the upasampada. Then to a thousand (disciples) who had overcome the asavas,3 112

1 Imam adhikaranam, that is, in the work of the Second Council.

2 That is, he asked if he might be permitted to learn it under the condition mentioned.

8 By khlnasava in Y. 112 (see note on 3. 9) are understood the arahants; by ariya in v. 113, all the Buddha's hearers (Yibhanga

D %gg Mdhavamsa V. 113

among whom was the thera Dasaka, did the thera Upali teach

113 the whole tipitaka. Past reckoning is the number of the

other Ariyas, and of those who yet stood outside (the religion), by whom the pitakas were learned from the thera.

114 In the land of the Kasil lived the son of a caravan-guide, named Sonaka. With his father and mother he had come

115 trading, to Giribbaja.2 He went, youth as he was, fifteen years old, into the Veluvana 3 (monastery); fifty-five young brahmans, his companions, came with him.

116 When he saw the thera Dasaka there with his disciples around him, faith came to him and he asked him for the pabbajja-ordination. (The thera) said: 'Ask thy teacher.'

1 i 7 Afterwards, the young Sonaka, having fasted three meal-times and won his parents' leave to enter the order, came again,

118 and then, when he had received from the thera Dasaka the pabbajja and the upasampada, together with those other

119 youths, he learned the three pitakas. Amid the company of the thousand disciples of the thera, who had overcome the Esavas, who were versed in the pitakas, the ascetic Sonaka was the foremost.

120 In the city that bears the name of the patali flower4 there lived the wise Siggava, son of a minister. He, when eighteen

121 years old and dwelling in three palaces fitted for the three seasons of the year, went, in company with his friend

.122 Candavajji, a minister's son, and surrounded by five hundred

followers, to the Kukkutarama,5 and visited the thera Sonaka.

123 And when he perceived that (the thera) sat sunk in a trance

372), by puthujjana the remaining multitude who still stand outside the way leading to perfection.

1 The Koais (Skr. kadi) are one of the sixteen tribes of northern India, settled in the district round Benares, Kasi is also the old of Benarei. RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 24.

s The old capita! of Hagadha, Skr. girlvraja 'Mountain Stronghold \ It situated on the top of a hill, at the foot of which afterward* Rujagaha was built. RHYS DAVIDS, I. 'I.e. Bu.xaboo*grove.

4 I.e. Fataliputta. See note to 4. 81. Pi tali Mgnonia suaee-

1tll s A ni',;najttery in Patalipntttt. V. A. SMITH, Auka, pp. 188,198,194.V. 135 The Third Council 37

with senses restrainedI and did not answer his greeting, he asked the brotherhood about this matter. They said: ' Those 124 who are deep in a trance give no reply/ (So he asked) f How come they forth from (the trance) ?' And the bhikkhus said : * At a call from the master, or a call from the brotherhood, or 125 when the allotted time is ended, or at the approach of death they come forth (from the trance).' 126

As they saw, speaking thus, that these (youths) were destined for holiness,2 they caused the call from the brotherhood to be given; and (the thera) awoke from the trance and went to them. The youth asked: 'Wherefore didst thou not 127 speak to me, venerable one?' The (thera) answered: 'We were enjoying that which is for us to enjoy/ The (young man) said: ' Let us also enjoy this/ He answered: 'Those 128 only can we cause to enjoy it who are like unto us/

Then, with their parents' leave, the young Siggava and 129 Candavajji and their five hundred followers likewise received the pabbajja and (afterwards) the upasampada-ordination from the thera Sonaka. With him as their master the two eagerly 130 studied the three pitakas and attained to the six supernormal powers.3

Thereafter when Siggava knew that Tissa had been born 131 into this world, the thera, from that time, frequented his house for seven years. And not for seven years did it befall 132 him to hear the words * Go further on ' (said to him). But in the eighth year did he hear those words f Go further on5, in that house. As he went forth the brahman Moggali, who was 133 even then coming in, saw him and asked him: c Hast thou received aught in our house ?' And he answered: f Yes/ When (Moggali) went into his house he heard (what had 134 befallen) and when the thera came to the house again, on the second day afterwards, he reproached him with the lie. And 135

1 Samapattisamapannam. * There are eight samapattis, attainments or endowments, which are eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation,1 CHILDERS, P.D. s.v. See SPENCE HAKDY, Manual of Buddhism, p. 170, and J.P.T.S., 1909, p. 61.

3 See note to 5. 45.

3 On the six abhinna, see note to 4. 12.3 8 Mahavamsa v. 13 6

when he had heard the thera's words the brahman, full of

136 faith, gave him continual alms of his own food, and little by little did all of his household become believers, and the brahman continually offered hospitality (to the thera), giving him a seat in his house.

137 So as time passed the young Tissa gradually came to the age of sixteen years and reached the further shore of the

138 ocean of the three vedas. The thera, thinking that he might have speech with him in this way, made all the seats in his

139 house to vanish, save the seat of the young brahman. Being come from the Brahma-world (this latter) loved cleanliness, and therefore were they used to keep his chair hung up for better care thereof.1

140 Then the people in the house, finding no other seat, full of confusion, since the thera had to stand, prepared tlie seat

141 of the young Tissa for Mm. When the young brahman returned from his teacher's house and saw (the thera) sitting there he fell into anger and spoke to him in unfriendly wise.

142 The thera said to him: cYoung man, dost thou know the manta ? * And the young brahman (for answer) asked him the

143 same question again. Since the thera replied: ' I know it/ he asked him concerning hard passages in the vedas. The thera

144 expounded them to him; for, when leading the lay life, he had already studied the vedas even to the end. How should he not be able to expound them since he had mastered the four special sciences ? 2

145 * For him whose thought arises and does not perish, thought shall perish and not arise (again); but for him whose thought shall perish and not arise, thought shall arise (again) and not perish/ 3

1 This Terse is suspicious; the Tfka makes no comment on it.

2 Pabhinnapatisambhida, see note to 4. 62.

3 A pkj on the double meaning of cittaxn. and nirujjhati.

Wliosoeirer thinks aright and whose thought does not go astray, i. e. whoaoefer knows the truth, his intellect conies unto nibbana never to return again. But on the other hand, he who does not think aright not follow the true doctrine will enter into a new

existence and will not reach deliverance.V. 155 The Third Council 39

The wise thera asked this question from the (chapter called) 146 Cittayamaka.1 And it was as the (darkness of) night to the other, and he said to him: 'What kind of manta is that, 147 Obhikkhu?' < The manta of the Buddha/ answered (the thera); and when the other said: ' Impart it to me/ he said : 'I impart it (only) to one who wears our robe.' 2

So with the leave of his father and mother (the young man) 148 received the pabbajja-ordination, for the sake of the manta., and the thera,, when he had ordained him, imparted to him duly the (method of the) kammatthanas.3 By practice of 149 meditation this highly gifted man soon won the fruit of sota-patti,4 and when the thera was aware of this he sent him to 150 the thera Candavajji that he might learn the suttapitaka and abhidhammapitaka of him. And this he learned (from Candavajji).

And thereafter the monk Siggava, having conferred on him 151 the upasampada, taught him the vinaya and again instructed him in the two other (pitakas). When, afterwards, the young1 152 Tissa had gained the true insight/ he attained in time to the mastery of the six supernormal powers and reached the rank of a thera. Far and wide shone his renown like the sun and 153 moon. The world paid heed to his word even as to the word of the Sambuddha.

Here ends the Story of the thera Tissa, the son of Moggali.

One day the prince6 (Tissa) when hunting saw gazelles 154 sporting joyously in the wild. And at this sight he thought: c Even the gazelles sport thus joyously, who feed on grass in 155

1 I.e. *The double thought.' The reference is to the Yama-kappakarana of the abhidhamma. a Of. 5. 109,110.

3 Earn mat than a 'The foundations of (right) acting1. By this is meant the right method for the practice of meditation. See CHILDEBS, P.D. s. v.

* I. e. the first stage of sanctification. See note to 1. 33. s The vipassana is one of the signs of the arahant. It is tenfold. See the details in AUNO, Compendium of Philosophy, pp. 65 foil., 180. 6 UparSja, viceregent.40 MaJiavamsa v. 156

the wild. Wherefore are not the bhikkhus joyous and gay, who have their food and dwelling in comfort ? '

156 Returned home he told the king his thought. To teach him the king handed over to him. the government of the

157 kingdom for one week, saying: ' En joy, prince, for one week, my royal state; then will I put thee to death/ Thus said the ruler.

158 And when the week was gone by he asked: c Wherefore art thou thus wasted away ? * And when (Tissa) answered: ' By reason of the fear of death/ the king spoke again to him

159 and said: 'Thinking that thou must die when the week was gone by, thou wast no longer joyous and gay; how then can ascetics be joyous and gay, my dear, who think ever upon death ?'

160 And (Tissa) when his brother spoke thus, was turned toward faith in the doctrine (of the Buddha). And afterwards when

161 he once went forth hunting, he saw the thera Mahadham-marakkhita, the self-controlled, sitting at the foot of a tree,

162 and fanned by a cobra with a branch of a sala-tree. And that wise (prince) thought: 'When shall I, like this thera, be ordained in the religion of the Conqueror, and live in the forest-wilderness ?'

163 When the thera, to convert him, had come thither flying through the air, standing on the water of the pond in the

164 Asokarama, he, leaving his goodly garments behind him in the

165 air, plunged into the water and bathed his limbs. And when the prince saw this marvel he was filled with joyful faith, and the wise man made this wise resolve: 'This very day will

166 1 receive the pabbajja-ordination/ He went to the king and respectfully besought him to let him receive the pabbajja. Since the king could not turn him from (his resolve) he took

167 him with him and went with a great retinue to the vihara. There (the prince) received the pabbajja from the thera

168 Mahadhammamkkhita and with him four hundred thousand persons, but the number of those who afterwards were ordained

169 is not known. A nephew of the monarch known by the name AggibrahmE was the consort of the king's daughter

170 SamghanaittS and the son of these two (was) namedV. 182 The Third Council 41

Sumana.1 He (Aggibrahma) also craved the king's leave and was ordained together with the prince.

The princess ordination, whence flowed blessing to many 171 folk; was in the fourth year of (the reign of) king Asoka. In 172 the same year he received the upasampada-ordination, and since his destiny was holiness2 the prince, zealously striving, became an arahant, gifted with the six supernormal powers.

All those beautiful viharas (then) begun they duly finished 173 in all the cities within three years; but. by the miraculous 174 power of the thera Indagutta, who watched over the work, the arama named after Asoka was likewise quickly brought to completion. On those spots which the Conqueror himself 175 had visited the monarch built beautiful cetiyas here and there. On every side from the eighty-four thousand cities came letters 176 on one day with the news: f The viharas are completed.*

When the great king, great in majesty, in wondrous power 177 and valour, received the letters, he, desiring to hold high festival in all the aramas at once, proclaimed in the town 178 with beat of drum : ' On the seventh day from this day shall a festival of all the aramas be kept, in every way, in all the provinces. Yojana by yojana on the earth shall great largess 179 be given; the aramas in the villages and the streets shall be adorned. In all the viharas let lavish gifts of every kind be 180 bestowed upon the brotherhood, according to the time and the means (of givers), and adornments, such as garlands of lamps 181 and garlands of flowers, here and there, and all that is meet for festivals,3 with music of every kind, in manifold ways. And all are to take upon themselves the duties of the 182 uposatha-day and hear religious discourse, and offerings of

1 In my edition of the text the stop should be deleted after samiko and put after namato, So pi in v, 170 refers to Aggi-brahma.

2 He was sampannaupanissayo. Cf. note to 5. 45.

3 TJpahara. The Tika explains this word thus: sabbe gan-dhabba sakasakaturiyabhandam gahetva tattha tattha viharesu gandhabbam va karontu ti attho 'Let all the minstrels taking each Ms own instrument of music play in the viharas everywhere \42 Mahammsa V. 183

183 many kinds must they make on the same day/ And all the people everywhere held religious festivals o£ every kind, glorious as the world of gods/ even as had been commanded and (did) yet more.

184 On that day the great king wearing all his adornments with the women of his household, with his ministers and sur-

185 rounded by the multitude of his troops, went to his own arama, as if cleaving the earth. In the midst of the brotherhood he

186 stood, bowing down to the venerable brotherhood. In the assembly were eighty kotis of bhikkhus, and among these

187 were a hundred thousand ascetics who had overcome the asavas. Moreover there were ninety times one hundred thou-

188 sand bhikkhums, and among these a thousand had overcome the asavas. These (monks and nuns) wrought the miracle called the ? unveiling of the world' to the end that the king

189 Dhammasoka might be converted.?Candasoka (the wicked Asoka) was lie called in earlier times, by reason of his evil deeds; lie was known as Dhammasoka (the pious Asoka) after-

190 wards because of his pious deeds.?He looked around over the (whole) Jambudlpa bounded by the ocean and over all the

191 viharas adorned with the manifold (beauties of) the festival? and with exceeding Joy., as he saw them, he asked the brethren, while taking- his seat: 'Whose generosity toward the doctrine of the Blessed One was ever (so) great (as mine), venerable

? *

101* The them Moggaliputta answered the king's question: f in the lifetime of the Blessed One there was no generous

giver like to thee/

193 When the this lie rejoiced yet more and asked:

4Nay then, is there a kinsman of Buddha's religion2 like

nie r * Iff I the perceived the destiny of the king's son

1 Til'* Tika the word devalokamanorama thus,

^n'l a*J(ls: aj-kkjuattagliiitthe devanagare devagana viya -a m A no JUKI I mahSfjiija pa|Iyadesum ti attho 'As

ititi'it^ oi ^adb in the celestial city, where festival has been i^t'4l,, ?"* splendid offerings".

the term is a title of honour.v. 206 The Third Council 43

Mahinda1 and of his daughter Samghamitta, and foresaw the 195 progress of the doctrine that was to arise from (them), and : hes on whom lay the charge of the doctrine, replied thus to the king: 'Even a lavish giver of gifts like to thee is not 196 a kinsman of the religion; giver of wealth2 is he called., O 197 ruler of men. But he who lets son or daughter enter the religious order is a kinsman of the religion and withal a giver of gifts/

Since the monarch would fain hecome a kinsman of the 198 religion he asked Mahinda and Samghamitta, who stood near : cDo you wish to receive the pabbajja, dear ones? The 199 pabbajja is held to be a great (good)/ Then, when they heard their father's words,, they said to him : ' This very day we 200 would fain enter the order, if thou, O king, dost wish it; for iiSj even as for thee, will blessing come of our pabbajja/

For already since the time of the prince's (Tissa^s) pabbajja 201 had he resolved to enter the order, and she since (the ordination) of Aggibrahma.3 Although the monarch wished to confer 202 on Mahinda the dignity of prince-regent, yet did he consent to his ordination with the thought: * This (last) is the greater dignity/ So he permitted his dear son Mahinda, distin- 203 guished (above all others) by intelligence, beauty and strength, and his daughter Samghamitta, to be ordained with all solemnity.4

At that time Mahinda, the king's son, was twenty years 204 old, and the king's daughter Samghamitta was then eighteen years old. On the very same day did he receive the pabbajja- 205 and also the upasampada-ordination, and for her the pabbajja-ordination and the placing under a teacher5 took place on the same day.

The prince's master 6 was the thera named after Moggali;7 206

1 See note to 5, 45.

3 Paccayadayaka. On paccaya see note to 3. 14. * G£ 5. 167,170.

4 The Tika explains samaham by sapujasakkaram.

5 This was necessary as Samghamitta was not of the prescribed age.

6 Upajjhaya, see note to 5. 69.

7 That is, Moggaliputtatissa, c Tissa, the son of Moggali.144: Mahavamsa V. 207

the pabbajja-ordination was conferred on him by the thera

207 Mahadeva, but Majjhantika pronounced the ceremonial words/ and even in the very place where he (received) the upasam-pada-ordination this great man reached the state of an arahant together with the special kinds of knowledge.2

208 The directress of Samghamitta was the renowned Dhamma-pate, and her teacher was Ayupala; in time she became free

209 from the asavas. Those two lights of the doctrine, who brought great blessing to the island of Lanka, received the pabbajja in the sixth year of king Dhammasoka. The great

210 Mahinda, the converter of the island (of Lanka), learned the three pitakas with his master in three years. This bhikkhuni,

211 even like the new moon, and the bhikkhu Mahinda, like the sun, illumined always the sky, the doctrine of the Sambuddha.

212 Once in time past, a dweller in the forest, who went forth into the forest from Pataliputta, loved a wood-nymph named

213 Kunti. Owing to the union with him she bore two sons, the elder was Tissa and the younger was named Sumitta. After-

214 wards both received the pabbajja-ordination from the thera Mahavaruna and attained to arahantship and the possession of the six supernormal powers.

215 (Once) the elder suffered pains in the foot from the poison of a venomous insect, and when his younger brother asked (what he needed) he told him that a handful of ghee was the

216 remedy. But the thera set himself against pointing out to the king what things needful in sickness/ and against going

217 in search of the ghee after the midday meal.4 * If, on thy begging-round, thou receivest ghee, bring it to me/ said the

218 thera TIssa to the excellent thera Sumitta-. When he went

1 K am ma vie am, akS: I.e. he was president of the chapter

Mahinda was ordained. Kammavaca * is the name of the proceedings at a kamma or ecclesiastical act, by which some question is decided by vote'. CHILDERS, P.D. s. v.

2 See note to 5.144,

3 Giilnapaecaye is a * locative of aim *, which concurs with the 1 ' (SPIYEK, Ved. and Skr. Syntax, part* 81 b), and refers toniTadanaiii1 informing, announcement1.

4 The begging-round of the mendicants must be carried out in the forenoon, according to the rales of the order.V. 228 The Third Council 45

forth on his begging-round he received not one handful o£ ghee,, and (in the meanwhile) the pain had come to such a pass that even a hundred vessels of ghee could not have cured it. And because of that malady the thera was near to death, 219 and when he had exhorted (the other) to strive unceasingly he formed the resolve to pass into nibbana.

Lifted up in the air as he sat, and winning mastery of his 220 own body by the fire-meditation,,1 according to his own free resolve, he passed into nibbana. Flames that broke forth 221 from his body consumed the flesh and skin of the thera's whole body/ the bones they did not consume.

When the monarch heard that the thera had died in this 222 wise he went to his own arama surrounded by the multitude of his troops. Mounted on an elephant the king brought 223 down the bones,3 and when he had caused due honour to be paid to the relics, he questioned the brotherhood as to (the thera's) illness. Hearing about it he was greatly moved, 224 and had tanks made at the city gates and filled them with remedies for the sick, and day by day he had remedies be- 225 stowed on the congregation of the bhikkhus, thinking: might the bhikkhus never find remedies hard to obtain.

The thera Sumitta passed into nibbana even when he was 226 walking (in meditation) in the cankama-hall,4 and by this also was a great multitude of people converted to the doctrine (of the Buddha). Both these theras, the sons of Kunti, who 227 had wrought a great good in the world, passed into nibbana in the eighth year of Asoka.

From that time onwards the revenues of the brotherhood 228

1 Tejojhanavasena. The meditating ascetic concentrates all his thoughts on the concept 'fire' (tejo) which is one of the ten kasinani or divisions of kaminatthana (see CHILDERS, s.v. kasino, and note to 5.148); the effect is that a fire arises within his body which consumes him.

2 Nimmamsaccharikam dahi sakalam kayam, literally, * burned the whole body into a fleshless and skinless one.'

3 Which were still floating in the air.

4 A cankama belongs to each vihara. It is 'a straight piece of ground cleared and levelled for the purpose of walking up and down upon for exercise and meditation'. See S.B.E. xx, p. 108, n. 1.46 MaMvamsa V.229

were exceeding great, and since those who were converted

229 later caused the revenues to increase, heretics who had (thereby) lost revenue and honour took likewise the yellow robe, for the

230 sake of revenue, and dwelt together with the bhikkhus. They proclaimed their own doctrines as the doctrine of the Buddha and carried out their own practices even as they wished.

231 And when the thera Moggaliputta, great in firmness of soul, saw the coming-out of this exceedingly evil plague-boil

232 on the doctrine, he, far-seeing, deliberated upon the right time to do away with it. And when he had committed his great company of bhikkhus to (the direction of) the thera Mahinda,

233 he took up his abode, all alone, further up the Ganges on the Ahoganga-mountain, and for seven years he gave himself up to solitary retreat.

234 By reason of the great number of the heretics and their unruliness, the bhikkhus could not restrain them by the law;

235 and therefore the bhikkhus in Jambudlpa for seven years held no uposatha-ceremony nor the ceremony of pavarana in all the aramas,

236 When the great king, the famed Dhammasoka, was aware of this, he sent a minister to the splendid Asokarama, laying

237 on him this command: * Go, settle this matter and let the uposatha-festival be carried out by the community of bhikkhus

238 in my arama/ This fool went thither,, and when he had called the community of bhikkhus together he announced the king's command; * Carry out the uposatha-festival/

239 'We hold not the uposatha-festival with heretics/ the community of bhikkhus replied to that misguided minister.

240 The minister struck off the head of several theras, one by one, with his sword, saying, * I will force you to hold the uposatha-

241 festival/ When the king's brother, Tissa, saw that crime he came speedily and sat on the seat nearest to the minister.

242 When the minister saw the thera he went to the king and told him (the whole matter).

243 When the monarch heard it he was troubled and went with all and asked, the community of bhikklms^ greatly disturbed in mind: * Who, in truth, is guilty o£ this deed

has done ? 'v.256 The Third Council 47

And certain o£ them answered in their ignorance: ' The guilt 244 is thine/ and others said : £ Both of you are guilty'; but those who were wise answered: c Thou art not guilty/

"When the king heard this he said: 'Is there a bhikkhu who 245 is able to set my doubts to rest and to befriend religion ? * ' There is the thera Tissa, the son of Moggali, O king/ 246 answered the brethren to the king. Then was the king filled with zeal.

He sent four theras, each attended by a thousand bhikkhus 247 and four ministers, each with a thousand followers, that same 248 day, with the charge laid on them by (the king) himself to bring the thera thither; but though they prayed him he came not.

When the king heard this he sent again eight theras and 249 eight ministers each with a thousand followers, but even as before he came not.

The king asked: * Nay then, how shall the thera come?' 250 The bhikkhus told him how the thera could be moved to come: c 0 great king, if they shall say to him, "be our helper, 251 venerable sir, to befriend religion/'' then will the thera come/

Again the king sent (messengers) sixteen theras and sixteen 252 ministers, each with a thousand followers, laying that (same) charge upon them, and he said to them: e Aged as he is, the 253 thera will not enter any wheeled vehicle; bring the thera by ship on the Ganges/

So they went to him and told him, and hardly had he heard 254 (their message) but he rose up. And they brought the thera in a ship and the king went to meet him. Going down even 255 knee-deep into the water the king respectfully gave his right hand to the thera, as he came down from the ship.1 The 256

1 According to Smp. 310, 12 foil, the king had dreamed a dream, the night before, which the soothsayers interpreted thus, that a samananaga, a great ascetic, would touch Ins right hand. As the thera now laid hold of the king's hand the attendants were about to kill him. For to touch the king's hand was a crime punishable by death. However, the king restrained them. But the thera laid hold of the king's hand as a sign that he accepted him as his pupil.48 Mahavamsa


venerable thera took the king's right handl from compassion toward him, and came down from the ship,

257 The king led the thera to the pleasure-garden called Rati-vaddhana, and when he had washed and anointed his feet and

258 had seated himself the monarch spoke thus, to test the thera's

259 faculty: ' Sir, I would fain see a miracle/ And to the question which (miracle he desired) he answered: cAn earthquake/ And again the other said to him: ?Which wouldst thou see,

260 of the whole (earth shaken) or only of a single region V Then when he had asked: f Which is the more difficult ?' and heard (the reply): ' The shaking of a single region is the more difficult/ he declared that he desired to see this last.

261 Then within the boundary of a yojana (in extent) did the thera place a waggon, a horse and a man, and a vessel full of

262 water at the four cardinal points, and over this yojana by his miraculous power he caused the earth to tremble, together with the half of (each of) these (things) and let the king seated there behold this.2

263 Then the monarch asked the thera whether or not he himself shared the gnilt of the murder of the bhikkhus by the

264 minister. The thera taught the king : ' There is no resulting guilt3 without evil intent/ and he recited the Tittira-jataka.4

265 Abiding a week there in the pleasant royal park he in-

266 structed the ruler in the lovely religion of the Sambuddha. In

1 Here there is a play on the words dakkhina 'right* and dakkhi-neyya * venerable*.

2 The expressions are difficult to render but the sense is clear. On the boundaries of a space measuring a mile in diameter, there were placed at N., S., E., and W. a waggon, a horse, a man, and a Teasel full of water. The earthquake was so strictly limited in its action these objects were affected by the quaking only as to the half on the inner side, the other half remained unmoved.

* In paticcakamma the term kamma is employed in the technical sense as the sum of all good and evil deeds that bring of necessity reward or punishment as their result, and if not balanced lead inevitably to a new existence after death. Paticca means k following on something, conditioned by something'. The formation of tlw compound is the same as in paticcasamuppada, paecay&kara.

4 FAUSBOLLS Jataka III. 64 foil. The Kambotlian Mali, iaserti here a metrical version of the story.V, 278 The Third Council 49

this same week the monarch sent out two yakkhas and assembled together all the bhikkhus on the earth. On the 267 seventh day he went to his own splendid arama and arranged an assembly of the community of bhikkhus in its full numbers.

Then seated with, the thera on one side behind a curtain the 268 ruler called to him in turn the bhikkhus of the several confessions and asked them: 'Sir^ what did the Blessed One 269 teach ?9 And they each expounded their wrong* doctrine, the Sassata-doctrine and so forth.1 And all these adherents of 270 false doctrine did the king cause to be expelled from the order; those who were expelled were in all sixty thousand. And now 271 he asked the rightly-believing bhikkhus: f What does the Blessed One teach ? * And they answered: e He teaches the Vibhajja-doctrine/ 2

And the monarch asked the thera: f Sir, does the Sam- 272 buddha (really) teach the Vibhajja-doctrine ?3 The thera answered: c Yes/ And when the king knew this he was glad at heart and said: f Since the community is (henceforth) puri- 273 fied, sir, therefore should the brotherhood hold the uposatha-festival/ and he made the thera guardian of the order and 274 returned to his fair capital; the brotherhood held thenceforth the uposatha-festiva! in concord.

Out of the great number of the brotherhood of bhikkhus 275 the thera chose a thousand learned bhikkhus, endowed with the six supernormal powers, knowing the three pitakas and versed in the special sciences/ to make a compilation of the 276 true doctrine. Together with them did he,, in the Asokarama, make a compilation of the true dhamma.4 Even as the thera 277 Mahakassapa and the thera Yasa had held a council so did the thera Tissa. In the midst of this council the thera Tissa set 278

1 The different ditthiyo or heretical doctrines, reckoned as sixty-two in all, are frequently mentioned in the canonical books, thus in tlie Brahmajalasuttanta of the Dighanikaya (D. 1, 13 foil.).

2 CHILDERS (P, D. s. v, vibhajati) renders the sense appropriately with 'religion of Logic or Reason'. Vibhaj javada is identical with theravada. KEEN", Manual, p. 110.

s See the notes to 4. 62 and 4. 12.

4 Katum saddharnmasarngaham. See note to 8. 17.50 MaJiavamsa


forth the Kathavatthuppakarana,1 refuting the other doe-

279 trines. Thus was this council under the protection of king Asoka ended by the thousand bhikkhus in nine months.

280 In the seventeenth year of the king's reign the wise (thera) who was seventy-two years old, closed the council with a great

281 pavarana-ceremony.2 And, as if to shout applause to the re-establishment of doctrine, the great earth shook at the close of the council.

282 Nay, abandoning the high, the glorious Brahma-heaven and coming down for the sake of the doctrine to the loathsome world of men, he, who had fulfilled his own duty, fulfilled the duties toward the doctrine. Who else verily may neglect duties toward the doctrine?

Here ends the fifth chapter, called * The Third Council', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 A work of the Abhidhamma. Kathatatthu, ed. by A. C, TAYLOR,

vol. i, II, P.T.S. 1894,1897. s See note to 12. 2.CHAPTEE VI


IN the country of the Vangasl in the Vanga capital there 1 lived once a king of the Vangas. The daughter of the king of the Kalingas was that king's consort. By his spouse the 2 king had a daughter, the soothsayers prophesied her union with the king of beasts. Very fair was she and very amorous 3 and for shame the king and queen could not suffer her.

Alone she went forth from, the house, desiring the joy of 4 independent life; unrecognized she joined a caravan travelling to the Magadha country. In the Lala country a lion attacked 5 the caravan in the forest,, the other folk fled this way and that,, but she fled along1 the way by which the lion had come.

"When the lion had taken his prey and was leaving the spot 6* he beheld her from afar, love (for her) laid hold on him, and he came towards her with waving tail and ears laid back. Seeing him she bethought her of that prophecy of the sooth- 7 sayers which she had heard, and without fear she caressed him stroking his limbs.

The lion, roused to fiercest passion by her touch, took her 8 upon his back and bore her with all speed to his cave, and there he was united with her, and from this union with 9 him the princess in time bore twin-children, a son and a daughter.

The son's hands and feet were formed like a lion's and there- 10 fore she named him Slhabahu, but the daughter (she named) SlhaslvalL "When he was sixteen years old the son questioned 11 his mother on the doubt (that had arisen in him): c Wherefore are you and our father so different, dear mother ? * She 12 told him all. Then he asked: e Why do we not go forth (from here) ?' And she answered: c Thy father has closed the cave up with a rock/ Then he took that barrier before the great 13

1 L e. Bengal. E 252 MaMvamsa VI. 14

cave upon his shoulder and went (a distance of) fifty yojanas going and coming in one day.

14 Then (once), when the lion had gone forth in search of prey, (Slhabahu) took his mother on his right shoulder and his

15 young sister on his left, and went away with speed. They clothed themselves with branches of trees, and so came to a border-village and there, even at that time, was a son of the

16 princess's uncle, a commander in the army of the Vanga king, to whom was given the rule over the border-country; and he was just then sitting under a banyan-tree overseeing the work that was done.

17 When he saw them he asked them (who they were) and they said: ' We are forest-folk *; the commander bade (his

18 people) give them clothing; and this turned into splendid (garments). He had food offered to them on leaves and by reason of their merit these were turned into dishes of gold.

19 Then, amazed, the commander asked them, 'Who are you?''

20 The princess told him her family and clan. Then the commander took his uncle's daughter with him and went to the capital of the Vangas and married her.

21 When the lion, returning in haste to his cave., missed those three (persons), he was sorrowful, and grieving after his

22 son he neither ate nor drank. Seeking for his children he went to the border-village, and every village where lie came was deserted by the dwellers therein.

23 And the border-folk came to the king and told him this: * A lion ravages thy country; ward off (this danger) O kingP

24 Since he found none who could ward off (this danger) he had a thousand (pieces of money) led about the city on an elephants back and this proclamation made: c 3Jet him

25 who brings the lion receive these! * And in like manner the

(offered) two thousand and three thousand. Twice

26 did Slhabahu'sl mother restrain him. The third time without

his mother's leave, Slhabahu took the three thousand (as reward) for slaying his own father.

27 They the youth to the king, and the king* spoke

1 Sibabhnja in the text (tnetri causa!) which means the same as. 8I li u LI !i a * Lion-arm \vi. 43 The Coming of Vijaya 53

thus to him: ' If thou shalt take the lion I will give thee at once the kingdom/ And he went to the opening of the 28 cave, and as soon as he saw from afar the lion who came forward,, for love toward his son,, he shot an arrow to slay him.

The arrow struck the lion's forehead but because of his 29 tenderness (toward his son) it rebounded and fell on the earth at the youth's feet. And so it fell out three times, then 30 did the king of beasts grow wrathful and the arrow sent at him struck him and pierced his body.

(Sihabahu) took the head of the lion with the mane and 31 returned to his city. And just seven days had passed then since the death of the king of the Vangas. Since the king 32 had no son the ministers, who rejoiced over his deed on hearing that he was the king's grandson and on recognizing 33 his mother, met all together and said of one accord to the prince Sihabahu cBe thou (our) king'.

And he accepted the kingship but handed it over then to 34 his mother's husband and he himself went with Slhaslvall to the land of his birth. There he built a city, and they called 35 it Slhapura, and in the forest stretching a hundred yojanas around he founded villages. In the kingdom of Lala, in that 36 city did Sihabahu, ruler of men, hold sway when he had made Slhaslvall his queen. As time passed on his consort bore twin 37 sons sixteen times, the eldest was named Vijaya, the second 38 Sumitta; together there were thirty-two sons. In time the king consecrated Vijaya as prince-regent.

Vijaya was of evil conduct and his followers were even (like 39 himself), and many intolerable deeds of violence were done by them. Angered by this the people told the matter to the 40 king; the king, speaking persuasively to them, severely blamed his son. But all fell out again as before, the second 41 and yet the third time; and the angered people said to the king: < Kill thy son.'

Then did the king cause Vijaya and his followers, seven 42' hundred men, to be shaven over half the head1 and put them 43

1 The shaving of the hair signifies loss of freedom. In Sinhalese mltji (= Sfcr. mmjdita 'shaven *) means * slave*.54 MaMvamsa VI. 44

on a ship and sent them forth upon the sea, and their wives

44 and children also. The men, women, and children sent forth separately landed separately, each (company) upon an

45 island, and they dwelt even there. The island where the children landed was called Naggadlpa1 and the island where

46 the women landed Mahiladrpaka.2 But Vijaya landed at the haven called Supparaka,3 but being there in danger by reason of the violence of his followers he embarked again.

47 The prince named VIJAYA, the valiant, landed in Lanka, in the region called Tambapanni on the day that the Tathagata lay down between the two twinlike sala-trees to pass into nibbana.

Here ends the sixth chapter, called c The Coming of Vijaya', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 That is, ' Island of children,' from nagga ' naked'.

2 That is, * Island of women.1

8 Skt. ^urparaka, situated on the west coast of India, now Sopara in tlae Thana District, north of Bombay. See Imp. Gazetteer of India, s.v.CHAPTER VII


the Guide of the World, having1 accomplished the l salvation of the whole world and having reached the utmost stage of blissful rest, was lying on the bed of his nibbana, in the midst of the great assembly of gods, he, the great sage/ 2 the greatest of those who have speech, spoke to Sakka * who stood there near him: ' Vijaya, son of king Sihabahu, is come 3 to Lanka from the country of Lala, together with seven hundred followers. In Lanka, O lord of gods, will my 4 religion be established, therefore carefully protect him with his followers and Lanka/

"When the lord of gods heard the words of the Tathagata 5 he from respect handed over the guardianship of Lanka to the god who is in colour like the lotus.2

And no sooner had the god received the charge from 6 Sakka than he came speedily to Lanka and sat down at the foot of a tree in the guise of a wandering ascetic. And all 7 the followers of Vijaya came to him and asked him : c What island is this,, sir ?' 'The island of Lanka/ he answered. * There are no men here, and here no dangers will arise.* 8 And when he had spoken so and sprinkled water on them from his water-vessel, and had wound a thread about their hands 3 9 he vanished through the air. And there appeared, in the form, of a bitch^ a yakkhim who was an attendant (of Kuvanna).4

1 A name of Indra, king of the gods.

2 Devass' uppalavannassa, that Is Visnu. The allusion is to

the colour of the BLUE lotus (uppala).

3 As a paritta, that is as a protecting charm, against the influence of demons.

4 The Tika says: Kuvannaya Sisapati-namika paricari-kayakkhini. The Kambodian Mah. also gives the same name Sisap-atika.56 Matiavamsa VII. 10

10 One (of Vijaya's men) went after her, although he was forbidden by the prince (for he thought), < Only where there

11 is a village are dogs to be found.' Her mistress, a yakkhim named Kuvanna, sat there l at the foot of a tree spinning; as a woman-hermit might.

12 When the man saw the pond and the woman-hermit sitting there, he bathed there and drank and taking young shoots of

13 lotuses and water in lotus-leaves he came forth again. And she said to him : ' Stay ! thou art my prey I' Then the man

14 stood there as if fast bound. But because of the power of the magic thread she could not devour him, and though he was entreated by the yakkhim, the man would not yield up

15 the thread. Then the yakkhim seized him, and hurled him who cried aloud into a chasm. And there in like manner she hurled (all) the seven hundred one by one after him.

16 And when they all did not return fear came on Vijaya; armed with the five weapons 2 he set out, and when he beheld

17 the beautiful pond, where he saw no footstep of any man coming forth, but saw that woman-hermit there, he thought:

18 c Surely my men have been seized by this woman/ And he said to her, f Lady, hast thou not seen my men ?' c What dost thou want with thy people, prince ?' she answered. f Drink thou and bathe/

19 Then was it clear to him : * This is surely a yakkhim, she knows my rank/ and swiftly,, uttering his name, he came at

20 her drawing his bow. He caught the yakkhiru in the noose about the neck, and seizing her hair with his left hand he

21 lifted his sword in the right and cried: 22 the yakkhim prayed him for her life. ' Spare my life, sir, I will give thee a kingdom and do thee a woman's service and other service as thou wilt.*

23 And that he might not be betrayed he made the yakkhim swear an oath, and so soon as the charge was laid on her, c Bring hither my men with all speed/ she brought them to

3 There, that IE where Vijaya's man followed the bitch.

2 Naddhapancayndho. The five weapons are, according to

CLOUGH, sword, bowt battle-axe, spear, and shield.VII. 35 The Consecrating of Vijaya 57

that place. When he said, c These men are hungry/ she 24 showed them rice and other (foods) and goods of every kind that had been in the ships of those traders whom she had devoured.

(ViJava's) men prepared the rice and the condiments, and 25 when they had first set them before the prince they all ate of them.

1When the yakkhinl had tat en the first portions (of the 26 meal) that Vijaya handed to her, she was well pleased, and assuming the lovely form of a sixteen-year-old maiden she 27 approached the prince adorned with all the ornaments. At the foot of a tree she made a splendid bed, well-covered 28 around with a tent, and adorned with a canopy. And seeing this, the king's son, looking forward to the time to come, took her to him as his spouse and lay (with her) blissfully on 29 that bed; and all his men encamped around the tent.

As the night went on he heard the sounds of music and 30 singing, and asked the yakkhini, who was lying near him.: < What means this noise ? ' And the yakkhini thought: c I 31 will bestow kingship on my lord and all the yakkhas must be slain, for (else) the yakkhas will slay me, for it was through me that men have taken up their dwelling (in Lanka).*2

And she said to the prince : ' Here there is a yakkha-eity 32 called Sirisavatthu; the daughter of the chief of the yakkhas 3 33 who dwells in the city of Lanka has been brought hither, and her mother too is come.4 And for the wedding there is 34 high festival, lasting seven days; therefore there is this noise, for a great multitude is gathered together. Even to-day 35

1 Instead of verses 26-84 the later (Sinhalese) recension has a somewhat divergent reading, the text of which is printed in my edition, p. 326 foil. Appendix A. Cf. ibid*, Introd., p. xxxiv.

2 To manussavasakarana 'because of (my) bringing1 about a settlement of men', the Tika adds the words imasmim dipe 'in this island'.

3 Lit.' of the eldest yakkha/

* The Tika calls the bride's father Mahakalasena, the bride Pola-mitta, the mother Gonda. The names Kalasena and Polamitta occur also in the Kamb, Mah.58 Mahavamsa

VII, 36

do thou destroy the yakkhas, for afterwards it will no longer he possible.'

He replied: ' How can I slay the yakkhas who are in-

36 visible? ' ' "Wheresoever they maybe/ she said, e I will utter cries, and where thou shalt hear that sound, strike ! and by my magic power shall thy weapon fall upon their bodies/

37 Since he listened to her and did even (as she said) .he slew all the yakkhas, and when he had fought victoriously he

38 himself put on the garments of the yakkha-king and bestowed the other raiment on one and another of his followers.

When he had spent some days at that spot he went to

39 Tambapanni. There Vijaya founded the city of Tambapanni and dwelt there, together with the yakkhim, surrounded by his ministers.

40 When those who were commanded by Vijaya landed from their ship, they sat down wearied, resting their hands upon the

41 ground?and since their hands were reddened by touching the dust of the red earth1 that region and also the island were

42 (named) Tambapanni.2 But the king Sihabahu, since he had slain the lion (was called) Slhala and, by reason of the ties between him and them, all those (followers of Vijaya) were also (called) Slhala.

43 Here and there did Vijaya's ministers found villages. Anuradhagama was built by a man of that name near the

44 Kadamba river; 3 the chaplain Upatissa built Upatissagama 4 on the bank of the Gambhira river, to the north of Anu-

45 radhagama. Three other ministers built, each for himself, Ujjeni, Uruvela, and the city of Vijita.5

1 The soil of Ceylon is composed of laterit which crumbles iato a red dust.

2 A play on the word tambapani, red hand.

3 Now Malwatte-oya which flows by the ruins of Anuradhapnra.

4 This is probahly to be sought on one of the right-hank tributaries of the lower Malwatte-oya. According to Mah. 28. 7 the Gambhira-nadi flows 1 yojana (i. e. 7-8 miles) north of Anuradhapura.

5 According to tradition the remains of the city of Yijita exist as those ruins which lie not far from the Kalu-wsewa (Kalavapi) about 24 miles south of Anuradhapura in the jungle. TENNENT, Ceylon, ii, p. 602 foil. I think the tradition is right, although PARKER,TIL 58 The Consecrating of Vijaya 59

When they had founded settlements in the land the ministers 46 all came together and spoke thus to the prince: f Sire, consent to be consecrated as king/ But,, in spite of their demand, 47 the prince refused the consecration, unless a maiden of a noble house were consecrated as queen (at the same time).

But the ministers, whose minds were eagerly bent upon the 48 consecrating of their lord, and who, although the means were difficult, had overcome all anxious fears about the matter, 49 sent people, entrusted with many precious gifts, jewels, pearls, and so forth, to the city of Madhura1 in southern (India), to 50 woo the daughter of the Pandu king for their lord, devoted (as they were) to their ruler; and they also (sent to woo) the daughters of others for the ministers and retainers.

When the messengers were quickly come by ship to the 51 city of Madhura they laid the gifts and letter before the king. The king took counsel with his ministers, and since he was 52 minded to send his daughter (to Lanka) he, having first received also daughters of others for the ministers (of Vijaya), 53 nigh upon a hundred maidens, proclaimed with beat of drum: £ Those men here who are willing to let a daughter depart for Lanka shall provide their daughters with a double store of 54 clothing and place them at the doors of their houses. By this sign shall we (know that we may) take them to ourselves/

When he had thus obtained many maidens and had given 55 compensation to their families, he sent his daughter, bedecked with all her ornaments, and all that was needful for the journey,2 and all the maidens whom he had fitted out, accord- 56 ing to their rank, elephants withal and horses and waggons, worthy of a king, and craftsmen and a thousand families of 57 the eighteen guilds, entrusted with a letter to the conqueror Vijaya. All this multitude of men disembarked at 58

Ancient Ceylon, p. 237 foil., identifies Vijitapura with a suburb of Polannarawa mentioned in the twelfth century A. B. As to the site of Uruvela see 28. 36 and note.

1 Now Madura, in the south of the Madras Presidency.

3 TheTikaexplains saparicchadam by paribhogabhandikam

samakutappisadlianikara va. Cf. Skt. paricchada.60 Mahavamsa YIL 59

Mahatittha; for that very reason is that landing-place known as Mahatittha.1

59 Vijaya had one son and one daughter by the yakkhinl; when he now heard that the princess had arrived he said to

60 the yakkhinl: 'Go thou now,, dear one, leaving the two children behind; men are ever in fear of superhuman beings/

61 But when she heard this she was seized with fear o£ the yakkhas; then he said (again) to the yakkhinl: c Delay not! I will bestow on thee an offering2 by (spending)

62 a thousand (pieces of money)/ When she had again and again besought him (in vain) she took her two children and departed for Lankapura, though fearing that evil should come of it.

63 She set the children down outside and went, herself, into that city. When the yakkhas in the city recognized the

64 yakkhini, in their terror they took her for a spy and there was great stir among them; but one who was violent killed the yakkhinl with a single blow of his fist.

65 But her uncle., on the mother's side, a yakkha, went forth from the city and when he saw the children he asked them:

66 eWhose children are you?'' and hearing that they were Kuvanna/s he said: c Here has your mother been slain, and they will slay you also if they see you: (therefore) flee swiftly!'

67 Fleeing with speed they went from thence to the Sumana-kuta.3 The brother, the elder of the two, when he grew up

68 took his sister, the younger, for his wife, and multiplying1 with sons and daughters, they dwelt, with the king's leave, there in Malaya.4 From these are sprung- the Pulinda.5

1 I. e. ' the great landing-place '; now Mantota opposite the island Manaar.

2 Since Kuvanna is a yakkhim, she must receive like the devatas a "ball or religious offering, oblation.

3 I. e. Adam's Peak.

4 The central mountain-region in the interior of Ceylon.

5 Pulinda, a designation of barbarous tribes, is here evidently a name of the Wseddas. The tract of country inland between Colombo 9 Kaiutam, Galle and the mountains is now called Sabaragamuwa from Skt. sabara; p. savara, a synonym of pulinda.VIT. 74 The Consecrating of Vijaya 61

The envoys of the Pandu king delivered up to the prince 69 Vijaya the gifts and the (maidens) with the king's daughter at their head. "When Vijaya had offered hospitality and bestowed 70 honours on the envoys he bestowed the maidens, according to their rank, upon his ministers and retainers. According to 71 custom the ministers in full assembly consecrated Vijaya king and appointed a great festival.

Then king Vijaya consecrated the daughter of the Pandu 72 king with solemn ceremony as his queen; he bestowed wealth 73 on his ministers, and every year he sent to his wife's father a shell-pearl worth twice a hundred thousand (pieces of money).

When he had forsaken his former evil way of life, Vijaya, 74 the lord of men, ruling over all Lanka in peace and righteousness reigned,, as is known, in the city of Tambapanni, thirty-eight years.

Here ends the seventh chapter, called ' The Consecrating of Vijaya', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.CHAPTEK VIII


1 THE great king Vijaya,, being in the last year (of his life), bethought him: f I am old and there lives no son of mine.

2 The kingdom peopled with (such great) difficulty may come to naught after my death; therefore would I fain have my brother Sumitta brought here (that I may give) the govern-

:i ment (into his hands).' When he had taken counsel with his ministers he sent a letter to him, and within a short time after Vijaya had sent the letter he passed away to the celestial world.

4 When he was dead the ministers ruled, dwelling in Upatissa-

5 gilina while they awaited the coming of the prince. After the death of king Vijaya and before the coming of the prince was our island of Lanka kingless for a year.

C In Slhapura, after the death of king Sihabaho, his son

7 Sumitta was king; he had three sons by the daughter of the Madda1 king. The messengers coming to Slhapura handed

8 the letter to the king. When he had heard the letter the king spoke thus to his three sons: f I am old, dear ones; one

9 of you must depart for the greatly favoured and beauteous Laiilcfi belonging to my brother, and there, after his death, aniline (the sovereignty of) that fair kingdom/

10 The kind's youngest son, the prince Panduvasudeva, thought: e 1 will go thitlier.1 And when he had assured himself

1! «?f the success of his journey2 and empowered by his father, he took with him thirty-two of ministers and embarked

12 {with them) in the disguise of mendicant monks. They landed

1 Mad da » Ski Madra, now Madras.

* N*itv£ Botthiip gatimhi ca (by asking the soothsayers). Tiki: Rfruittikavacaneneva janltvi * knowing from the word of theviii. 22 The Consecrating of Panduvasudeva 63

at the month o£ the Mahakandara1 river; when the people saw these mendicant monks they received them with due respect.

When they had inquired about the capital, they arrived 13 gradually approaching (the city), at Upatissagama, protected by the devatas. Now a minister there, charged by the 14 (other) ministers, had questioned a soothsayer concerning the coming of the prince, and he had furthermore2 foretold him : c Just on the seventh day will the prince come and one who 15 shall spring of his house shall establish (here) the religion of the Buddha/ Now when the ministers saw the mendicant monks 16 arrive there, just on the seventh day, and inquiring1 into the matter recognized them, they entrusted Panduvasudeva with 17 the sovereignty of Lanka ; but since he lacked a consort he did not yet receive the solemn consecration.

A son of the Sakka Amitodana was the Sakka Pandu. 18 Since he heard that the Sakyas would (shortly) be destroyed 3 he took his followers with him and went to another tract of 19 land on the further side of the Ganges and founded a city there and ruled there as king. He had seven sons.

His youngest daughter was called Bhaddakaccana. She 20 was (even as) a woman made of gold,4 fair of form, and eagerly wooed. For (love of) her did seven kings send precious gifts 21 to the king (Pandu), but for fear of the kings, and since he was told (by soothsayers) that an auspicious journey would 22

1 Not identified. Probably one of the rivers falling into the sea north of Manaar.

2 That is, besides the fact of Panduvasudeva's coming he had foretold the details that follow.

3 The Sakyas were annihilated in war by the Kosala king Vidu-dabha, shortly before the death of the Buddha; see RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 11. This catastrophe is foretold to Pandu by soothsayers. Tika: Yidudhabhayuddhato puretaram eva nemittikavacaneneva Sakyanam bhavitabbam vinasam janitva ti attho 'Since he knew, even before the war with Yidudabha, by the word of the soothsayers the future destruction of the Sakyas'.

* The golden colour of the skin always, in Sinhalese poems, counts for a mark of particular beauty. Kusajat. 172: ran-ruwak kara-gena. As a designation of beautiful women ran-liya 'golden creeper' is employed at Sselalihinisandesa 55 ; Kusajat. 557.64 Mahavamsa, VIIT. 23

come to pass, nay, one with the result of royal consecration, he placed his daughter speedily upon a ship, together with

23 thirty-two women-friends, and launched the ship upon the Ganges, saying: 'Whosoever can, let him take my daughter/ And they could not overtake her, but the ship fared swiftly thence.

24 Already on the second day they reached the haven called

25 Gonagamakal and there they landed robed like nuns. When they had inquired about the capital, they arrived gradually approaching (the city), at Upatissagama, protected by the devatas.2

26 One of the ministers who had heard the saying of a soothsayer, saw the women come, and inquiring into the

27 matter recognized them and brought them to the king. So his ministers, full of pious understanding, consecrated as their king PANDUVASUBEVA, whose every wish was fulfilled.

28 When he had consecrated Subhaddakaccana, of noble stature, as his own queen, and had given those (maidens) who had arrived with her to the followers who had come with him, the monarch lived happily.

Here ends the eighth chapter, called ' The Consecrating of Panduvasudeva'; in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene

joy and emotion of the pious.

1 At the mouth of the Mahakandara-nadi. Cf. 8. 12.

2 The wording is exactly like v. IB, in order to lay stress on the parallel in the proceedings. In the same way v. 26 is based on

w. 14 and 16.CHAPTER IX


THE queen bore ten sons and one daughter: the eldest of 1 all was named Abhaya3 the youngest (child, the) daughter was named Citta. When the brahrnans skilled in sacred texts saw 2 her they foretold: e For the sake of sovereignty will her son slay his uncles/ When the brothers resolved : c let us kill our 3 young sister/ Abhaya restrained them.

In due time they lodged her in a chamber having but one pillar, and the entry thereto they made through the 4 king's sleeping-chamber; and within they placed a serving-woman, and a hundred soldiers without. But since she 5 (Citta) drove men mad by the mere sight of her beauty,, the name given to her was lengthened by an epithet f Umma-dacitta'.1

When they heard of the coming of the princess Bhadda- 6 kaccana to Lanka her brothers also,2 except one, urged by their mother, departed thither.

When on arriving they had visited the ruler of Lanka/7 Panduvasudeva and their youngest sister too and had lamented with her/they, hospitably received by the king and having 8 the king's leave, went about the island of Lanka and took up their abode wheresoever it pleased them.4

The place where Sanaa settled is called E/amagona, the 9 settlements of Uruvela and Anuradha (are called) by their names, and the settlements of Vijita, Dig-hayu, and Eohana 10 are named Vijitagama, Dlghayu, and Rohana.5 Anuradha 11

1 The allusion is to ummadeti 'makes mad'.

2 Putt a, literally; * the sons,' that is, of the Sakya Panclu.

3 Probably over the fate of Ummadaeitta.

4 Carirnsu belongs to carikam and nivasam both.

5 Cf. 7.43 foil, where the names Anuradha, Uruvela, and Vijita also appear. Evidently we have to do with a diiferent tradition as to the foundation of the same cities. *66

Mahavamsa ix. 32

built a tank and when he had built a palace to the south of

12 this he took up his abode there. Afterwards the great king Panduvasudeva consecrated his eldest son Abhaya as vice-


13 When the son of prince Dighayii, Dighagamanl, heard of 1 4 Ummadacitta he went, driven by longing for her, to Upatissa-

gama, and there sought out the ruler of the land. And this (latter) appointed him together with the vice-regent, to service at the royal court.

15 Now (once) Citta saw Gamani in the place where he stood opposite her window, and, her heart on fire with love, she

16 asked her serving- woman : 'Who is that?* When she heard: ( He is the son of thy uncle/ she trusted the matter to her

1 7 attendant and he, being in league with her,, fastened a hook-

ladder to the window in the night,1 climbed up, broke the window and so came in.

18 So he had intercourse with her and did not go forth till break of day. And he returned there constantly, nor was he discovered, for there was no entry (to the chamber) .

19 And she became with child by him, and when the fruit of her womb was ripe the serving-woman told her mother, and

20 the mother, having questioned her daughter^ told the king. The king took counsel with his sons and said : f He too 2 must be received among us ; let us give her (in marriage) to him/

2 1 And saying : ' If it is a son we will slay him * ; they gave

her to him.

But she, when the time of her delivery was come near,

22 went to the lying-in-chamber. And thinking : * These were accomplices in the matter/ the princes, from fear, did to death

23 the herdsman Citta and the slave Kalavela, attendants on GSmani, since they would make no promise.3 They were

gasapetva raitixn kakkatayantakam, lit.

* making a crab-machine to bite on to the window*. .For explanation of this see Man. ed., lutrod., p. xxvi.

s So pi, namely, Dighagamani.

8 Patifinam adente, that is, they would not fall in with the ile*iga of the brothers to kill the "boy who might perhaps come into the world, Cf. Mah. ed.s Introd., p. xviix. 29 The Consecrating of Abhaya, 67

reborn as yakthas and both kept guard over the child in the mother's womb. And Citta made her attendant find another 24 woman who was ngar her delivery. And Citta bore a son but this woman bore a daughter, Citta caused a thousand (pieces 25 of money) to be handed over to (the other) tog-ether with her own sonj and the latter's daughter to he then brought to her and laid beside her. When the Mng's sons heard 'a daughter 26 is born *3 they were well pleased; but the two, mother and grandmother, joining the names of the grandfather and the 27 eldest uncle gave the boy the name Pandukabhaya.

The ruler of Lanka^ Pariduvasudeva, reigned thirty years. 28 When Pandukabhaya was born,, he died.

When the ruler was dead, the king's sons all assembled 29 together and held the great festival of consecration of their brothers the safety-giving ABHAYA.1

Here ends the ninth chapter^ called ' The Consecrating of Abhaya'j, in the Mahavarnsa,; compiled for the serene joy

and emotion of the pious.

1 A play on the word athaya 'the fearless', and abhayada * bestowing- fearlessness, freedom from danger, or security *.CHAPTEE X


1 (As) commanded by TJmmadacitta the serving-woman took the boy, laid Mm in a basket and went with him to Dvara-mandalaka.1

2 When the princes, who had gone a-hunting in the Tumbara forest saw the serving-woman they asked her: (Where art

3 thou going ? What is that ? ' She answered : e I am going to Dvaramandalaka; that is a sweet cake for my daughter.'

4 The princes said to her: ' Take it out/ Then Citta and Kalavela who had come forth to protect (the boy) caused a

5 great boar to appear at that moment. The princes pursued him; but she took (the boy) and went thither and gave the boy and a thousand (pieces of money) secretly to a certain

6 man who was entrusted (with the matter). On that very day his wife bore a son, and he, declaring: c My wife has borne twin sons/ reared that boy (with his own).

7 The (boy) was already seven years old when his uncles found out (where he was) and charged followers of theirs to kill (with

8 him) the boys playing in a certain pond. Now the boy was used to hide, by diving, in a certain hollow tree standing in the water and having the mouth of the hollow hidden under

9 water, entering by the hollow, and when he had stayed long within he would come forth in the same way, and being again among the other boys, however much they questioned him, he would mislead them with evasive words.

10 On the day the (princes') people came1 the boy with his clothes on dived into the water and stayed hidden in

11 the hollow tree. When those men had counted the clothes and

1 According to Hah. 23. 23 the village in situated near the Cetiya-mountain (Mihintale), east of Anuridhapnxa. 1 See Mali, ed., Introd*, p. Hii.x. 25 The Consecrating of PanduJctibJiaya 69

killed the other boys they went away and declared: ' The boys have all been killed I' When they were gone that (boy) went 12 to his foster-father's l house,, and comforted by him he lived on there to the age of twelve years.

When his uncles again heard that the boy was alive they 13 charged (their followers) to kill all the herdsmen. Just on 14 that day the herdsmen had taken a deer and sent the boy into the village to bring fire. He went home, but sent his foster- 15 father s son out saying: ' I am footsore, take thou fire for the herdsmen; then thou too wilt have some of the roast to eat/ 16 Hearing those words he took fire to the herdsmen: and at 17 that moment those (men) despatched to do it surrounded the herdsmen and killed them all, and when they had killed them they (went and) told (the boy's) uncles.

Then, when he was sixteen years old, his uncles discovered 18 him; his mother sent him a thousand (pieces of money) and a command to bring him to (a place of) safety.2 His foster- 19 father told him all his mother's message, and giving him a slave and the thousand (pieces of money) he sent him to Pandula. The brahman named Pandula, a rich man and learned 20 in the vedas, dwelt in the southern district in (the village) Pandulagamaka. The prince went thither and sought out the 21 brahman Pandula. When this latter had asked him : e Art thou Pandukabhaya, my dear?' and was answered f Yes', he 22 paid him honour (as a guest) and said : c Thou wilt be king, and full seventy years wilt thou rule; learn the art,3 my dear P 23 and he instructed him, and by his son Canda 4 also that art was mastered in a short time.

He gave him a hundred thousand (pieces of money) to enrol 24 soldiers and when five hundred men had been enrolled by him (he said): ' The (woman) at whose touch leaves turn to gold 25

1 Ayottaorayuttaka 'tne man entrusted (with the bringing- up)'.

38 Tassa rakkham cadisi, lit. *and disposed (or commanded) his protection *.

9 Sippam ugganha, in this case fthe art* is the knowledge needed by a reigning prince.

* Candena eassa puttena belongs, according to the Tfka, to sippam saxnapitani.70 MaMvamsa x. 26

26 make thou thy queen, and my son Canda thy chaplain/ When he had thus said and given him money he sent him forth from thence with his soldiers. Proclaiming his name he, the

27 virtuous prince, fared forth and when in the city of Pana near the Kasa-mountainl he had gathered together seven hundred

28 followers and provision for all,, he went thence, followed by one thousand two hundred men to the mountain called Giri-kanda.

29 An uncle of Pandukabhaya, named Girikandasiva, drew his revenues from this district that Panduvasudeva had handed

30 over to him. This prince was even then on the point of reaping (a field) measuring a hundred karlsas; his daughter was

31 the beautiful princess named Pall. And she, with a great retinue, had mounted her splendid waggon, and came bring-

32 ing food for her father and for the reapers. The prince's men, who saw the princess there, told the prince (about

33 her); the prince coming thither in haste and dividing her followers into two bands, throve his own waggon, followed by his men, near her and asked: e Where art thou going ?y

34 And when she had told him all the prince, whose heart was fired with love, asked for a share of the food.

35 She stepped down from the waggon and, at the foot of a banyan-tree, she offered the prince food in a golden bowl.

36 Then she took banyan-leaves to entertain the rest of the people (with food) and in an instant the leaves were changed into

37 golden vessels. When the prince saw this and remembered the brahman's words he was glad (thinking): ' I have found the

38 maiden who is worthy to be made queen/ So she entertained them all, but yet the food became not less; it seemed that but

39 one man^s portion had been taken away. Thus from that time onward that youthful princess who was so rich in virtues and merit was called by the name SuvannapalL

40 And the prince took the maiden and mounted his waggon

onward, fearless and surrounded by a mighty army.

1 ProbaWy near the modem Kahagalagama * village of the mountain", about 18 miles SE. from Anaradhapura, and 10 WNW. from the mountain Eitigala. See also 25. 50, and

the Appendix C on Pa^ukSbhaya's, campaigns.x. 53 The Consecrating of PandukabJiaya, 71

When her father heard this he despatched all his soldiers, and 41 they came and gave battle and returned, defeated by the 42 others; at that place (afterwards) a village was built called Kalahanagara.1 When her five brothers heard this they (also) departed to make war. And all those did Canda the son of 43 Pandula slay j Lohitavahakhanda 2 was their battle-field.

With a great host Pandukabhaya marched from thence to 44 the further shore of the Ganga 3 toward the Dola-mountain. Here he sojourned four years. When his uncles heard that he 45 was there they marched thither, leaving the king behind, to do battle with him. When they had made a fortified camp 46 near the Dhumarakkha-mountain they fought a battle with their nephew. But the nephew pursued the uncles to this side 47 of the river, and having defeated them in flight he held their fortified camp for two years.

And they went to Upatissagama and told all this to the 48 king. And the king sent the prince a letter together with a thousand (pieces of money) saying : £ Keep thou possession of 49 the land on the further shore, but come not over to this shore.' When the nine brothers heard of this they were wroth with the king and said: 'Long hast thou been, in truth, a helper 50 to him i Now dost thou give him the kingdom. For that we will put thee to death.' He yielded up the government to 51 them, and with one accord they appointed their brother named Tissa to be regent.

This safety-giving Abhaya4 had reigned as king in Upatis- 52 sagama twenty years.

Now a yakkhinl named Cetiya, who dwelt on the Dhuma- 53

1 I. e. Battle-town. A Kalahagala lies to the south of Mineri-Tank (Manihlra), not far from the left bank of the Ambanganga, which flows into the Mahawseliganga lower down. Census of Ceylon, 1901, iv, pp. 468-469.

2 Lit. perhaps * Field of the stream of blood'.

8 I.e. MahagangI, nowMahawseliganga. Pa raganga means, from the standpoint of the narrator (at Anuradhapura), the right, oraganga 'this side ', the left bank of the Mahawaeliganga. As to the Dolapabbata (now Dolagal-wela), see Appendix C.

4 See note to 9. 29,72 MaMwmsa x. 54

rakkha-roountainl near the pond (called) Tumbariyangana, used to wander about in the form o£ a mare.

54 And once a certain man saw this beautiful (mare) with her white body and red feet and told the prince : ' Here is a mare whose appearance is thus and so?'

55 The prince took a noose and came to capture her. When she saw him coming1 up behind her she fled for fear of his majestic

56 aspect. She fled without rendering herself invisible and he pursued her swiftly as she fled. Seven times in her flight she

57 circled round the pond,, and plunging into the Mahaganga and climbing forth again to the shore she fled seven times around

58 the Dhumarakkha-mountain; and yet three times more she circled round the pond and plunged yet again in the Ganga

59 near the Kacchaka-ford,2 but there he seized her by the mane and (grasped) a palm-leaf that was floating down the stream ;

60 by the effect of his merit this turned into a great sword. He thrust at her with the sword, crying: ' I will slay thee/ And she said to him : ' I will conquer the kingdom and give it to

61 thee, lord! Slay me not! * Then he seized her by the neck and boring her nostrils with the point of his sword he secured her thus with a rope; but she followed wheresoever he would.

62 When the mighty (hero) had gone to the Dhumarakkha-moraitain, bestriding the mare, he dwelt there on the Dhuma-

63 rakkha-mountain four years. And having marched thence with his force and come to the Arittha-mountain 3 he sojourned there seven years awaiting a fit time to make'war.

64 Eight of his uncles, leaving two behind,4 drew near to the

65 Arittha-mountain ia battle array, and when they had laid out a fortified camp near a small city and had placed a commander at the head they surrounded the Arittha-mountain on every side.

1 According to v. 82 foil, not far from the Kacchakatittha (see note to v. 58), on the left bank of the Mahawseliganga. The Dhuma-is also mentioned, Hah. 37.203 (= 163 of the Colombo edition ii)»

a Cf. 28.17 and 25.12. Now Hahagantota, a ford below the place where Amlmnganga and Mabawseliganga join. See note to 35. 58.

a Now Rifigala, North-Central Province, north of Habarana.

* Abhaya and Glrikaa$asim.x. 79 The Consecrating ofPandukab'haya 73

After speech with the yakkhim, the prince, according to 66 her cunning1 counsel, sent in advance a company of his soldiers taking with them kingly apparel and weapons as presents and the message: 'Take all this; I*will make peace with you/ 67 But as they were lulled to security thinking: e We will take 68 him prisoner if he comes/ he mounted the yakkha-mare and went forth to battle at the head of a great host. The 69 yakkhim neighed full loudly and his army, inside and outside (the camp) * raised a mighty battle-cry. The prince's men 70 killed all the soldiers of the enemy^s army and the eight uncles with them, and they raised a pyramid of skulls. The 71 commander escaped and fled (for safety) to a thicket; that (same thicket) is therefore called Senapatigumbaka. When 72 the prince saw the pyramid of skulls, where the skulls of his uncles lay uppermost, he said : ' 'Tis like a heap of gourds *; and therefore they named (the place) Labugamaka.2

When he was thus left victor in battle, Pandukabhaya 73 went thence to the dwelling-place of his great-uncle Anuradha. The great-uncle handed over his palace to him and built 74 himself a dwelling elsewhere; but he dwelt in his house. When he had inquired of a soothsayer who was versed in the 75 knowledge of (fitting) sites, he founded the capital, even near that village. Since it had served as dwelling to two Anuradhas, 76 it was called Anuradhapura, and also because it was founded under the constellation Anuradha. When he had caused the 77 (state) parasol of his uncles to be brought and purified in a natural pond that is here,3 PANDUKABHAYA kept it for himself and with the water of that same pond he solemnized 78 his own consecration; and Suvannapall, his spouse^ he consecrated queen. On the young Canda, even as he had agreed, 7 9

1 I. e. the soldiers he had sent in advance into the enemy's camp and the army approaching now with him.

2 I.e. * Village of Gourds."1 Even now we find on the map, to the north-west of the Ritigala, a place called Labunoruwa = p. labuna-garaka. Of. Return of Architectural and Archaeological Remains . .. existing in Ceylon, 1890, p. 76; Census of Ceylon, 1901, vol. iv, p. 464.

3 Idha, i.e. in Anuradbapura, the residence of the chronicler.74 Mahavamsa X. so

he conferred the office of his chaplain and other appointments on his other followers according to their merits.

80 Because his mother and he himself had been befriended by him, he did not slay the king Abhaya> his eldest uncle, but

81 handed over the government to him for the night-time: he became the 'Nagaraguttika* (Guardian of the City). From that

82 time onward there were nagaraguttikas in the capital. His father-in-law also, Girikandasiva, he did not slay but handed

83 over to this uncle the district of Girikanda. He had the pondl deepened and abundantly filled with water^ and since he had taken water therefrom., when victorious (for his consecration), they called it Jayavapi.2

84 He settled the yakkha Kalavela on the east side of the city, the yakkha Cittaraja at the lower end of the Abhaya-

85 tank.3 The slave-woman who had helped him in time past and was re-born of a yakkhini, the thankful (king) settled at

86 the south gate of the City. Within the royal precincts he housed the yakkhini in the form of a mare. Year by year he

87 had sacrificial offerings made to them and to other (yakkhas); but on festival-days he sat with Cittaraja beside him on a seat of equal height, and having gods and men to dance before

88 him, the king took his pleasure, in joyous and merry wise.

He laid out also four suburbs as well as the Abhaya-tank,

89 the common cemetery, the place of execution, and the chapel of the Queens of the West, the banyan-tree of Vessavana 4 and

90 the Palmyra-palm of the Demon of Maladies/ the ground set apart for the Yonas and the house of the Great Sacrifice ; all these he laid out near the west gate.6

1 I. e. the pond in Anuritdhapura, mentioned in v. 77, Since the

old name has been changed, it is impossible to identify the Jaya?IpL

s L e. the tank of victory.

3 See v* 88. The Ahhaya-vapi which was laid out by the king Pantjukabbaya himself, is the tank now called Basawak-kulam. PABKER, Ancient Ceylon, p. 360 foil.

* I.e. of Kuhera, god of wealth (Skt. VaitSravana), who is here considered as a chthonian god.

6 Or the God of the Huntsmen, according to the reading vySdhu.-devassa,

s On the various buildings and foundations mentioned in 89 90,x. 104 The Consecrating of PanduMlJiaya 75

He set five hundred candalas to the work of cleaning the 91 (streets of the) town, two hundred candalas to the work of cleaning the sewers, one hundred and fifty candalas he em- 92 ployed to bear the dead and as many candalas to be watchers in the cemetery. For these he built a village north-west 93 of the cemetery and they continually carried out their duty as it was appointed.

Toward the north-east of the candala-village he made the 94 cemetery, called the Lower Cemetery, for the eandala folk. North of this cemetery., between (it and) the Pasana-mountain, 95 the line of huts for the huntsmen were built thenceforth. Northward from thence, as far as the Gamani-tank,1 a her- 96 mitage was made for many ascetics; eastward of thafc same 97 cemetery the ruler built a house for the nigantha2 Jotiya. In that same region dwelt the nigantha named Giri and 93 many ascetics of various heretical sects. And there the lord 99 of the land built also a chapel for the nigantha Kurabhanda; it was named after him* Toward the west from thence and 100 eastward of the street of the huntsmen lived five hundred families of heretical beliefs. On the further side of Jotiya's 101 house and on this side of the Gamani-tank he likewise built a monastery for wandering mendicant monks, and a dwelling 102 for the ajivakas and a residence for the brahmans, and in this place and that he built a lying-in shelter and a hall3 for those recovering from sickness.

Ten. years after his consecration did Pandukabhaya the 103 ruler of Lanka establish the village-boundaries over the whole of the island of Lanka. With Kalavela and Cittaraja, 104

see Mali. ed.? Introdn p. liv. Since the Tika leaves us in the lurch it will be difficult to add anything farther.

1 The Ganxanivapi is perhaps the KaramMwa-tank which lies somewhat more than a mile north from the Bulan.-kulam. PAEKEK, however, identifies it with the Peramiyan-kulam. Ancient Ceylon, p. 364.

2 Hame of a sect of ascetics (the Jaina) who went about naked.

s According to the Tika we have to take sivlka-sotthisalam as sivikaealam ca sotthisalam ca. The former word is explained by vijayanaghara'house of delivery', the latter by gilanasala * hall for the sick \76 MaMvamsa x. 105

who were visible (in bodily form) the prince enjoyed -his good

105 fortune, he who had yakkhas and bhutas I for friends. Between the king Pandukabhaya and Abhaya were seventeen

years without a king.

106 When the ruler of the earth, Pandukabhaya,, the intelligent, being thirty-seven years old, had assumed the rule over the kingdom, he reigned full seventy years in fair and wealthy2 Anuradhapura.

Here ends the tenth chapter, called ' The Consecrating of Pandukabhaya' in the Mahsvamsa, compiled for the serene

joy and emotion of the pious.

1 That is, ghosts ; but the expression is ambiguous. It could also mean * he who had those that had become yakkhas (namely Kalavela and Citta) for friends '.

2 Tiki: samiddhe ti, sainpattiya purite adclhe va 'filled


AFTER his death his son, known by the name of MUTASIVA, 1 the son of Suvannapall, succeeded him in the government, which was (then) in a peaceful state. The king laid out the 2 beautiful Mahameghavana-garden, rich in all the good qualities that its name promises 1 and provided with fruit-trees and flowering-trees. At the time that the place was 3 chosen for the garden ^ a great cloud, gathering at an unwonted season, poured forth rain; therefore they called the garden Maharneghavana.

Sixty years king Mutasiva reigned in splendid Anuradha- 4 pura, the fair face of the land of Lanka. He had ten sons, 5 each thoughtful of the other's welfare, and two daughters equal2 (in beauty), worthy of their family. The second son, 6 known by the name Devanaiinpiyatissa, was foremost among all his brothers in virtue and intelligence.

This DEVANAMPIYATISSA became king after his father's 7 death. Even at the time of his consecration many wonders came to pass. In the whole isle of Lanka treasures and 8

1 Following the reading of the Burmese MSS. and the Tika nama-nugagunodito 'eminent in the qualities corresponding to the name'. Mahameghavana means 'grove of the great cloud*. The qualities which it possesses are such as accompany abundant rainfall : streams, trees with thick foliage, shade, coolness and so forth. Of. the explanation of the Kka, Mah. ed., note on this passage. The Mahameghavana was situated south of the city of Anuradhapura. where now the Mahavihara stands. Between it and the southern wall of the city was another park, called Nandana or Jotivana. See 15. 1, 8; PAEKER, Ancient Ceylon, pp. 272-274.

2 Tika: anukula ti, samanavanna; ayam surupa ayana virupa ti vacanapacchinditum anaraha samanarupa; annamanna-anukularupasampattiya samannagata ti a-dhippayo. The sense is: they were of equal beauty.78 MaMvansa

XL 9

jewels that had been buried deep rose up to the surface of the

9 earth. Jewels which had been in ships wrecked near Lanka and

those which were naturally formed there (in the ocean) issued

10 forth upon the land. At the foot of the Chata-mountain there grew up three bamboo-stems, in girth even as a waggon-

11 pole.1 One of them, fthe creeper-stem/ shone like silver; on this might be seen delightful creepers gleaming with a golden

12 colour. But one was the * flower-stem % on this again might be seen flowers of many kinds, of manifold colours, in full

13 bloom. And last, one was the * bird-stem3 whereon might be seen numbers of birds and beasts of many (kinds) and of

14 many colours, as if living. Pearls of the eight kinds, namely horse-pearl, elephant-pearl, waggon-pearl, myrobalan-pearl, bracelet-pearl, ring-pearl, kakudha fruit-pearl, and common

15 (pearls) came forth out of the ocean and lay upon the shore in heaps.

16 All this was the effect of Devanampiyatissa's merit. Sapphire, beryl, ruby, these gems and many jewels and those

17 pearls and those bamboo-stems they brought, all in the same week, to the king.

When the king saw them he was glad at heart and thought:

18 ' My friend DhammEsoka and nobody else is worthy to have these priceless treasures; I will send them to him as a gift/

19 For the two monarehs, Devanampiyatissa and Dhammasoka already had been friends a long time, though they had new? seen each other.

20 The king sent four persons appointed as his envoys: his nephew Maharittha, who was the chief of his ministers, then

21 liis chaplain, a minister and. his treasurer/ attended by a body of retainers, and he bade them take with them those

22 jewels, the three kinds of precious stones, and the three (like) waggon-poles, and a spiral shell winding to the right,

1 This must "be the meaning of rathapaioda, although pat

properly means * goad, whip'.

g The Tika also tells us the names of Arittha's three namely Tllipabbata (in Kamb. Mah. Bali0), Tela and names are, we may conjecture, taken from the original ,, the oldxi. 30 The Consecrating of Devanampiyatissa 79

the eight kinds of pearls. When they had embarked at Jambu- 2 3 kola1 and in seven days had reached the haven ? in safety, and from thence in seven days more had come to Pataliputta, 24 they gave those gifts into the hands of king Dhammasoka. When he saw them he rejoiced greatly. Thinking: 'Here 25 I have no such precious things/ the monarch, in his joy, bestowed on Arittha the rank of a commander in his army, on the brahman the dignity of chaplain, to the minister he 26 gave the rank of staff-bearer, and to the treasurer that of a guild-lord.3

When he had allotted to the (envoys) abundance of (all) 27 things for their entertainment and dwelling-houses, he took counsel with his ministers considering (what should be sent as) a return-gift; and he took4 a fan,5 a diadem, a sword, 28 a parasol, shoes, a turban, ear-ornaments,6 chains,7 a pitcher, yellow sandal wood, a set of garments that had no need of 29 cleansing, a costly napkin, unguent brought by the nagas, red-coloured earth, water from the lake Anotatta and 30 also water from the Ganges, a (spiral) shell winding in

1 A landing-place in northern Ceylon. See chiefly 19. 25.

2 The haven of Tamalitti. See note to 11. 38.

8 Very characteristic, and throwing light on court-life in India, chiefly in the fifth century A. D. The complimentary bestowing of titles and dignities was then the custom, just as at the present day.

4 The accusatives in the text are all dependent on v. 83. From this point the things enumerated are merely either the insignia of a royal prince or such as are used for the ceremony of consecrating a king.

6 Valavijani is a fly-whisk (Skt. camara) made of the hair of a yak's tail.

6 The Tika explains vatamsa (Skt. avatamsa) by kannapi-landhana. See Vinaya Texts, ii, p. 347, note on C.V. I. 13.1. In Thupav., p. 1723 pupphavatamsaka is rendered in Sinhalese malkada.

7 That pamanga must be a band or chain is clear from the simile in Thupav. 317~19. The Buddha Dlpamkara winds the girdle round his red garment as one might wind a golden pamanga about a bunch of flowers. The same simile occurs Mahabodhiv., ed, STRONG, p. 6210; cf. also C.Y. 5. 2. 1; Sum. Vil. I. 8012 on D, 1.1.10. (To be read thus, Mah. ed., p. 355, line 29.)80 Mahcivamsa XL 31:

31 auspicious wise/ a maiden in the flower o£ her youth, utensils as golden platters, a costly litter, yellow and emblic myro-

32 balans and precious ambrosial healing herbs, sixty times one hundred waggon loads o£ mountain-rice brought thither by parrots, nay, all that was needful for consecrating a king,

33 marvellous in splendour; and sending these (things) in due time as a gift to his friend the lord of men sent envoys also

34 with the gift of the true doctrine, saying: ' I have taken refuge in the Buddha, his Doctrine and his Order, I have declared myself a lay-disciple in the religion of the Sakya son;2

35 seek then even thou, O best of men converting thy mind with

36 believing heart refuge in these best of gems !' and saying moreover: ' Consecrate my friend yet again as king,' he dismissed his friend's ministers, with many marks of honour.

37 When the ministers had stayed five months, highly honoured they set forth with the envoys, on the first day of the bright

38 half of the month Vesakha.3 Having embarked at Tamalittl4 and landed at Jambukola they sought out the king, when

39 they arrived here on the twelfth day. The envoys handed the gifts to the ruler of Lanka; the ruler of Lanka made them, welcome with great hospitality.

40 But the envoys most faithful to their king consecrated the ruler of Lanka, whose (first) consecration had been held in the month Maggasira5 on the day when the moon first shows

41 itself, fulfilling the charge of Dhammasoka, yet again as king, they rejoicing in the salvation of their king (consecrated) him who rejoiced in the good fortune of Lanka.

1 Winding towards the right, dakkhinavatto; cf. v. 22.

9 I.e. of Buddha, sprang from the tribe of the Sakyas. See 2. 15 foil.

8 See note to 1. 12.

4 Skfc. Tamralipti, a harbour in the region at the mouth of the Ganges, now Tamluk. At Tamralipti the Chinese pilgrim Pa-hien embarked for Ceylon in the beginning of the fifth century A. D. See LEGQE, Eemrd of Buddhistic Kingdom^ p. 100.

1 According to the Dip. 11. 14 and S3, the first coronation of D. was held in the tecond winter month under the Nakkhatta Asajha, and the second coronation on the twelfth day of the bright half of tie Yeaikim month. Cf. Introduction para. 7,XI. 42 The Consecrating of Devanampiyatissa 81

Thus on the full-moon day of the month Vesakha the ruler 42 of men, in whose name was contained the words c friend o£ the gods''/ bestowing good upon his people, held his consecration (as king) in Lanka, where in every place they held high festival.

Here ends the eleventh chapter, called ' The Consecrating of Devanampiyatissa' in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 Devanampiyatissa means *Tissa, friend of the gods'.CHAPTEK XII


1 WHEN the thera Moggaliputta, the Illuminator of the religion of the Conqueror, had brought the (third) council to an

2 end and when, looking into the future,, he had beheld the founding of the religion in adjacent countries, (then) in the

3 month Kattikal he sent forth theras, one here and one there. The thera Maj jhantika he sent to Kasmira and Gandhara^ the

4 thera Mahadeva he sent to Mahisamandala. To Vanavasa he sent the thera named Rakkhita, and to Aparantaka the Yona

5 named Dhammarakkhita; to Maharattha (he sent) the them named Mahadhammamkkhita, but the thera Maharakkhita he

6 sent into the country of the Yona. He sent the thera Maj jhima to the Himalaya country, and to Suvannabhumi he sent the

7 two theras Sona and Uttara. The great thera Mahinda, the theras Itthiya, Uttiya, Sambala and Bhaddasala his dis-

8 eiples, these five theras he sent forth with the charge: * Ye shall found in the lovely island of Lanka the lovely religion of the Conqueror/

9 At that time in Kasmira and Gandhara 2 did the naga-king of wondrous power, Aravala, cause the rain called f Hail; to

10 pour down upon the ripe crops, and cruelly did he overwhelm everything with a flood. The thera Majjhantika went thither

11 with all speed, passing- through the air, and wrought (miracles such as) walking on the surface of the water in Aravala's and so forth. When the nagas beheld it they told their with fury about this thing.

12 Then fall of fury the naga-kiog brought divers terrors to

1 See note to L 12, As to the time of the third council^ cf. the Introduction*

3 GandiiSra the districts of Peshawar and

in the northern FED jab, Kasmira is the modernxii. 25 The Converting of Different Countries 83

pass; fierce winds blew,, a cloud gave forth thunder and rain, thunder strokes crashed, and lightning flashed here and there, 13 trees and mountain-tops were hurled down. Nagas in grisly 14 forms terrified (beholders) on every side, he himself spat forth smoke and fire threatening in different ways.

When the thera by his wondrous power had brought all 15 these terrors to naught, he said to the naga-king, showing his eminent might: 'Even if the world together with the gods 16 came seeking to terrify me, they would not be equal to me (in strength) whatever fears and dread (they may arouse) in this place.1 Nay, if thou shouldst raise the whole earth with the 17 ocean and the mountains, thou mighty naga, and shouldst hurl them upon me, thou couldst in no wise arouse fear and 2 & dread in me. It were surely but thy own destruction, thou lord of serpents.3

Then to him, humbled by these words the thera preached 19 the doctrine, and thereupon the naga-king came unto the (three) refuges and the precepts of duty,2 and this likewise 20 did eighty-four thousand serpents and many gandhabbas, yakkhas and kumbhandakas 3 in the Himalaya. But a yak- 21 kha named Pandaka with (his wife) the yakkhini Harita and his five hundred sons obtained the first fruit (of sanctification).4

cHenceforth let no anger arise as of old; work no more 22 harm to the harvest, for living beings love their happiness; cherish love for beings, let men live in happiness.' Thus 23 were they taught by him and they did according to (this teaching). Then the lord of serpents made the thera sit upon 24 a jewel-throne and he stood near, fanning him. But the 25 dwellers in Kasmlra and Grandhara who had come to worship

1 The right reading appears to be yam ettha bhayabheravam. The construction of the sentence is, however, very difficult. For the explanation of the Tika see Mah. ed., note on the passage.

2 See note to 1. 32 and 62.

3 Skt. kumbhanda, name of a class of supernatural beings under the rule of Yirulhaka. The gandhabbas (= Skr. gandharva) are a class of demigods who are the attendants of Dhatarattha. Viru-Ihaka, and Dhatarattha are two of the four great kings of the world (lokapala), the regents of the south and north.

4 I. e. the sotapattiphala. Cf. note to 1. 33.

G 284 MaJiavamsa XIL 26

the naga-king acknowledged the thera as the mightier in

26 working wonders/ and when they had paid the thera reverence they seated themselves on one side near him. The thera expounded to them the dhamma, (namely) the Asivisupama.2

27 The conversion of eighty thousand persons took place3 and a hundred thousand persons received the pabbajja from the

28 thera. Since then Kasmlra and Gandhara shine with yellow robes and prize above all the three things.4

29 The thera Mahadeva who had gone to the Mahisamandala 5 country preached in the midst of the people the Devaduta-

30 suttanta.6 Forty thousand (persons) made pure (in themselves) the eye of the truth and yet forty thousand received from him the pabbajja-ordi nation.

31 The thera Rakkhita^ who had gone to Vanavasa,7 preached, floating in the air in the midst of the people, the Anamatagga-

32 samyutta.8 The conversion of sixty thousand persons took place, thirty-seven thousand in number received the pabbajja

33 from him. Five hundred viharas were founded in the

1 Of. Mah. eel, note on this passage, also 14. 20 with note. The positive mahiddhlka stands for the comparative.

2 The asivisa-sntta of S. IV, pp. 172-175, or the asivisopama 'simile of the serpent' of A. II, pp. 110-111.

3 See note to 1. E2.

4 Namely huddha, dhamma, samgha, the Buddha, his doctrine and his order. See note to 1. 62.

5 Mahisamandala is generally taken as the modern Mysore. But FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 429 foil., has shown that this identification is hardly correct. He himself takes Mahisamandala as * territory of the Mahisha' of which the capital was Mahishmati. Agreeing- with PARaiTER he places this capital on the island of the Narbada river, now called Mandhata. See Imperial Gazetteer of India, s.v. Mahisa-manilala is, therefore, a district south of the Vindhyan mountains.

$ I.e.'Discourseon the Messengers of God.' See M. Ill, pp, 178-187; A. I, pp. 138-142. The suttanta deals with old age, disease^ and death as messengers of Tama the god of death.

7 The Yanavasaka or Yanavlsin are mentioned in the Maha-bharata, 6. B66, and Harivamia, 5232, as a people dwelling ia southern India. S-ee BJL, Skt Wtb. s,w. There is a modem town Banavisi in North KSnara which seems to have preserved the old name. Imp. Gaz* of India, S.Y.

s S. II, pp. 178-198.XIT. 41 The Converting of Different Countries 85

country. Thus did the thera establish there the religion o£ the Conqueror.

The thera Dhammarakkhita the Yona,, being gone to 34 Aparantaka l and having preached in the midst o£ the people the Aggikkhandhopama-sutta,2 gave to drink of the nectar o£ 35 truth to thirty-seven thousand living beings who had come together there, he who perfectly understood truth and untruth. 36 A thousand men and yet more women went forth from noble families and received the pabbajja.

The wise Mahadhammarakkhita^ who had gone to Maha- 37 rattha/ related there the jataka called Mahanaradakassapa.4 Eighty-four thousand persons attained to the reward of the 38 path (of salvation), thirteen thousand received from him the pabbajja.

The wise Maharakkhita who went to the country of the 39 Yona5 delivered in the midst of the people the Kalakarama-suttanta.6 A hundred and seventy thousand living beings 40 attained to the reward of the path (of salvation); ten thousand received the pabbajja.

The wise Majjhima7 preached in the Himalaya region whither 41

1 Skr. Aparanta 'the western ends', comprising the territory of northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kachchh, and Sind. FLEET, JM.A.S. 1910, p. 427.

2 I. e. ' The discourse on the parable of the flames of fire.' A. IV, pp. 128-135.

8 Skr. Maharastra, the country of the Marathi.

4 FATJSBOLL, Jat. vi, pp. 219-255.

5 The Yonas (Skt. Yavana) are also mentioned, together with the Kambojas, iu the Rock Edicts V and XIII of Asfoka. They ' must mean the clans of foreign race (not necessarily Greek) on the northwestern frontier, included in the empire (of A^oka)'. V. A. SMITH, AsoJca, p. 132, n. 2. It is remarkable that just at that time (246 B.C.) the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was founded by Diodotos. See SPIEGEL, Eran. Alterthumsk., Ill, p. 49 foil.

6 Probably by this title is meant the suttanta 24 of the Catukkanl-pata in A. II, pp. 24-26. The Kalakararna is supposed to be the place where Buddha delivered this discourse.

7 The companions of Majjhima, according to Dip. 8. 10, Smp. 31719, MBv. 1155, and Tika 2225, were the theras Kassapagotta, Muladeva (Alakadeva), Sahadeva, and Dundubhissara. See the Introduction.86 MaMvamsa xn.42

he had gone with four theras, the Dhammacakkappavattana-

42 suttanta.1 Eighty kotis o£ living beings attained to the reward of the path (of salvation). The five theras separately con-

43 verted five kingdoms ; from each of them, a hundred thousand persons received the pabbajja, believing in the doctrine of the Sammasaipbuddha.

44 Together with the thera Uttara the thera Sona of wondrous

45 might went to Suvannabnumi.2 Now at this time, whenever a boy was born in the king's palace, a fearsome female demon who came forth out of the sea, was wont to devour (the

46 child) and vanish again. And at that very moment a prince was born in the king's palace. When the people saw the theras they thought: ' These are companions of the demons/

47 and they came armed to kill them. And the theras asked: ' What does this mean ? * and said to them : * We

48 are pious ascetics, in no wise companions of the demon.' Then the demon came forth from the ocean with her follow-

49 ing, and when the people saw them they raised a great outcry.

50 JJut the thera created twice as many terrifying demons and therewith surrounded the demon and her following on every side. She thought: ' This (country) is come into possession of these (people)/ and, panic-stricken, she took to flight.

51 When the thera had made a bulwark round the country he pronounced in the assembly the Brahma;jala(suttanta).3

52 Many were the people who came unto the (three) refuges and the precepts of duty; sixty thousand were converted to

1 Le. *The discourse of the setting in motion the wheel of the doctrine.' See M.V. I. 6. 17 foil. (« Fin. Pit. i, p. 10 foil.); S. V, pp. 420-431; S.B.E. xi, p. 146 foil.

2 The general opinion was, until recently, that Suvannabhumi

4 the gold-land1 is lower Burma with adjacent districts. But this is very doubtful, since it is a fact that Buddhism reached Burma from China in the Mahay ana-form and not before the fourth century A. D. FLEET, JJBJLJ3. 1910, p. 428, suggests that Suvannabhumi might be the country in Bengal called by Hiuen-tsang * Ka-lo-na-sn-fa-la-naT = Kw^aswarna, or else the country along the river Son, a river in Central India, and tributary of the Ganges on its right bank, which is also called Hiranyavaha * the gold-bearerf. 8 L e.c The Net of the Religious,' D. I, p. 1 foilXIL 55 TJie Converting of Different Countries 87

the true faith. Three thousand five hundred sons of noble 53 families received the pabbajja and one thousand five hundred daughters of noble families received it likewise. Thenceforth 54 when a prince was born in the royal palace the king's gave to such the name Sonuttara.

Since they did even forbear to enter into the bliss already 55 won?(such was) also the renunciation of the all-compassionate Conqueror?they bestowed blessing on the world,1 (going) here and there. Who should grow weary in (striving for) the salvation of the world ?

Here ends the twelfth chapter, called ' The Converting of Different Countries', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 The sense is this: The theras had already attained to arahant-siiip and were in possession of nibbana. Nevertheless they forebore to pass into nibbana, in order that they might first show the way salvation to the world. They thus followed the example of the Buddha who had practised the same renunciation (kaddhana). See M.V. I. 5. 2 foil. (= Yin. Pit. i, p. 4 foil.).CHAPTEE XIII"


1 THE great thera Mahinda, of lofty wisdom, who at that time had been twelve years (a monk), charged by his teacher

2 and by the brotherhood to convert the island of Lanka, pondered on the fitting time (for this) and thought: ' Old is the king Mutasiva; his son must become king/

3 When he had resolved to visit in the meantime his kinsfolk, he bade farewell to his teacher and the brotherhood and

4 having asked the leave of the king he took with him the four therasl and also Samghamitta^s son, the miraculously gifted

5 samanera Sumana,2 mighty in the six supernormal powers; and he went to Dakkhinagiri3 to confer on his kinsfolk (the) grace (of his preaching). While he was so doing sis months passed away,

6 When he came in time to Vedisagiri4 the city of his mother

7 Devi, he visited his mother and when Devi saw her dear son she made him welcome, and his companions likewise, with foods prepared by herself, and she led the thera up to the lovely vihara Vedisagiri.

8 When the prince Asoka, while ruling over the realm of Avanti, that his father had bestowed on him, halted in the

9 town of Vedisa, before he came to Ujjenlj and met there a

10 lovely maiden named Devi, the daughter of a merchant, he made her his wife; and she was (afterwards) with child by

11 him and bore in Ujjenl a beautiful boy, Mahinda, and when two years had passed (she bore) a daughter, Samghamitfea. At

1 See 12.1. 2 See 5.170.

3 A vihara in Ujjeni, Skr. Ujjayini. See note to 5. 89.

* Vedisa is the modern BMlsa in Gwalior State, situated 26 miles north-east of Bhopal. See Imp. Gazetteer of India, s. v.; E. J.P.T.S. 1888, p. 87; EHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 288.XIIL 20 The Coming of MaJiinda 89

that time * she lived in the city of Vedisa. The thera who then 12 sojourned there, perceiving (that) the time (was come), thought thus: 'In that great festival of consecration commanded by 13 my father shall the great king Devanampiyatissa take part, and he shall know the splendour of the three things2 when he has heard it from the envoys. He shall climb the Missaka- 14 mountain 3 on the uposatha-day of the month Jettha.4 On that same day we will go to the beauteous isle of Lanka.'

The great Indra5 sought out the excellent thera Mahinda 15 and said to him : ' Set forth to convert Lanka ; by the Sam-buddha also hast thou been foretold (for this) and we will be 16 those who aid thee there.'

The son of a daughter of Devf s sister, (a youth) named Bhanduka, who had heard the doctrine preached by the thera 17 to Devi, and who had obtained the reward of one who shall return no more unto life 6 remained with the thera.

When he had stayed there a month the thera, on the upo- 18 satha-day of the month Jettha, with the four theras and Sumana,7 and the lay-disciple Bhanduka also, to the end that 19 they might be known for human beings,8 rose up in the air (and departed) from that vihara; and he, the (thera) of wondrous powers, coming hither with his following alighted on 20

3 Namely, at the time of Mahinda's visit.

2 Cf. note to 12. 28.

3 Now the mountain Mihintale (= ' plain of MaMnda', according to A. GUNASEKAKA), 8 miles to the east of Anuradhapura.

4 See note to 1. 12.

6 A play upon the name Mahinda.

6 The stage of anaga mi Is the third and last stage but one, on the path of salvation leading to nibbana. Such an one will not be re-born, either in the world of gods or of men, but only in a Brahma-world, where he will attain nibbana. See CHILDEBS, s. v.

7 It seems almost as if v. 18 were an interpolated verse. If we omit it 19 follows perfectly well on 17: * ... remained with the thera; with this lay-disciple ... he rose up, &c.' That, besides, the four theras and Sumana were Mahinda's fellow-travellers is already known from 12. 7 and 13. 4.

8 With this cf. 14. 31, also Mah. ed., note to 13. 19b and Album Kern 205-206.9 0 MaMvamsa xm. 21

the pleasant Missaka-mountain,, on the Sila-peak on the open and fair Ambatthala.1

21 He who was foretold by the Sage, in the hour of death, as bringing salvation to Lanka/ by his merit in converting Lanka, he, who for Lanka's salvation had become like to the Master,3 alighted there, extolled by the gods of Lanka.

Here ends the thirteenth chapter, called 'The Coming of Mahinda', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 Of. TENNENT, Ceylon, ii, p. 605 foil. The Silakuta is the northern peak of the Mihintale-mountain. Immediately below it lies the little tableland on which the Ambatthala-dagaba stands.

2 Lit. * For the blessing of L.'

3 The allusion probably is to the Buddha's legendary visit to the island.CHAPTER XIV


THE king Devanampiyatissa who had arranged a water- 1 festival for the dwellers in the capital, set forth to enjoy the pleasures of the chase. Attended by forty thousand of his 2 men, he went on foot to the Missaka-mountain. The deva of 3 the mountain who desired to show the theras to him,, appeared there in the form of an elk-stag browsing in the thicket. When the king saw him, he thought: c It is unseemly to kill 4 an unheeding (creature)' and he struck out a sound from his bowstring; the stag fled towards the mountain. The king 5 pursued, but the stag in his flight drew near to the thera. When the thera came into the prince's view the (deva) himself vanished.

Thinking : ' If he sees too many (people) he will be too 6 much afraid/ the thera let (the king) see him alone. When the king beheld him he stood still terrified. The thera said to 7 him: ' Come hither, Tissa/ Then, from the calling him by his name, Tissa, the king thought forthwith: f (That is) a yakkha/ ' Samanas are we, O great king, disciples of the 8 King of Truth. From compassion toward thee are we come hither from Jambudlpa/ thus said the thera. When the king 9 heard this fear left him. And remembering the message of his friend, and persuaded that these were samanas, he laid bow 10 and arrow aside and approaching the sage he exchanged greeting with the thera and sat down near him.

Then came his people and surrounded him and the great thera 11 caused the others who had come with him to become visible. When the king beheld these too he said: (When did these come 12 hither ? 1 The thera answered : c (They came) with me/ And92 Mahavamsa XIV. 13

13 he asked moreover: e Are there in Jambudlpa other ascetics like to these ?; The other said : ' Jambudlpa is gleaming with

14 yellow robes; and great is the number there of arahants learned in the three vedas, gifted with miraculous powers, skilled in reading the thoughts of others, possessing the heavenly ear:I the disciples of the Buddha/

15 (The king) then asked: 'By what way are you come?' And since the answer was: ' Neither by land nor by water are we come,' he understood that they had come through the air.

16 To test him that most wise (thera) now asked a subtle question, and even as he was questioned the monarch answered the questions severally.

17 ' What name does this tree bear, O king ?3 ' This tree is called a mango/

' Is there yet another mango beside this ?' ' There are many mango-trees/

18 ' And are there yet other trees besides this mango and the other mangoes ?'

' There are many trees, sir; but those are trees that are not mangoes/

19 ' And are there, beside the other mangoes and those trees which are not mangoes, yet other trees ?'

c There is this mango-tree, sir/

' Thou hast a shrewd wit, O ruler of men !'

20 < Hast thou kinsfolk, O king? ' £ They are many, sir/

f And are there also some, O king, who are not kinsfolk of thine?9

c There are yet more 2 of those than of my kin/

21 c Is there yet any one besides the kinsfolk and the others ?' c There is yet myself, sir/

' Good! thou hast a shrewd wit, O ruler of men !'

22 When he had known that he was a keen-witted man, the

1 Iddhi, cetopariyanana and dibbasota are three of the six abhinna. See note on 4. 12 (No. I, III, II).

2 The positive bahu, with the abL iafcito, stands instead of the comparative. See 12. 25 (with note) also Mah. ed., Introd., p. liv.XIV. 32 The Entry into the Capital 93

wise thera preached to the monarch the Culahatthipadupama-suttanta.1 At the end of the discourse he, with the forty 23 thousand men, came unto the (three) refuges.2

In the evening they brought the king's meal to him. 24 Although the king knew that these (bhikkhus) would not eat then he invited the sages to the meal,, with the thought: 'It 25 were seemly at least to ask them/ "When they told him: ' We do not eat now/ he asked concerning the time. And 26 when he was told the time, he said: f We will go into the city/

1 Go thou, great king, we will stay here/

' If that be so, then must this young man 3 come with us/ 2 7

' This (youth) is one who has attained the goal/ has grasped the doctrine and waits for the pabbajja, (therefore) must he 28 abide near us. We wish to bestow on him the pabbajja now; depart then,, O king/ Then, when he had taken leave of the 29 theras with the words : ' To-morrow I will send a waggon, do you enter it and come into the city/ he took Bhandu aside and asked him what the theras intended (to do). And he 30 told the king all. When (the king) heard the thera's name he was full of joy and thought: ' This is blessing for me/ And now the king, whose fear had left him because Bhandu 31 was a layman, knew that these were human beings.5 Saying: 'Let us bestow on him the pabbajja/ the thera bestowed on 32 young Bhanduka, within the boundaries of that village and within that group (of bhikkhus),6 both the pabbajja and the

1 I.e. 'The lesser discourse on the simile of the elephant's footprint/ M.I, pp. 175-184.

2 See notes to 1. 32 and 62. 8 Namely Bhandu.

4 Agataphala is a synonym of anagamiphala. See 13. 17.

5 See the note to 13. 19. The king's remaining fears that he was in the presence of supernatural beings, were only overcome by the details communicated hy Bhandu.

6 Every monastery has its parish, the bounds of which (sima) are strictly fixed according to M.V. II. 11 foil., and within these the ecclesiastical proceedings take place. Since there were as yet no monasteries in Ceylon the boundaries of the village situated on Mis-saka served as a parish. But the chapter (gana) which carried out the ordination was formed by Mahinda and his companions.94 MaMvamsa xiv. 33

33 upasampada-ordination, and even in the same moment he attained to the state of arahant.

34 Then the thera ordered the samanera Sumana: 'Announce ye the time of preaching the dhamma/ He asked : ' How far, sir,

35 shall I make the time to be heard when I announce it?' When the thera answered: 'Over all Tambapanni/ he announced the time of (preaching the) dhamma, making it to be heard, by his miraculous power, over the whole of Lanka.

36 When the king, who was seated by the rock-basin at the Nagacatukkal and was taking his repast, heard the loud

37 summons, he sent a message to the thera asking: 'Has any misfortune come to pass ?' He answered: e No misfortune has come to pass; the time was proclaimed for hearing the word of the Sambuddha.'

38 When the earth-gods heard the summons of the samanera they echoed it and so the call rose up gradually to Brahma's

39 heaven. Because of the summons there came together a great assembly of devas; and the thera preached before this gathering the Samaeitta-sutta.2

40 Devas without number were converted to the doctrine and many nagas and suparmas3 came unto the (three)

41 refuges. Even as when the thera Sariputta uttered this discourse so did the devas gather together to hear it from Mahinda.

42 On the morrow the king sent a waggon. The driver came and said: ' Mount into the waggon, we will drive to the city/

43 'We will not mount into the waggon; go thou, we will follow thee.* Saying this they, full of holy desires,4 sent the

44 driver away; and they rose into the air and by their miraculous pwer they descended to the east of the city in the place

1 By this is probably meant the Nagapokuna situated some distance below the Ambatthala. See GEIGER, Ceylon, p. 204.

2 By Samacitta-sutta we have to understand Sutta 5~6 of the Samacitta-vagga in the DukanipSta of A. I, pp. 63-65. The subject is spiritual calm.

3 See note to 19. 20.

* In sumanoratha a play on the words ratha * waggon* and sarathi * driver' Is intended. The ratha of the theras is gum anas 4 pious feeling'.XIV. 58 TJie Entry into the Capital 95

where the first thupa (afterwards stood). And thenceforward 45 to this day the cetiya that was built on the spot where the theras first alighted * is called the Pathamacetiya.2

Since the women of the royal household, hearing from the 46 king of the virtues of the theras., desired to see them, the monarch had a lovely pavilion built for them within the royal 47 precincts, covered with white stuffs and with flowers and beautifully adorned.

And since he had heard from the thera that they would not 48 sit upon raised seats, he pondered doubtfully : ' Will the thera indeed sit upon a raised seat ? ' In the meantime the driver 49 saw the theras standing there 3 putting on their robes and in wonderment he came and told the king. Hearing all (this) it 50 became clear to the king that they would not sit on chairs. And commanding: 'Let the finest carpets be spread upon the 51 ground/ he went to meet the theras, greeted them reverently, took the almsbowl from the great thera Mahinda's hand and 52 led the thera into the city, as is the custom in hospitable welcome and homage.

And the soothsayers, when they saw the seats prepared, 53 foretold: c The earth is occupied by these (bhikkhus); they will be lords upon the island.' Showing them honour the king 54 led the theras into the palace. There, according to their rank, they took their seat on chairs covered with stuffs. The king 55 himself served them with rice-soup and with foods hard and soft. And when the meal was finished, he himself sat down at their feet and sent for Anula, the consort of his younger 56 brother, the sub-king Mahanaga, who dwelt in the royal palace. When the queen Anula had come with five hundred 57 women and had bowed down and made offerings to the theras, she stepped to one side. The thera preached the Petavatthu} 58

1 Cf. the same construction in 10. 10. See also Mah. ed.7 Introd.. p. liii.

2 The Pathamacetiya * the First cetiya' has not been found in the ruins of Anuradhapura. It stood, no doubt, outside the eastern gate of the city. PAEKEB, Ancient Ceylon, p. 275.

3 Namely at the spot where they had alighted from the air, and where the driver only arrived after them.96 MaMvamsa xiv. 59

the Vimanavatthu l and the Sacca-samyutta.2 The women attained to the first stage of sanctification.3

59 And many people from the city, hearing from persons who had seen them the day before, of the virtues of the theras,

60 came together desirous to see the theras and made a great stir at the palace-gates. When the king heard that and had been told, on asking, (why it was so,) he said, thoughtful for their

61 welfare : cHere there is not enough space for all these men; let them cleanse the hall of the state-elephant, there shall

62 the townspeople be able to look upon the theras. When they had cleansed the elephant's hall, and had adorned it speedily with canopies and so forth, they prepared seats

63 there (for the theras), according to their rank. The great thera went thither with the (other) theras and when he had taken his seat, he, the eminent preacher, preached the Deva-

64 duta-suttanta,4 When the townspeople, who were come together, heard it, they were filled with faith and a thousand persons among them attained to the first stage of salvation.

65 When thus in the isle of Lanka the peerless thera, like unto the Master in the protection of Lanka, had preached the true doctrine in two places, in the speech of the island, he, the light of the island, thus brought to pass the descent of the true faith.

Here ends the fourteenth chapter, called ' The Entry into the Capital *3 in the Mahavaxusa, compiled for the serene joy

and emotion of the pious.

1 The Petavatthu and the Vimanavatthu are books of the

? Khuddaka~nlk2ya in the Sutta-pitaka. The former contains stories of ghosts that dwell in the ghost-world, as a punishment ior sins committed, the latter contains descriptions of the marvellous palaces that serve as dwellings for happy ghosts. Both texts have been edited by EBM. HABDY, P.T.S. 1889,1886.

2 See S. V, pp. 414-478.

3 I. e. the sotapatti. Cf. note to L 33.

4 See note to 12. 29.CHAPTEE XV


WHEN they saw that the elephant's hall was also too small, 1 the people who had assembled there,, full of pious zeal, prepared seats for the theras outside the southern gate, in the pleasant 2 Nandana-gardenl in the royal park, thickly shaded, cool and covered with verdure. The thera went forth by the south gate 3 and seated himself there. Numbers of women of noble families who came thither sat at the thera's feet filling the garden. 4 And to them the thera preached the Balapandita-suttanta.2 A 5 thousand of the women attained to the first stage of salvation. So, there in the grove, evening fell.

Then the theras set forth saying: c We will go hence to 6 the mountain/ And they told the king, and the king came with all speed. Approaching the thera he said to him : c It is 7 evening^time, and the mountain is far away ; but here in the Nandana-garden is a pleasant place to rest/ When they 8 answered : ' It is not fitting (for us) beiDg too near the city/ (he said) : ' The Mahamegha-park is neither too far nor too near; pleasant (is it), and water and shade abound there ; 9 may it please you to rest there ! Thou must turn back, lord !' Then the thera turned back.

The cetiya (afterwards) built on the spot where he turned 10 back, near the Kadamba-river, is called therefore Nivatta-cetiy a.3

Southwards from Nandana the lord of chariots himself led 11 the thera to the Mahamegha-park, at the east gate. When 12

-:J See note to 11; 2.

2 I. e.' the discourse of the fool and the wise man.' Probably the suttanta S. II, pp. 23-25, or perhaps A. I, 101-105.

8 I.e. the turning-back cetiya. The thupa was probably not far from the Pathamacetiya. See note to 14. 4.5.98 MaMvamsa XV. is

the king had bidden them prepare fine beds and chairs in fitting wise, in the pleasant royal dwelling, and had taken

13 leave of the theras, saying: 'Dwell here in comfort/ he returned to the city, surrounded by his ministers; but the theras sojourned there that night.

14 As soon as the morning came, the ruler of the land took flowers and visited the theras, greeting them and offering

15 flowers in homage, and he asked them: 'Was (your) rest pleasant ? Is the garden fitting (for you) ? '

'Pleasant was our rest, O great king, and the garden is fitting for ascetics/

16 And he asked (moreover): 'Is an arama allowed to the brotherhood, sir ? ' f It is allowed/ replied the thera, who had knowledge of that which is allowed and that which is not

1 7 allowed. And he related the accepting of the Veluvanarama.1

When the other heard it, he rejoiced greatly and (all) the

people were pleased and joyful. 1 8 But the queen Anula, who had come with five hundred women

to greet the theras, attained to the second stage of salvation.2 1 9 And the queen Anula with her five hundred women said to

the king: 'We would fain receive the pabbajja-ordination,"

20 your Majesty/ The king said to the thera, * Bestow ye on them the pabbajja ! * But the thera made answer to the king : 'It is not allowed (to us), 0 great king, to bestow the

21 pabbajja on women. But in Pataliputta there lives a nun, my younger sister, known by the name Samghamitta. She,

22 who is ripe in experience, shall come hither bringing with her the southern branch of the great Bodhi-tree of the king of samanaSj 0 king of men, and (bringing) also bhikkhunls

23 renowned (for holiness) ; to this end send a message to the king my father. When this then is here she will confer the

upon these women/

1 The Teluvana ' Bamboo-grove ' near Rajagaha was a present of the 3l5gadha-king Bimbisara to the Buddha. M.Y. I. 22. 17-18 <* Fin, Pit, i, p. 39, SJZ.E. sill, p. 143) ; Jat. i, p. 85, 1 foil.

* I.e. the saladagSmiphala. A sakadagami is one ?Lo will only be itborn in the world of men before attaining toXV. 34 Tlie Acceptance oftJie Mdhawhara 99

* It is well/ said the king", and taking* a splendid vase he 24 poured water (in token) of giving, over the hand of the thera Mahinda with the words: ' This Mahamegha-park do I give 25 to the brotherhood.'

As the water fell on the ground, the great earth quaked. And the protector of the earth asked the (thera): r Wherefore 26 does the earth quake ?' And he replied: c Because the doctrine is (from henceforth) founded in the island.*

The noble (king)l offered jasmine-blossoms to the thera^ 2 7 and the thera went to the royal dwelling and scattered eight handfuls of blossoms about the picula-tree 2 standing3 on the 28 south side of it. And then again the earth quaked and when he was questioned he gave this reason : c Already in the life- 29 time of three Buddhas there has been here a malaka4 for carrying out the duties of the brotherhood, O king, and now will it be so once more/

Northward he went from the royal dwelling to the beautiful 30 bathing-tank, and there also the thera scattered as many blossoms. And then again did the earth quake, and being 31 asked (the thera) gave this reason : c This, O ruler of the earth, will be the tank with the room for warm baths.' 5

Then the wise (thera) went to the gateway of the same 32 king's dwelling and did homage to the spot with (the offering of) as many flowers. And here again the earth quaked; and 33 quivering with joy the king asked the reason, and the thera told him the reason: 'Here the south branch of the Bodhi- 34"

1 A play on the words jatimant 'of high birth * (jati), and jati * the great flowered jasmine \

s Tamarix Indica.

8 I would prefer the reading thite agreeing with picule instead of thito. Certainly B2 Is the only one in the collated MSS. that las this reading, but it is supported by the Tlka.

* Halaka is a space marked off and usually terraced, within wliicli sacred functions were carried out. In the Mahavihura |Tissarama,t at Anuridbapura there were 32 malakas. Dip. 14. 78; Mah. 15. 192. The pocred BodM-tree for instance was surrounded by a malaka.

& On ill© jantigliara* |*a bathing-place for hot sitting-baths', xiii, p. 157, n, 2) see M.V. I. 25. 12-13; C,Y. V. 14. 3 foil.; VIII. 8.1 foil

H 2100 Maliavamsa xv» 35

tree of the three Buddhas1 of our age was planted, when

35 they had brought it hither, 0 king, and the south branch of the Bodhi-tree of our Tathagata will likewise have its place on this same spot, lord of the earth/

36 Then the great thera went to the Mahamucalamalaka and

37 scattered on that spot as many flowers. And then again the earth quaked, and being questioned he told (the king) the reason: 'The uposatha-hall of the brotherhood will be here, O lord of the earth/

38 Afterwards the wise thera went to the place of the Panham-bamalaka.

A ripe mango-tree, excellent in colour, fragrance and taste

39 and of large size, did the gardener offer to the king, and the

40 king offered the splendid (fruit) to the thera. The thera, bringer of good to mankind, let the king know that he would fain rest seated and forthwith the king had a fine carpet

41 spread. When the thera was seated the king gave him the mango-fruit. When the thera had eaten it he gave the kernel

42 to the king to plant. The king himself planted it there and

43 over it, that it might grow, the thera washed his hands. In that same moment a shoot sprouted forth from the kernel and grew little by little to a tall tree bearing leaves and fruit.

44 When those who were present with the king beheld this miracle, they stood there doing homage to the thera, their hair raising on end (with amazement).

45 Now the thera scattered there eight handfuls of flowers and then again the earth quaked. And being asked he gave the

48 reason : e This place will be the place where many gifts shall be distributed, which shall be given to the brotherhood, (the bhikkhus) being assembled together, O ruler of men/

47 And he went up to the place where (afterwards) the Catus-sala2 was, and there he scattered as many flowers, and then

1 The three Buddhas who preceded the historical Buddha in the present age of the world (kappa, lasting many millions of years), are named Kakiisandha, Kon£gaxnana and Kassapa. According to the legend they all, like G-otama, visited Ceylon and the events always followed the same course* GEIGEE, DJpatamsa and MaMvamm, p. 8 foil., and Hah. 15. 57 foil.

2 I. e. a quadrangular hall which served as a refectory for the monks.xv. 60 The Acceptance oftJie Maliavilmra 101

again did the earth quake. And when the king1 asked the 43 reason of the earthquake the thera made answer: fOn the occasion of the receipt of a royal park by the three former 49 Buddhas,1 on this spot the gifts brought from all parts by the dwellers in the island being laid down, the three Blessed Ones and their communities accepted them. And now again 50 the Catussala will stand here and here will be the refectory of the brotherhood, O lord of men/

From thence the great thera Mahinda, the friend 2 of the 51 island, knowing what was a fitting place, and what unfitting, went to the spot where the Great thupa3 (afterwards) stood.

At that time there was within the enclosure of the royal 52 park a little pond called the Kakudha-pond; at its upper end, on the brink of the water, was a level spot fitting for the 53 thupa.

When the thera went thither they brought the king eight baskets of campaka-flowers.4 The king offered the campaka- 54 flowers to the thera and the thera did homage to the spot with the campaka-flowers. And then again the earth quaked, the 55 king asked the reason of the earthquake and the thera gave in due order the reasons for the earthquake.

'This place, O great king, which has been visited by four 56 Buddhas is worthy of a thupa, to be a blessing and happiness to beings.

'In our age of the world there lived first5 the Conqueror 57 Kakusandha, a teacher versed in all truth, compassionate toward all the world. At that time this Mahamegha-grove 53 was known as Mahatittha; the capital called Abhaya lay eastward on the other side of the Kadamba-river,6 there Abhaya 59 was king. This island then bore the name Ojadipa.

c By (the power of) the demons pestilence arose here among 60

3 See note to 15. 34.

2 Dipavaddhana, lit. furtherer, increaser of the island.

3 I. e. the Ruwanwseli-dagaba = pali He mam all, see 15.167.

4 Michelia Champaka, Lin., belonging to the Magnoliaceae.

5 Of. 15. 91 foil., and 125 foil.

6 I now prefer to refer Kadambanadiya pare to the preceding phrase, therefore Mah. ed. the comma after aim (58 d.) should be deleted and placed after pare (59 a). '102 Mahavamsa XV. 61

the people. When Kakusandha, who was gifted with the ten

61 powers/ knew of this misery, then, to bring it to an end and to achieve the converting of beings and progress of the doctrine in this island, he, urged on by the might of his eompas-

62 sion, came through the air surrounded by forty thousand

63 (disciples) like to him,2 and stood on the Devakuta-mountain. By the power of the Sambuddha, 0 great king, the pestilence ceased then here over the whole island.

64 ' Standing there, 0 king of men, the King of the Wise, the Great Sage, proclaimed his will: "All men in Ojadlpa shall

65 see me this day, and if they only desire to come (to me) all men shall draw near to me without trouble and speedily/"

66 'When the king and the townsfolk saw the Prince of the Wise, shining and making the mountain to shine, they came swiftly thither.

67 c The people, who were going thither to bring offerings to the devatas, believed the Guide of the World with the brotherl«»d

68 to be (such) devatas. And when the king, greatly rejoicing had greeted the King of the Wise, had invited him to a repast

69 and had brought him into the city, the monarch then thinking: " This stately and pleasant place is fitting for the resting-place of the Prince of the Wise, with the brotherhood, and not too

70 small/' made the Sambuddha and the brotherhood sit here on beautiful seats in a fine pavilion raised (by him).

71 e When the people in the island saw the Guide of the world with the brotherhood sitting here they brought gifts hither

72 from every side. And the king served the Guide of the World together with the brotherhood with his own food, both hard and soft, and with such (foods) as were brought by sundry other folk.

73 * While the Conqueror was seated, after the meal, on this very spot/ the king offered him the Mahatitthaka-garden as a

74 precious gift. When the MahStifcthaka-grove, gay with

1 See note to 3. 6.

s T&di, i.e. like Mm, blessed like (the Buddha) himself; by extension, a tynonym of araha. Cf. Therag. 62, 205, 206; Suttanip.

86, 957, &Q. 8 Idhera, that is} * here, just where we now are,'XY. 87 The Acceptance of the MaMviMm 103

blossoms at an unwonted season, was accepted by the Buddha the great earth quaked* And sitting even here, the Master 75 preached the doctrine; forty thousand persons attained to the fruit of the path (of salvation).

'When the Conqueror had stayed the day through in the 76 Mahatittha-grove he went in the evening to that plot of ground which was fitting for the place of the Bodhi-tree, and after he, sit- 7 7 ting there, had sunk in deep meditation the Sambuddha, rising from, thence again, thought, mindful of the salvation of the island-people : " Bringing the south branch of my Bodhi-ttee, 78 the sirlsa,1 with her, the bhikkhunl Rucananda shall come hither with (other) bhikkhums,"

'When the therl knew his thought2 she forthwith took the 79 king of that country3 with her and went to the tree* Then 80 when the then of wondrous power had drawn a line with a pencil of red arsenic around the south branch she took the Bodhi-tree thus separated and set it in a golden vase, and this, 81 by her miraculous power she brought hither, 0 great king, with (company of her) live hundred bhikkhums, surrounded by the devatas, and she placed it, with its golden vase, in the out- 82 stretched right hand of the Sambuddha. The Tathagata received the Bodhi-branch and gave it to the king Abhaya to 83 plant; the lord of the earth planted it in the Mahatittha-garden.

' Then the Sambuddha went northwards from this place, and 84 sitting in the beautiful Sirlsamalaka the Tathagata preached 85 the true doctrine to the people. Then, O prince., the conversion of twenty thousand living beings took place*4 Thereupon the 86 Conqueror went yet further north to that plot of ground where (afterwards) the Thuparama 5 stood, and after he, sitting there, had sunk into meditation, the Sambuddha rising from thence 87 again preached the doctrine to those around him, and even at that place did ten thousand living beings attain to the fruit of the path (of salvation).

1 Acacia Sirissa. 2 By means of her omniscience.

3 According to the Tika king Khema of Khemavati (in Jambudipa). See Buddhavamsa (ed! MOBBIS, P.T.S. 1882) XXIII. 8. . * See note to 1. 82. 5 See below, note to 17. 30.104 Mahavamsa, XV. 88

88 ' Giving his own holy drinking-vessel for the homage of the people and leaving the bhikkhunl here with her following and

89 also his disciple Mahadeva with a thousand bhikkhus, the

90 Sambuddha went eastward from thence, and standing on the place of the Ratanamala,he delivered exhortations to the people; then rising in the air with the brotherhood the Conqueror returned to Jambudipa.

91 c Secondl in our age of the world was the Lord Konagamana, the all-knowing Teacher, compassionate toward all the world.

92 ' At that time this Mahamegha-grove was known as Maha-noma, the capital called Vaddhamana, lay to the south.

93 Samiddha was the name of the king of that region then. This island then bore the name Varadipa.

94 c At that time the misery of drought prevailed here in Vara-dipa. When the Conqueror Konagamana knew of this misery,

95 then, to bring it to an end, and afterwards to achieve the converting of beings and progress of the doctrine in this island,

96 he, urged on by the might of his compassion, came through the air, surrounded by thirty thousand (disciples) like to him-

97 self, and stood upon the Sumanakutaka-mountain. By the power of the Sambuddha the drought came to an end, and from the time that the decline of the doctrine ceased rainfall in due season now began.

98 c And standing there, O king of men, the King of the Wise, the Great Sage, proclaimed his will: " All men in Varadlpa

99 shall see me this day, and if they only desire to come (to me) all men shall draw near to me without trouble and speedily/5

100 'When the king and the townsfolk saw the Prince of the Wise, shining' and making the mountain to shine, they came swiftly thither.

101 'The people who were going thither to bring offerings to the devatas believed the Guide of the World with the

102 brotherhood to be (such) devatas. And when the king, greatly rejoicing, had greeted the King of the Wise, had

103 invited him to a repast, and had brought him to the city, the monarch then thinking: " This stately and pleasant place is

2 Cf. 15. 57 foil., and 15.125 foilxv. 117 TJie Acceptance of the MaJuwihara 105

fitting for the resting-place of the Prince of the Wise with the brotherhood and not too small," made the Sambuddha and 104 the brotherhood sit here on beautiful seats in a fine pavilion raised (by him).

* When the people of the island saw the Guide of the World 105 with the brotherhood sitting here, they brought gifts hither from every side. And the king served the Guide of the 106 World together with the brotherhood with his own food., both hard and soft, and with such (foods) as were brought by sundry other folk.

< While the Conqueror was sitting, after the meal on this 107 very spot, the king offered him the Mahanoma-garden as a precious gift. And when the Mahanoma-grove, gay with 108 blossoms at an unwonted season, was accepted by the Buddha the great earth quaked. And sitting even here, the Master 109 preached the doctrine; then thirty thousand persons attained to the fruit of the path (of salvation).

e When the Conqueror had stayed the day through in the 110 Mahanoma-grove, he went in the evening to that plot of ground where the former Bodhi-tree had stood, and after 111 he, sitting there, had sunk in deep meditation, the Sambuddha, rising from thence again, thought, mindful of the salvation of the island-people: ccBringing the south branch of my Bodhi- 112 tree, the udumbara1 with her, the bhikkhuni Kantakananda shall come hither with (other) bhikkhums.^

tWhen the then knew his thought she forthwith took the 113 king of that region2 with her and went to the tree. Then 114 when the then of wondrous power had drawn a line with a pencil of red arsenic around the south branch, she took the Bodhi-tree thus separated, and set it in a golden vase, and 115 this, by her miraculous power, she brought hither, O great king, with (her company of) five hundred bhikkhunls, surrounded by the devatas, and she placed it, with its golden 116 vase, in the outstretched right hand of the Sambuddha. The Tathagata received it and gave it to the king Samiddha to 117

1 Ficus glomerata.

2 According to the Tika king Sobhana (Buddha vamsa XXIV. 16: Sobha) in the city Sobhavati.106 MaMvamsa xv. 118

plant; the lord of the earth planted it there in the Mahanoma garden.

118 (Then the Sambuddha went northward from the Sinsamala and preached the doctrine to the people, sitting in the Naga-

119 malaka. When they heard the preaching of the doctrine, 0 king, the conversion of twenty thousand living beings took

120 place. When he had gone yet further northward to the place where the former Buddha had sat, and after he, sitting there,

121 had sunk into meditation, the Sambuddha, rising from thence again, preached the doctrine to those around him, and even at that place did ten thousand living beings attain to the fruit of the path (of salvation).

122 s Giving his girdle as a relic for the homage of the people,

123 and leaving the bhikkhuni here with her following and also his disciple Mahasumba with a thousand bhikkhus, the Sam-

124 buddha, standing on this side of the Ratanamala in the Sttdassanamala, delivered exhortations to the people; then rising with the brotherhood into the air, the Conqueror returned to Jambudipa*

125 * Third 1 in our age of the world was the Conqueror of the Kassapa clan, the all-knowing Teacher, compassionate toward the whole world.

126 'The Mahamegha-grove was called (at that time) Mahasa-12 7 gara; the capital, named Visala, lay toward the West, Jayanta

was the name of the king of that region then, and this isle bore then the name of Mandadipa.

128 (At that time a hideous and life-destroying war had broken

129 out between king Jayanta and his younger royal brother. When Kassapa, gifted with the ten powers,2 the Sage, full of compassion, knew how great was the wretchedness caused to

130 beings by this war, then, to bring it to an end and afterwards to achieve the converting of beings and progress of the doctrine

131 in this island, he, urged on by the might of his compassion,

through the air surrounded by twenty thousand (disciples) like to himself, and he stood on the Subhakuta-mountain.

132 * Standing there, O king of men, the King of the Wise, the Great proclaimed his will: "All men in Mandadlpa

1 Cf. 15. 57 foil, and 91 foil 2 See note to 3. 6.xv. 147 The Acceptance of the Mahavihara 107

shall see me this day; and i£ they only desire to come (to me) 133 all men shall draw near to me without trouble and speedily/7

'When the king and the townsfolk saw the Prince of the 134 Wise, shining and making the mountain to shine, they came swiftly thither. The many people who were coming to the 135 mountain bringing offerings to the devatas, that their own side might win the victory, believed the Guide of the World 136 with the brotherhood to be (such) devatas; and the king and the prince amazed,, halted in their battle. When the king, 137 greatly rejoicing, had greeted the King of the Wise, had invited him to a repast and had brought him to the city, the monarch then thinking: "This stately and pleasant place is 138 fitting for the resting-place of the King of the Wise with the brotherhood and not too small/' made the Sambuddha and 139 the brotherhood sit here on beautiful seats in a fine pavilion raised (by him).

f When the people of the island saw the Guide of the World 140 with the brotherhood sitting here, they brought gifts hither from every side. And the king served the Guide of the 141 World together with the brotherhood with his own .food,'both hard and soft, and with such (foods) as were brought by sundry other folk.

e While the Conqueror was sitting, after the meal, on this 142 very spot, the king offered him the Mahasagara-garden as a precious gift. And when the Mahasagara-grove, gay with 143 blossoms at an unwonted season, was accepted by the Buddha, the great earth quaked. And sitting even here, the Master 144 preached the doctrine; then twenty thousand persons attained to the fruit of the path (of salvation).

c When the Blessed One had stayed the day through in the 145 Mahasagara-grove, he went in the evening to that plot of ground where the former Bodhi-trees had stood, and after he, 146 sitting there, had sunk into deep meditation, the Sambuddha, rising from thence again, thought, mindful of the salvation of the island-people ; ce Bringing the south branch of my Bodhi- 147 tree, the nigrodha,1 with her, the bhikkhunl Sudhamma shall come now with (other) bhikkhunls."

1 Ficus Indica, the banyan-tree.108 Mahavamsa XV. 148

148 ' When the then knew his thought she forthwith took the

149 king1 of that region with her and went to the tree. Then when the then of wondrous power had drawn a line with a pencil of red arsenic around the south branch, she took the

150 Bodhi-branch thus separated and set it in a golden vase, and this, by her miraculous power, she brought hither, O great king, with (her company of). five hundred bhikkhunis, surrounded by

151 the devatas; and she placed it with its golden vase, in the out-stretched right hand of the Sambuddha; the Tathagata

152 received it and gave it to the king Jayanta to plant; the lord of the earth planted it there in the Mahasagara-garden.

153 ' Then the Buddha went northward from the Nagamalaka and preached the doctrine to the people seated in the Asoka-

154 malaka. When they heard the preaching of the doctrine, 0 ruler of men, even there the conversion of four thousand

155 living beings took place. When he had then gone yet further northward to the place where the former Buddhas had sat, and after he, sitting there, had sunk into meditation, the

156 Sambuddha, rising from thence again, preached the doctrine to those around him; and even in that place did ten thousand living beings attain to the fruit of the path (of salvation).

157 f Giving his rain-cloak as a relic for the homage of the people,

158 and leaving the bhikkhunl here with her following, and also his disciple Sabbananda with a thousand bhikkhus, he, stand-

159 ing on this side of the river (and) of the Sudassanamala in the Somanassamalaka, delivered exhortations to the people; then rising with the brotherhood into the air, the Conqueror returned to Jambudipa.

160 ' Fourth in our age of the world lived the Conqueror Gotama, the teacher, knowing the whole truth, compassionate

161 toward the whole world. When he came hither the first time he drove forth the yakkhas, when he came hither again the

162 second time he subdued the nagas. When, besought by the naga Mariiakkhi in Kalyani, he returned the third time, he took

163 his meal there with the brotherhood; and when he had taken

1 According to the likS king Kikl in the city of Biwnasi (Benares). SeeBtiddhavai^sa XXV.3S; Thjerigaths,Comm.(Pa»matU»dipaiiiV),

p.xy..173 The Acceptance oftJie MahaviMra 109

his ease * in. the place where the former Bodhi-trees had stood and in the place here appointed for the thupa and (also) in. the place (appointed for the guarding) of those (things) used by him (and left as) relics,2 and when he had gone to this 164 side of the place where the former Buddhas had stood, the great Sage, the Light of the "World, since there were then no human beings in Lankadlpa, uttered exhortations to the host 165 of devatas, dwelling in the island, and to the nagas; then rising into the air with the brotherhood the Conqueror returned to Jambudlpa,

' Thus was this place, O king, visited by four Buddhas; on 166 this spot, 0 great king, will the thupa stand hereafter, with 167 the relic-chamber for a dona 3 of the relics of the Buddha's body; (it will be) a hundred and twenty cubits4 high and (will be) known by the name HemamalL'

Then said the ruler of the earth: fi I myself will build it/ 168 'For thee, O king, are many other tasks to fulfil here. Do 169 thou carry them out; but one descended from thee shall build this ,(thupa). A son of thy brother5 the vice-regent Mahanama, one named Yatthalayakatissa, will hereafter be 170 king, his son will be the king named Gothabhaya; his son 171 will be (the king) named Kakavannatissa; this king's son, 0 king, will be the great king named Abhaya, renowned under 172 the title Dutthagamani: he, great in glory, wondrous power and prowess, will build the thupa here/

Thus spoke the thera, and because of the thera's words the 173

1 Lit. < when he had enjoyed by sitting down (in meditation) the place, &c/

2 Cf. 15, 88. 122, 157. Paribhogadhatu is a relic consisting of something used by the dead Saint, in opposition to sariradhatu ' body-relic ', i. e. remains of his body.

3 A certain measure of capacity. See CHILDERS, P.jD., s. v.

* According to the Abhidhanappadipika a ratana or hattha is equal to 2 vidatthi (= 8|-9 inches). See EHYS DAVIDS, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p. 15. The total height of the thupa would accordingly be nearly 180 feet. This is exactly the height1 of the main lody of the RuwanwEeli-dagaba without the l tee J. SMITHEB, Architectural Remains, AnurddJiapura, p. 27 and Plate XXIV.

5 Cf. 22. 1 foil.HO Mahavamsa xv. 174

monarch set up here a pillar of stone, whereon he inscribed these sayings.

174 And as the great and most wise thera, Mahinda of wondrous power, accepted the pleasant Mahamegha-grove, the Tissarama,

175 he, the unshakeable caused the earth to quake in eight places;1 and when going his round for alms he had entered the city

176 like unto the ocean and had taken his meal in the king's house, he left the palace, and when, sitting there in the Nandana-grove, he had preached to the people the sutta

177 Aggikkhandhopama 2 and had made a thousand persons partakers in the fruit of the path (of sanctification) he rested (again) in the Mahamegha-grove.

178 When the thera had eaten on the third day in the king's house, and sitting in the Nandana-grove had preached the

179 Aslvisiipama,3 and had thereby led a thousand persons to conversion, the thera went thence to the Tissarama.

180 But the king, who had heard the preaching, seated himself at the thera's feet and asked: 'Does the doctrine of the Conqueror stand, sir ?' f "Not yet, O ruler of men, only,

181 O lord of nations, when the boundaries are established4 here for the uposatha-ceremony and the other acts (of religion), according to the command of the Conqueror, shall the doctrine stand/

182 Thus spoke the great thera, and the king answered thus: CI will abide under the Buddha's command, thou Giver of

183 light! Therefore establish the boundaries with all speed, taking in the city/ Thus spoke the great king and the thera

184 answered thus: * If it be so, then do thou thyself, lord of the earth, mark out the course of the boundary; we will establish

185 it/ clt is well/ said the lord of the earth, and even like the king of the gods leaving the Nandana5 (garden) he went forth from the Mahameghavanarama into his palace.

186 "When the thera on the fourth day had eaten in the king's house, he preached, sitting in the Nandana-grove, the Ana-

1 Of. 15. 25, 28, 31, 33, 37,45, 47, 55, 2 Cf. note to 12. 34.

9 See the note to 12. 26. * Cf. note to 14.32.

6 Nandana or Nanda (see 31. 44) is the name of a pleasure-garden in Indra's heaven.xv. 196 The Acceptance of the Mahavihara 111

matagga-discourse,1 and when he had given there a thousand 187 persons to drink of the draught of immortality, the great thera went to the Mahameghavanarama. But having com- 188 nianded in the morning to beat the drum and to adorn the splendid city and the road leading to the vihara and all around the vihara,, the lord of chariots came upon his car to his arama, 189 adorned with all his ornaments, together with his ministers and the women of the harem, with chariots, troops and beasts 190 for riders,2 in a mighty train.

When he had here sought out the theras and paid his respects to these to whom respect was due, he ploughed a 191 furrow in a circle, making it to begin near the ford on the Kadamba-river, and ended it when he (again) reached the river.3

When he had assigned boundary-marks on the furrow that 192 the king had ploughed and had assigned the boundaries for thirty-two malakas and for the Thuparama, the great thera 193 of lofty wisdom, then fixed the inner boundary-marks likewise according to custom; and thus the ruler (of his senses) 194 did on one and the same day establish all the boundaries. The great earth quaked when the fixing of the boundaries was completed.

When on the fifth day the thera had eaten in the king's 195 house he preached, sitting in the Nandana-grove, the Khajja-mya-suttanta,4 to a great multitude of people, and when he 196

1 Note to 12. 31.

2 The Tika explains sayoggabalavahano so: ettha yoggam ti rathasakatadi, balam ti sena, vahane ti hatthiassadi. Cf. 25. 1.

8 On this verse cf. Mah. ed., p. xxxvi. The ford of the Kadamba-river from which the boundary line starts and to which it returns is called in the Tika Gangalatittha. Instead of the one verse 191 the Sinhalese MSS. have, in all, twenty verses which describe how the king himself guides the plough and in which the different areas marked off are designated. The passage is a later interpolation, drawn chiefly from a Slmakatha of the Mahavihara.

4 The Khajjaniyavagga from S. Ill, pp. 81-104. Specially, perhaps, the Sihasuttanta (XXII. 79) on pp. 86-91,112 MaMvamsa, xv. 197

had given to drink of the ambrosial draught to a thousand persons there, he rested (again) in the Mahamegha-grove.

197 When also on the sixth day the thera had eaten in the king's house he preached, sitting in the Nandana-grove, the

198 Gomayapindl-suttaj1 and after the wise preacher had thus brought a thousand persons to conversion he rested (again) in the Mahamegha-grove,

199 When on the seventh day the thera had eaten in the king's house he preached, sitting in the Nandana-garden, the

200 Dhammaeakkappavattana-suttanta,2 and having brought a thousand persons to conversion he rested (again) in the

201 Mahamegha-grove, when he, the light-giver, had in this wise brought eight thousand five hundred persons to conversion in the space of only seven days.

202 The Nandana-grove being the place where the holy one had made the true doctrine to shine forth, is called the Jotivana.3

203 And in the very first days the king commanded that a pasada be built for the thera in the Tissarama, and he had the bricks

204 of clay dried speedily with fire. The dwelling-house was dark-coloured and therefore they named it the Kalapasada-parivena.4

205 Then did he set up a building for the great Bodhi-tree, the

206 Lohapasada,5 a salaka-house,6 and a seemly refectory. He built many parivenas in an excellent manner, and bathing-tanks and buildings for repose, by night and by day, and so

1 I. e. * the discourse on the clod of cow-dung.3 S. Ill, p. 143 foil.

2 Cf. note to 12. 41.

8 I.e. ' Grove of light.'

4 I. e. * Cell of the black house.' On pasada see note to 27.14.

5 We have here apparently a tradition according to which the

Lohapasada was built by Devanamplyatissa and not first erected "by Dutthagamani The Tika explains the passage in this way that Dutthagamani "built his 4 House of Bronze * when the old one had been removed.

% Foodt given as a present to the monastery collectively, is distributed to the monks by tickets or orders called salaka ('slip* of wood, bark, &c.). The "building where the distribution takes place, is the salakagga * salaka-honse.'' CHILDEBS, P.D., s.v. salaka.xv. 214 The Acceptance of the Mahavihara, 113

forth. The parivena on the brink of the bathing-tank (which 207 was allotted) to the blameless (thera) is called the Sunhata-parivena.1 The parivena on the spot where the excellent 208 Light of the Island used to walk up and down is called Dlgha-cankamana,2 But the parivena which was built where he had 209 sat sunk in the meditation 3 that brings the highest bliss is called from this the Phalagga-parivena.4 The (parivena built there) 210 where the thera had seated himself leaning against a support is called from this the Therapassaya-parivena.5 The (parivena 211 built) where many hosts of gods had sought him out and sat at his feet is therefore called the Marugana-parivena.6 The 212 commander of the king's troops, Dlghasandana, built a little pasada for the thera with eight great pillars. This 213 famed parivena, the home of renowned men/ is called the Dlghasandasenapati-parivena.

The wise king, whose name contains the words ' beloved of 214 the gods', patronizing the great thera Mahinda, of spotless rnindj first built here in Lanka this Mahavihara.8

Here ends the fifteenth chapter, called f The Acceptance of the Mahavihara ^ in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 I.e. the cell of him -who is well-bathed or purified. The naha-tapapo ' who has washed away tlie evil' is Mahinda, as also is the dipadipo in 208.

2 I. e. tlie long walk or the long hall for walking. See note to 5.226, 8 On the eight samapatti, i.e. the states of trance reached by

samadhi'meditation', see KJEBN, Manual, p. 57.

4 I. e. cell of the highest reward.

5 I. e. cell of the thera's support.

6 L e. cell of the hosts of gods.

7 On this allusion to the author of the Mahavamsa, Mahanama, see GrEiGEK, Dtp. and Mah. (English ed.), p. 41.

8 Mahavihara, £the great monastery,1 is henceforth the name for tlie MahameghaYanarama.CHAPTEE XVI


1 GOING into the city for alms and showing favour to the people (by preaching); eating in the king's house and showing

2 favour to the king (by preaching) the thera dwelt twenty-sis days in the Mahamegha-grove. But when, on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the month Asalha/ the lofty-souled

3 (thera) had eaten in the great king's house and had preached

4 (to him) the Mahappamada-suttanta,2 he went thence, for he would fain have a vihara founded on the Cetiya-mountain/ departing by the east gate (he went) to the Cetiya-mountain.

5 When the king heard that the thera had gone thither he mounted his car, and taking the two queens with, him he

6 followed hard after the thera. When the theras had bathed in the Nagacatukka-tank4 they stood in their due order to go

7 up to the mountain-top. Then the king stepped down from the car and stood there respectfully greeting the theras. * Wherefore, 0 king, art thou come wearied by the heat ? * they said ;

8 and on the reply: c Troubled by your departure am I cpme/ the theras answered: * We are come to spend the rain-season,

9 even here/ and he who was versed in the rules5 (of the

1 See note to 1. 12.

3 Le. * Great discourse on vigilance.* Tliere are several suttas in S., bearing the title appamadasutta. See note to 5. 68.

1 The later name of the Missaka-mountain, given on account of the many shrines built there. See note to 13.14.

1 Sec note to 14. 36

8 Lit. who versed in the khandhas, L e. the sections of the vinaya (CHILDERS F.V. vinayoi. The vassupanayika khandhaka is III f OLDEN BEBG, the Tin. Pit. i, p. 137 foil.; S.B.E. xiii, p, iiSte foil.}. Daring the rainy season the bhikkhus were forbidden to travel, but used to live together in a vihara. See KEEK, J/CU3- «/, p, 80 foIL, on the vassavasa.xvi. 18 The A cceptance of the Cetiyapablata-viliara 115

order), expounded to the king the chapter concerning the vassa.

When the king's nephew, the chief minister Maharittha, 10 who stood near the king with his fifty-five elder and younger brothers, heard this, after seeking the king's leave, they 11 received the pabbajja that very day from the thera, and all these wise men attained to arahantship even in the shaving-hall.1

When the king, on that same day, had made a beginning 12 with the work of building sixty-eight rock-cells about (the place where) the Kantaka-cetiya (afterwards stood), he 13 returned to the city; but the theras remained in that spot, going at the appointed time, full of compassion (for the people) to the city to beg alms there.

When the work on the rock-cells was finished, on the full- 14 moon day of the month Asalha, the king came and gave the vihara to the theras as a consecrated offering.

When the thera, who had passed beyond the boundaries (of 15 evil) had established the boundaries for the thirty-two malakas 2 and the vihara, then did he on the very same day in the Tumbaru-malaka, which was marked out as the first of all, 16 confer the upasampada on all those who were weary of the pabbajja.3 And these sixty-two arahants, taking up their 17 abode during the rain-season all together on the Cetiya-mountain, showed favour to the king (by their teaching).

And, in that the hosts of gods and men drew near with 18 reverence to him, the leader of the host (of his disciples), and to his company that had attained to wide renown for virtue, they heaped up great merit.

Her ends the sixteenth chapter, called c The Acceptance of the Cetiyapabbata-vihara', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 Where, as is the rule at the admission of bhikkhus, their hair was shaved off. 2 See note to 15. 29.

8 Pabbajjapekkhanam stands for pabbajja-upekkhanam. Maharittha and his brothers have only received the pabbajja or first ordination a few days before (see 11), but they already long for the higher ordination, the upasampada.



1 WHEN the great thera of lofty wisdom, after spending the rain-season (thus), had held the pavarana-ceremony,1 on the full-moon day of the month Kattika/ he spoke thus to the

2 king-: (Long is the time, 0 lord of men, since we have seen the Samhuddha. We lived a life without a master. There is

3 nothing here for us to worship/ And to the question: c Yet hast thou not told me, sir, that the Sambxiddha is passed into nibbana ?' he answered : ' If we behold the relics we behold the

4 Conqueror.' e My intention to build a thupa is known to you.

5 I will build the thupa, and do you discover the relics.' The thera replied to the king: ' Take counsel with Sumana'; and the king said to the samanera: c Whence shall we have the

6 relics?* C0 lord of men, when thou hast commanded the adorning o£ the city and the road and hast taken the uposatha-vows upon thyself3 together with thy company, go thou, in

7 the evening, mounted on thy state-elephant, bearing the white parasol and attended by musicians,4 to the Mahanaga-park.

8 There, 0 king, wilt thou receive relics of him who knew how to destroy the elements of existence/5 so said the samanera Sumana to the (king), glad of heart,

3 Pavaretva. On the pavarana-ceremony at the conclusion of see Mahavagga IV. Fm, Pit., ed. OLDEKBEEO, i, p. 157 foil.; SLB.E. nii, p. 825 foil

s See note to 1.12.

1 Uposathi Is a synonym of uposatliika. The uposatha-vows as kept by laymen consist in * fasting and abstinence from sensual pleasures * CHILDERS, s.v, up o sat ho).

* The Tiki explains talSvacarasamliito by sabbehi tala-faeareki sabito bherimndiEgaditunyaliatthapuriselii pa-riv£rito.

s A play on the word dhatu, meaning & element' (see KERN; /, p. 51, n, 2), and dhitu s relic*.?xvii. 21 The Arrival of Hie Relics 117

And now the thera went forth from the king's house to the 9 Cetiya-mountain and summoned the samanera Sumana, bent on holy thoughts.1 ' Go, friend Sumana,, and when thou art 10 come to the fair Pupphapura,2 deliver to the mighty king, thy grandfather, this charge from us : " Thy friend, O great king, 11 the great king, the friend of the gods/ desires, being converted to the doctrine of the Buddha, to build a thupa; do thou give 12 him the relies of the Sage and the alms-bowl that the Master used, for many relics of the (Buddha's) body are with thee." When thou hast received the alms-bowl full (of relics) go to 13 the fair city of the gods and declare to Sakka, king of the gods, this charge from us : ce The relic, the right eye-tooth of 14 the (Buddha), worthy of the adoration of the three worlds, is with thee, 0 king of the gods, and the relic of the right collar-bone. Honour thou the tooth; the collar-bone of the 15 Master do thou give away. Grow not weary of thy duty toward the isle of Lanka, O lord of the gods ! "'

And the samanera of wondrous power, replying: c So be it, 16 sir,3 went, that very moment, to the king Dhammasoka and 17 found him even as he stood at the foot of a sala-tree and honoured the beautiful and sacred Bodhi-tree with the offerings of the Kattika-festival.

"When he had delivered the thera's charge and had accepted 18 the alms-bowl full of relics received from the king he went to the Himalaya. When, on the Himalaya, he had set down that 19 most sacred bowl with the relics, he went to the king of the gods and delivered the thera's charge.

Sakka, the lord of the gods, took from the Culamani-cetiya 4 20 the right collar-bone (of the Buddha) and gave it to the samanera. Thereupon the ascetic Sum ana took the relic and 21 the bowl with the relics likewise and returning to the Cetiya-mountain he handed them to the thera.

1 Play on the name Sumana and su-manogati. Wijesinha translates the'surname 'whose mind was well-disposed to the work that was to be confided to him '. For the rendering in the Tlka see Mah. ed., note on this passage.

2 See note to 4. 81.

3 Maruppiya, a synonym of Devanampiya.

* A sacred shrine supposed to be erected in the heaven of gods.118 Mahavamsa xvil.22

22 In the evening the king, at the head o£ the royal troops, went to the Mahanaga-park, in the manner (already) told.

23 The them put all the relics down there on the mountain, and therefore the Missaka-mountain was called the Cetiya-mountain.

24 When the them had put the vessel with the relics on the Cetiya-mountain, he took the collar-bone relic and went with his company o£ disciples to the appointed place.

25 26 relic-urn, coming (toward me) with the relic shall descend upon my head.1 So thought the king, and as he thought so

27 it came to pass. And as i£ sprinkled with ambrosia the monarch was full of joy, and taking (the urn) from his head lie set it on the back of the elephant.

28 Then did the elephant trumpet joyfully and the earth quaked. And the elephant turned about and having- entered

29 the fair city by the east gate, together with the theras and the troops and vehicles, and having left it again by the south

30 gate he went to the building of the Great Sacrifice set up1 to the west of the spot where (afterwards) the cetiya of the Thupurama 2 was ; and when he had turned around OTL the place

"} I of the Bodhi-tree he remained standing, his head turned toward the east.

But at that time the place of the thupa was covered with flowering kadamba-plants and adari-creepers.3

32 When the god among men had caused this holy place, protected by the gods, to be cleared and adorned, he began forth-

33 with, in seemly wise, to take the relic down from the

1 Evidently the mahejjaghara mentioned in 10. 90. There, as here, the Sinhalese MSS. have pabheda instead of mahejja.

2 The thfipa of the ThupSrama, the erection of which Is described In our passage, i? situated near the southern wall of the city in the NazuLma-ganJen. Cf. note to L 82.

3 Tliis creeper is mentioned in the Mahavamsa in five places,

the above passage: 19. 73, 33. 35? 35. 104: kadambapup-plusruwba; 25. 48; kadambapupphavalli; 35. 116: kadam-thSna. For IdSri I would refer to the Ski .names of itllra aaixvii. 44 The Arrival of the Relics 119

elephant's back. But this the elephant would not suffer, and the king asked the thera what he wished. And the other 34 answered : f He would fain have (them) put in a place that is equal (in height) to his back; therefore will he not suffer them to be taken down.'

Then with lumps o£ dry clay that he had commanded to be 35 broughtl straightway from the dried Abhaya-tank2 he raised a pile even as (high as the elephant), and when the king had 36 caused this high-standing place to be adorned in manifold ways and had caused the relic to be taken down from the back of the elephant, he placed it there.

(Then) having entrusted the elephant with the guarding of 37 the relic and having left him there, the king, whose heart was set on building a thupa for the relic, and who speedily com- 38 manded many people to make bricks, went back with his ministers to the city meditating (to hold) a solemn festival for the relic. But the great thera Mahinda went with his company of 3 9 disciples to the beautiful Mahamegha-grove and rested there.

During the night the elephant paced around the place with 40 the relic; through the day he stood with the relic in the hall on the spot (destined) for the Bodhi-tree. When the 41 monarch, obedient to the thera's wish, had built up 3 the thupa knee-high above that (brick-)work and had caused the (festival 42 of the) laying down of the relic to be proclaimed in that same place, he went thither and from this region and that, from every side a multitude assembled there.

Amid this assembly the relic rose up in the air from the 43 elephant's back, and floating in the air plain to view, at the height of seven talas, throwing the people into amazement, 44

1 Read anapetva, as in good MSS., instead of anapetva.

2 See note to 10. 84.

8 According to the MSS. cinapetva should be read, not khana-petva (TuRNOUK). The sense is as follows: The original brickwork, as described in v. 35, remains standing. Its surface forms the base for the relic-chamber. Round about and from this the building of the thupa is continued knee-high (janghamatta) so as to be finished in the shape of a hemisphere, after the placing of the relic in the chamber thus formed.120 Mahavamsa XVII.45

it wrought that miracle of the double appearances,1 that caused the hair (of the beholders) to stand on end, even as (did)

45 the Buddha under the Gandamba-tree. By the rays of light and streams of water pouring down therefrom was the whole land of Lanka illumined and flooded again and again.

46 When the Conqueror lay stretched upon the couch of the great nibbana the five great resolutions were formed by him, who was endowed with the five eyes.2

47 'The south branch of the great Bodhi-tree, grasped by Asoka, being detached of itself, shall place itself in a vase.

48 When it is so placed the branch, illumining all the regions of the world, shall put forth lovely rays of six colours from its

49 fruits and leaves. Then, rising up with the golden vase, this delightful (tree) shall abide invisible for seven days in the

50 region of snow. My right collar-bone, if it be laid in the Thuparama, shall rise in the air and perform the miracle of

51 the double appearances. If my pure relics, filling- a dona-measure, are laid in the Hemamalika-cetiya, that ornament of

52 Lanka, they shall take the form of the Buddha, and rising and floating in the air, they shall take their place after having wrought the miracle of the double appearances.'

53 Thus did the Tathagata form five resolutions and therefore

54 was the miracle then wrought by the relic. Coming down from the air it rested on the head of the monarcli, and full of

55 joy the king laid it in the cetiya. So soon as the relic was laid in the cetiya a wondrous great earthquake came to pass,

56 causing a thrill (of awe). Thus are the Buddhas incomprehensible, and incomprehensible is the nature of the Buddhas, and incomprehensible is the reward of those who have faith in the incomprehensible.

1 Thia yamakam patihariyarn is mentioned again 30. 82 (iimbamfile patihiraip) and 81. 99. The reference is to the

miracle performed by the Buddha In Savatthi, fco refute the heretical teacher* (cf. Samanta-pagSdlka, OLDEHBERG, Vin. Pit. in, p. 33210).

It eofisigted in the appearance of phenomena of opposite character in ^ ai for example, streaming forth of fire and water.

This miracle was performed by the Buddha repeatedly.

(FAUSBOLL, i, p. 7722S SB20.)

£ note to 3.1.xvii. 65 The Arrival of the Relics 121

When the people saw the miracle they had faith in the 57 Conqueror. But the prince Mattabhaya, the king's younger brother, who had faith in the King of Sages,, begged leave of 58 the king of men and received the pabbajja of the doctrine with a thousand of his followers.

And from Cetavigama and also from Dvaramandala1 and also 59 from Viharablja, even as from Gallakapltha and from Upatis- 60 sagama/ from each of these there received gladly the pabbajja five hundred young men in whom faith in the Tathagata had been awakened.

So all these who, (coming) from within the city and with- 61 out (the city), had received the pabbajja of the Conqueror's doctrine now numbered thirty thousand bhikkhus.

When the ruler of the earth had completed the beautiful 62 thupa in the Thuparama he caused it to be worshipped perpetually with gifts of many jewels and so forth. The women 63 of the royal household, the nobles, ministers, townspeople, and also all the country-folk brought each their offerings.

And here the king founded a vihara, the thupa of which 64 had been built before; for that reason this vihara was known by the name Thuparama.

Thus by these relics of his body the Master of the World, 65 being already passed into nibbana, truly bestowed salvation and bliss in abundance on mankind. How can there be discourse (of this, as it was) when the Conqueror yet lived?

Here ends the seventeenth chapter, called c The Arrival of the Relics"*, in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 See note to 10. 1. 2 See note to 7. 44.CHAPTEE XVIII


1 THE monarch remembered the word spoken by the thera, that he should send for the great Bodhi-tree and the therl,

2 and when, on a certain day during the rain-season, he was sitting in his own city with the thera and had taken counsel

3 with his ministers he entrusted his own nephew, his minister named Arittha, with this business.

When he had pondered (on the matter) and had sum-

4 moned him he spoke to him in these words : ' Canst thou perchance, my dear, go to Dhammasoka to bring hither the great

5 Bodhi-tree and the therl Samghamitta ?} ' I can bring them hither, your majesty, if I be allowed, when I am come back, to receive the pabbajj% O most exalted!'

6 c So be it/ answered the king and sent him thence. When he had received the command of the thera and the king and

7 had taken his leave he set forth on the second day of the bright half of the month Assayuja,1 and having embarked,

8 filled with zeal (for his mission) at tie haven Jambukola -and having passed over the great ocean he came, by the power of the thera's will, to the pleasant Pupphapura2 even on the day of his departure.

9 The queen Anula, who^ with five hundred maidens and five 10 hundred women of the royal harem had accepted the ten

precepts;1 did (meanwhile) pious as she was, (wearing) the

1 See note to 1. 12.

2 See note to 4. 31.

3 Basasilam. These are the precepts: (1) not to kill any living being, (2) to refrain from taking the property of others, (8) not to

adultery, (4) to avoid lying, (5) to drink no intoxicating drink,

(6) to food at certain prescribed hours, (7) to avoid worldly

amusements, (8) to use neither unguents nor ornaments, (9) not to

oa a or decorated bed, (10) not to accept any gold or silver.

There are also frequent references to the five or eight pledges whichxviii. 22 The Receiving of the Great Bodhi-tree 123

yellow robe,, waiting for the pabbajja, in discipline, looking for the coming- of the then, take up her abode, leading a holy life,, 11 in the pleasant nunnery built by the king in a certain part of the city. Since the nunnery was inhabited by these lay- 12 sisters it became known in Lanka by the name Upasika-vihara.1

When the nephew Maharittha had delivered the king's 13 message to the king Dhammasoka he gave him (also) the thera's message: 'The spouse of the brother of thy friend, of the 14 king1 (Devanampiya), O thou elephant among kings, lives, longing for the pabbajja, constantly in stern discipline. To be- 15 stow on her the pabbajja do thou send the bhikkhunl Samgha-mitta and with her the south branch of the great Bodhi-tree.'

And the same matter, even as the thera had charged him, 16 he told the then; the then went to her father (Asoka) and told him the thera's purpose.

The king said: ' How shall I, when I no longer behold thee, 17 dear one, master the grief aroused by the parting with son and grandson ?'2

She answered: 'Weighty is the word of my brother, O 18 great king; many are theiy that must receive the pabbajja ; therefore must I depart thither.' 'The great Bodhi-trees 19 must not be injured with a knife, how then can I have a branch !' mused the king. Then when he, following the 20 counsel of his minister Mahadeva, had invited the community of bhikkhus and had shown them hospitality the monarch asked : ' Shall the great Bodhi-tree be sent to Lanka, sirs ?' 21

The thera Moggaliputta answered: f It shall be sent thither,1 and he related to the king the five great resolutions that the 22 (Buddha) gifted with the five eyes had formed.3

one may take on oneself. These are the first five or eight respectively of the above series. For members of the order the third precept is more rigorous, since sexual intercourse must be avoided altogether. See note on 1. 62.

1 I. e.' Vihara of the lay-sisters.'

2 That is, from Mahinda and Sumana, the son of Samghamitta and Aggibrahma (5. 170 ; 13. 4, &c.).

3 See 17. 46 foil.124 MaMvamsa xvm.23

:23 When the ruler of the earth heard this he was glad, and when he had caused the road, seven yojanas long, leading to the great Bodhi-tree to he carefully cleaned he adorned it in

24 manifold ways, and gold he caused to be brought to make ready a vase. Vissakamma,1 who appeared in the semblance of

25 a goldsmith, asked: 'How large shall I make the vase?' Then being answered: ' Thyself deciding the size do thou

26 make it/ he took the gold, and having moulded it with his hand he made a vase in that very moment and departed thence.

27 When the king had received the beautiful vase measuring nine cubits 2 around and five cubits in depth and three cubits

28 across, being eight finger-breadths thick, having the upper edge of the size of a young elephants trunk, being in radiancy

29 equal to the young (morning) sun; when, with his army of four divisions3 stretching to a length of seven yojanas and a width of three yojanas, and with a great company of

30 bhikkhus, he had gone to the great Bodhi-tree, decked with manifold ornaments, gleaming with yarious jewels and gar-

31 landed with many coloured flags ;* when he, moreover, had ranged his troops about (the tree), bestrewn with manifold flowers and resounding with many kinds of music and had

32 covered it round with a tent; when in seemly wise he had surrounded himself and the great Bodjii-tree with a thousand great theras at the head of a great cpmpany (of bhikkhus) and with more than a thousand princes who had been

33 anointed as king, he gazed up with folded hands at the great Bodhi-tree.

34 Then from its south bough the branches vanished, leaving a stump four cubits long.

1 The God of skill; Skt. Visvak airman.

f Se© note to 15. 16.

s Caturangini sena, consisting of foot-soldiers, cavalry, com-in chariots, and elephants.

* On the world-wide custom of decking out sacred trees with gay strip* of stuff see AHDBEE, Eihuogr. ParalUlen und Vergfeiche, p. 58 foil Concerning such a * Lappenbanm * on the Terrace of the Ruwan-wseli-dagaba ia Anurfidhapuro, see GEIWEE, Ceylon, p. 181.xvni. 46 The Receiving oftJie Great BodM-tree 125

When the ruler of the earth saw the miracle he cried out, 35 rejoicing: (I worship the great Bodhi-tree by bestowing kingship (thereon)/ and the monarch consecrated the great 36 Bodhi-tree as king o£ his great realm. "When he had worshipped the great Bodhi-tree with gifts of flowers and so forth, and had passed round it three times turning to the left1 and had done reverence to it at eight points2 with 37 folded hands, he had the golden vase placed upon a seat inlaid with gold, adorned with various gems and easy to 38 mount, reaching to the height of the bough; and when, in order to receive the sacred branch, he had mounted upon it, grasping a pencil of red arsenic with a golden handle he drew 39 (with this) a line about the bough and uttered the solemn declaration:3

(So truly as the great Bodhi-tree shall go hence to the 40 isle of Lanka, and so truly as I shall stand unalterably firm in the doctrine of the Buddha, shall this fair south branch of 41 the great Bodhi-tree, severed of itself, take its place here in this golden vase/

Then the great Bodhi-tree severed, of itself, at the place 42 where the line was, floating above the vase filled with fragrant earth. Above the line first (drawn) the ruler of men drews 43 at (a distance of) three finger-breadths, round about ten (further) pencil-strokes. And ten strong roots springing from 44 the first and ten slender from each of the other (lines) dropped, down, forming a net.

When the king saw this miracle he uttered even theres 45 greatly gladdened, a cry of joy, and with him his followers all around and the community of bhikkhus raised, with glad 46

1 Tlpaclakkhinam katva, i.e. Itad walked round it In such a manner that the thing- or person worshipped is kept on the right hand,

2 1. e. at the four cardinal points, E., N., &c., as well as the intermediate points, NE., NW., &c.

3 The conception of the saccakiriyi9 lit, * effect of the truth,* is bardlj to be rendered In a translation. Beside the declaration it includes a wish. Tbe saecakiriyi is always given In this form ; if or 90 truly OB and such Is the easa shall such and such a thing tome to See CHILDERS, P. Z>., s.v.126 MaMvamsa xvin.47

hearts,, cries of salutation and round about was a thousandfold waving of stuffs.

47 Thus with a hundred roots the great Bodhi-tree set itself there in the fragrant earth, converting the people to the

48 faith. Ten cuhits long was the stem; five lovely branches (were thereon), each four cubits long and (each) adorned with

49 five fruits, and on these branches were a thousand twigs. Such was the ravishing and auspicious great Bodhi-tree.

50 At the moment that the great Bodhi-tree set itself in the vase the earth quaked and wonders of many kinds came to

51 pass. By the resounding of the instruments of music (which gave out sound) of themselves among gods and men, by the ringing-out of the shout of salutation from the hosts of devas

52 and brahmas,1 by the crash of the clouds, (the voices) of beasts and birds, of the yakkhas and so forth and by the crash

53 of the quaking of the earth all was in one tumult. Beautiful2 rays of six colours going forth from the fruits and leaves of

54 the Bodhi-tree made the whole universe to shine. Then rising in the air with the vase the great Bodhi-tree stayed for seven days invisible in the region of the snow.

55 The king came down from his seat and sojourning there for seven days he continually brought offerings in many ways

56 to the great Bodhi-tree. When the week was gone by all the snow-clouds and all the rays likewise entered into the

57 great Bodhi-tree^ and in the clear atmosphere the glorious great Bodhi-tree was displayed to the whole people, planted

58 in the golden vase. Whilst wonders of many kinds came to pass the great Bodhi-tree, plunging mankind into amazement, descended on the earth.

59 Rejoiced by the many wonders the great king worshipped again the great Bodhi-tree by (bestowing on it) his great

60 kingdom, and, when he had consecrated the great Bodhi-tree unto great kingship he abode, worshipping it with divers offerings, yet another week in that same place.

61 In the bright half of the month Assaytija on the fifteenth uposatha-day he received the ^reat Bc5 1 I. e. gods of lower and higher rank.

2 Of. on 53-54 the prophecy In 17. 48, 49.xviii. 68 The Receiving oftlie Great Bod"hi4ree 127

after in the dark half of the month Assayuja on the four- 62 teenth-uposatha day the lord of chariots brought the great Bodhi-tree, having placed it on a beautiful car on the same 63 day, amid offerings, to his capital; and when he had built a beautiful hall (for it) adorned in manifold ways, and there 64 on the first day of the bright half of the month Kattika had caused the great Bodhi-tree to be placed on the east side of the foot of a beautiful and great sala-tree, he allotted to it 65 day by day many offerings. But on the seventeenth day after the receiving (of the tree) new shoots appeared on it all 66 at once; therefore, rejoicing, the lord of men once more worshipped the great Bodhi-tree by bestowing kingship upon it. When the great ruler had consecrated the great Bodhi- 67 tree unto kingship he appointed a festival of offerings in divers forms for the great Bodhi-tree.

So it came to pass that the festival of adoration of the 68 great Bodhi-tree, vivid with gay and lovely flags, great, brilliant and splendid, in the city of flowers, opened the hearts of gods and men (to the faith) (even as) in the lake the sun (opens the lotuses).1

Here ends the eighteenth chapter, called c The Receiving of the Great Bodhi-treeJ, in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 The festival of the Bodhi-tree is compared to the sun (saramsa), the city of flowers, i.e. Pataliputta, to the lake (saras), and the hearts of gods and men to the lotus-flowers, growing in the lake.CHAPTER XIX


1 WHEN the lord of chariots had appointed to watch over the Bodhi-tree eighteen persons1 from royal families and eight

2 from families of ministers, and moreover eight persons from brahman families and eight from families of traders and persons from the cowherds likewise., and from the hyena

3 and sparrowhawk-clans,2 (from each one man); and also from the weavers and potters and from all the handicrafts, from

4 the nagas and the yakkhas; when then the most exalted prince had given them eight vessels of gold and eight of silver/ and had brought the great Bodhi-tree to a ship on the

5 Ganges, and likewise the then Samghamitia with eleven bhikkhunls,, and when he had caused those among whom

6 Arittha was first to embark on that same ship, he fared forth from the city, and passing over the Vinjha-mountains the prince arrived, in just one week, at Tamalittl.4

7 The gods also and the nagas and men who were worshipping* the great Bodhi-tree with the most splendid offerings, arrived

8 in just one week. The ruler of the earth, who Bad caused tie great Bodhi-tree to be placed on the shore of the great

1 In cievakola the word deva is evidently to be taken in the of *king', and merely as a synonym of khattiya. Kula

here, as below in 80 and 31, the individual belonging to a or craft.

3Taraccha (*= Sfct. taraksa) 'hyena*, and kulinga (=Skt. kulinga), the name of a bird of prey, the * fork-tailed shrike*, seem

to designate certain clans or crafts. Perhaps the names have a totraiutic origin. FBAZEB, Totemism, p. 3 foil.

8 To wafer the tree during the journey.

4 Tie king travels by land over the VIndhya range to the mouth of the Here he again meets the ship carrying the Bodhi-tree

and Its e&cort. On Ttoalittij see note to 11. 38.xix. 20 The Coming of the BodU-tree 129

ocean, worshipped it once more by (bestowing upon it) the great kingship.

When the wish-fulfiller had consecrated the great Bodhi- 9 tree as a great monarch, he then,, on the first day of the bright half of the month Maggasira,1 commanded that the same noble persons, eight of each (of the families) appointed 10 at the foot of the great sala-tree to escort2 the great Bodhi-tree, should raise up the great Bodhi-tree ; and, descending 11 there into the water till it reached his neck, he caused it to be set down in seemly wise on the ship. When he had 12 brought the great then with the (other) therls on to the ship he spoke these words to the chief minister Maharittha: 'Three times have I worshipped the great Bodhi-tree by 13 (bestowing) kingship (upon it). Even so shall the king my friend also worship it by (bestowing) kingship (upon it)/

When the great king had spoken thus he stood with folded 14 hands on the shore, and as he gazed after the vanishing great Bodhi-tree he shed tears. ' Sending forth a net like rays of 15 sunshine the great Bodhi-tree of the (Buddha) gifted with the ten powers3 departs, alas ! from hence! *

Filled with sorrow at parting from the great Bodhi-tree 16 Dhammasoka returned weeping and lamenting to his capital.

The ship, laden with the great Bodhi-tree, fared forth into 17 the sea. A yojana around the waves of the great ocean were stilled. Lotus-flowers of the five colours blossomed all around 18 and manifold instruments of music resounded in the air.

By many devatas many offerings were provided, and the 19 nagas practised their magic to win the great Bodhi-tree. The great then Samghamitta, who had reached the last goal 20 of supernormal powers, taking the form of a griffin 4 terrified

1 See note to 1.12.

2 Uccaretum mahabodhim, is dependent on dinnehi. The passage is related directly to 19. 1, Mahabodhirakkhanattham datvana.

3 Of. note to 3. 6.

* The supanna (Skt. suparna) or garula (Skt. garucla) are mythical creatures who are imagined as winged and are always con^ sidered as the sworn foes of the nagas. See GRTJNWEDEL, Buddhist. Kunst in Indien, p. 47 foil,

K130 MaMvamsa xix.2i

21 the great snakes. Terrified, the great snakes betook them to the great then with entreaties, and when they had escorted the great Bodhi-tree from thence to the realm of the serpents

22 and had worshipped it for a week by (bestowing on It) the kingship of the nagas and by manifold offerings they brought

23 it again and set it upon the ship. And on that same day the great Bodhi-tree arrived herel at Jambukola.

King Devanampiyatissa, thoughtful for the welfare of the

24 world, having heard before from the samanera Sumana of its arrival, did, from the first day of the month Maggasira on-

25 wards, being always full of zeal, cause the whole of the highroad from the north gate even to Jambukola to be made

26 ready, awaiting the arrival of the great Bodhi-tree, and abiding on the sea-shore, in the place where the Samudda-parmasala 2 (afterwards) was, he, by the wondrous power of the then, saw the great Bodhi-tree coming.

27 The hall that was built upon that spot to make known this miracle was known here by the name Samuddapannasala.

28 By the power of the great thera and together with the (other) theras the king came, with his retinue, on that same day to Jambukola.3

29 Then, uttering4 an exulting cry moved by joyous agitation at the coming of the great Bodhi-tree, he, the splendid (king),

30 descended even neck-deep into the water; and when together with sixteen persons5 (of noble families) he had taken the great Bodhi-tree upon his head, had lifted it down upon the

3 I.e. in Ceylon.

3 I.e. the sea-hut.

8 In the reading of the test accepted by the Colombo Editors tadahe va maharija, the verb is missing from the sentence. Only the text of the Burmese MSS. tadahe vagama raja yields a correct construction.

4 Udlnayam. By ndana is understood an utterance, mostly in metrical form, inspired by a particularly intense emotion, whether it be joyous or sorrowful. The udina of Devaoamplyatissa in the circumstances described was according to the Tika: agato vat a re ilasabalassa saramsijSlavigajjanako bodhirukkhoj an exact parallel to v. 15*

6 Ko 1 ehi Cf- on this note to 19.1.XIX. 43 The Coming of ike BodM-tree 131

shore and caused it to be set in a beautiful pavilion, the king 31 of Lanka worshipped it by (bestowing on it) the kingship of Lanka. When he had then entrusted his own government to the sixteen persons and he himself had taken the 32 duties of a doorkeeper, the lord of men. forthwith commanded solemn ceremonies of many kinds to be carried out for three days.

On the tenth day he placed the great Bodhi-tree upon 33 a beautiful car and he, the king of men, accompanying this, the king of trees, he who had knowledge of the (right) places 34 caused it to be placed on the spot where the Eastern Monastery (afterwards) was and commanded a morning meal for the people together with the brotherhood. Here the great thera 35 Mahinda related fully to the king the subduing of the nagas3 which had been achieved by the (Buddha) gifted with the ten powers.

When the monarch heard this from the thera he caused 36 monuments to be raised here and there in snch places as had been frequented by the Master by resting there or in other ways. And, moreover, when he had caused the great Bodhi- 37 tree to be set down at the entrance to the village of the brahman Tivakka and in this and that place besides, he, (escorting it) on the road, sprinkled with white Fand, bestrewn 38 with various flowers, and adorned with planted pennons and festoons of blossoms, bringing thereto offerings unweariedly, 39 day and night, brought the great Bodhi-tree on the fourteenth day to the neighbourhood of the city of Anuradhapura, and 40 after, at the time when the shadows increase, he had entered the city worthily adorned by the north gate amid offerings, and (when he then), leaving the city again by the south gate, 41 had entered the Mahameghavanarama consecrated by four Buddhas,2 and here had brought (the tree) to the spot worthily 42 prepared by Sumana's comnaand_, to the lovely place where the former Bodhi-trees had stood, he, with those sixteen noble 43

1 The reference is to the second visit of the Buddha to Ceylon, and the events related in Man. I. 44?70.

2 The comma after pavesiya in Mah. ed. v. 4115 should be struck out and placed after catuhuddhanisevitam.

K 2132 MaMvamsa xix.44

persons, who were wearing royal ornaments, lifted down the great Bodhi-tree -and loosed his hold to set it down.

44 Hardly had he let it leave his hands but it rose up eighty cubits into the air^ and floating thus it sent forth glorious

45 rays of six colours* Spreading over the island, reaching to

46 the Brahma-wo rldj these lovely rays lasted till sunset. Ten thousand persons, who were filled with faith by reason of this miracle,, gaining the spiritual insight and attaining to arahantship,, received here the pabbajja.

47 When the great Bodhi-tree at sunset was come down, from (its place in the air) it stood firm on the earth under the

48 constellation BohinI, Then did the earth quake. The roots growing over the brim of the vase struck down into the earth,

49 closing in the vase. When the great Bodhi-tree had taken its place all the people who had come together from (the country) round, worshipped it with offerings of perfumes,

50 flowers and so forth. A tremendous cloud poured forth rain, and cool and dense mists from the snow-region surrounded

51 the great Bodhi-tree on every side. Seven days did the great Bodhi-tree abide there, awaking faith among the people

52 invisible in the region of the snow. At the end of the week all the clouds vanished and the great Bodhi-tree became visible and the rays of six colours.

53 The great thera Mahinda and the bhikkhunl Samghamitta went thither with their following- and the king also with his

54 following. The nobles of Kajaragama * and the nobles of Candanagama and the Brahman Tivakka and the people too

55 who dwelt in the island came thither also by the power of the gods, (with minds) eagerly set upon a festival of the great Bodhi-tree. Amid this great assembly, plunged into amaze-

56 ment by this miracle, there grew out of the east branch, even as they gazed^ a faultless fruit.

This having fallen off the thera took it up and gave ifc

57 to the king to plant. In a golden vase filled with earth mingled with perfumes7 placed on the spot where the

1 Now Kataragama on the Menik-ganga* about ten. miles north of TiBsamahirSma in the province of Rohana. See PARKSSL, Ceylon, p. 114 foil.xix. 68 The Coming of the BodU-tree 133

Mahaasana (afterwards) was, the ruler planted it. And while 58 they all yet gazed, there grew, springing from it, eight shoots; and they stood there, young Bodhi-trees four cubits high.

When the king saw the young Bodhi-trees he, with senses 59 all amazed, worshipped them by the gift of a white parasoll and bestowed royal consecration on them.

Of the eight Bodhi-saplings one was planted at the landing- 60 place Jambukola on the spot where the great Bodhi-tree had stood, after leaving the ship, one in the village of the 61 Brahman Tivakka, one moreover in the Thuparama, one in the Issarasamanararaa,2 one in the Court of the Rrst thupa,3 one in the arama of the Cetiya-mouatain, one in Kajara- 62 gama and one in Candanagama. But the other thirty-two 63 Bodhi-saplings which sprang* from four (later) fruits (were planted) in a circle, at a distance of a yojana, here and there in the viharas.

When thus, for the salvation, of the people dwelling in the 64 island, by the majesty of the SammSsambuddha, the king of trees, the great Bodhi-tree was planted, Anula with her 65 following having received the pabbajja from the tlieri Sam-ghamitta, attained to arahantship. The prince Arittha also, 6*5 with a retinue of five hundred men, having received the pabbajja from the thera, attained to arahantship. The eight 67 (persons from the) merchant-guilds who had brought the great Bodhi-tree hither were named therefrom the c Guild of the Bodhi-bearers'.

In the nunnery, which is known as the Upasikavihara5 68

1 Setacchatta, as symbol of royal rank.

2 According to the Rasavahini (ed. SaranatiBsatthera, Colombo, 1901, 1899), ii. 8832, situated on the dam of the Tissavapi, now Issurumu-

nagala, about a mile south of the Mahavihara in Anuradhapura. s Patliamacetiya. See note to 14. 45.

4 This is to be taken as meaning that on four oilier brandies of the tree the same miracle was accomplished as already descril»ed. Thus the Tika also says: pacinasakhato avasesSsu ca catusu sakhasu gahltehi itarehi pakkaphalehi jatu, uppanna ti attho.

5 Of. 18,12.134 MaMvamsa xix. 6 9

the great then Samghamitta dwelt with her company' (of

69 nuns). She caused twelve buildings to be erected there, of which three buildings were important before others; in one

70 of these great buildings she caused the mast of the ship that had come with the great Bodhi-tree to be set up, in one the rudder, and in one the helm/ from these they were named.

71 Also when other sects2 arose these twelve buildings were always used by the Hatthalhaka-bhikkhunls.

72 The king's state-elephant that was used to wander about at

73 will3 liked to stay on one side of the city in a cool grotto, on the border of a Kadamba-flower-thicket, when he went to feed. Since they knew that this place was pleasing to the elephant

74 they put up a post4 in the same spot. One day the elephant would not take the fodder (offered to him) and the king questioned the thera who had converted the island as to the

75 reason. e The elephant would fain have a thupa built in the

76 Kadamba-Iower-thicket/ the great thera told the great king. Swiftly did the king, who was ever intent on the welfare of his people, build a thupa, with a relic, in that very place and a house for the thupa.5

77 The great then Samghamitta, who longed for a quiet dwelling-place, because of the too great crowding of the

78 vihara where she dwelt, she who was mindful for the progress of the doctrine and the good of the bhikkhunls, the wise one

79 who desired another abode for the bhikkhunls went (once) to the fair cetiya-house, pleasant by its remoteness, and there she

piya, aritta. According to the Tika the three agSrini bore the names Cilaganagara, Mahaganagara and Siriva- 3 The fibSi names as an example the sect of the Dhammarncikas. Cf. 5. IS.

3 Tie n to explain how the dwellers in the Upaslkavihara

by tie Hatthujhaka (I.e. *elephant-posfc-nuns'), men-

tioned by the poet in v. 71,

4 A}haka, to tether tiie elephant during the night.

fl TtiUpassa gharaip, thfipagharam., orcetiyagharani, win ?, 79, 8*2, See Appendix, u.v. tb5pa.xix. 85 Tlie Coming oftJie Bodhi-tree 135

the skilled (in choice) of dwelling-places, the blameless, stayed the day through.

When the king came to the convent for bhikkhums to 80 salute the then, he, hearing that she had gone thither, went also and when he had greeted her there and talked with her gl and had heard the wish that was the cause of her going thither, then did he, who was skilled in (perceiving) the desires (of others), the wise, the great monarch Devanampiya- 82 tissa, order to be erected a pleasing convent for the bhik-khunls round about the thupa-house. Since the convent for 83 the bhikkhums was built near to the elephant-post therefore was it known by the name Hatthalhaka-vihara.

The well-beloved, the great then Samghamitta of lofty g^ wisdom now took up her abode in this pleasing convent for bhikkhums.

Bringing about in such wise the good of the dwellers in 85 Lanka, the progress of the doctrine, the king of trees, the great Bodhi-tree, lasted long time on the island of Lanka, in the pleasant Mahamegha-grove, endowed with many wondrous powers.

Here ends the nineteenth chapter, called ' The Coming of the Bodhi-tree', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.CHAPTEE XX


1 IN the eighteenth year (of the reign) of king Dhammasoka, the great Bodhi-tree was planted in the Mahameghavanarama.

2 In the twelfth year afterwards died the dear consort of the king, Asamdhimitta, the faithful (believer) in the Sambuddha.

3 In the fourth year after this the ruler of the earth Dhamma-soka raised the treacherous Tissarakkha to the rank of queen.

4 In the third year thereafter this fool, in the pride of her beauty,, with the thought: 'Forsooth, the king worships

5 the great Bodhi-tree to my cost!' drawn into the power of hate and working her own harm, caused the great Bodhi-tree

6 to perish by means of a mandu-thom.1 In the fourth year after did Dhammasoka of high renown fall into the power of mortality. These make up thirty-seven years.

7 But when king Devanampiyatissa, whose delight was in the blessing of the true doctrine, had brought to completion

8 in seemly wise his undertakings in the Mahavihara, on the Cetiya-mountain and also in the Thuparama, he asked this question of the thera who had converted the island, who was

9 skilled in (answering) questions: * Sir, I would fain found many viharas here; whence shall I get me the relics to place in the thupas ? *

10 * There are the relics brought hither by Sumana, with, which he filled the bowl of the Sambuddha and which were placed

11 here on the Cetiya-mountain, 0 king. Have these relics placed on the back of an elephant and brought hither.' Thus addressed

12 by the them he brought thus the relics hither. Founding vihSras a yojana distant from one another he caused the relics

1 In the BadMvahana-jataka (FATTSBOLL, Jataka, ii, p. 1051) is related how the kernel of a mango-fruit is deprived of its germinating power by being pierced with a man^u-tfeorn.MAP OF ANURADHAPURA




0SiIasobbhakandaka Lafikaroma-Dag.

5°uthern OThuparama



DLohapasada Mahavijwa va n a


Ancient Names » Mahithupa

Modem Names* Ruwanwmk

Issarasamana vihara

XX. 22 The NiVbana of the Them 137

to be placed there in the thupas, in due order. But the bowl 13 that tlie Sambuddha had used the king kept in his beautiful palace and worshipped continually with manifold offerings.

The (vihara that was built) in the place where the five 14 hundred nobles dwelt when they had received the pabbajja from the great thera,1 was (named) Issarasamanaka.2 That 15 (vihara that was built) where five hundred vessas3 dwelt, when they had received the pabbajja from the great thera, was (called) in like manner Vessagiri. But as for the grotto 16 inhabited by the great thera Mahinda, in the vihara built -upon the mountain/ it was called thef Mahinda-grotto \

First the Mahavihara/ then the (monastery) named Cetiya- 17 vihara^ third the beautiful Thuparama/ which the thupa (itself) preceded, fourth the planting of the great Bodhi-tree, 18 then fifth the (setting up) in seemly wise (of the) beautiful stone pillar which was intended to point to the place of the thupa,, on the place where the Great cetiya (afterwards) was, 19 and also the enshrining of the Sambuddha^s collar-bone relic.,7 sixth the Issarasamana(vihara), seventh the Tissa- 20 tank, eighth the Pathamathupa,8 ninth the (vihara) called "Vessa (giri), then that pleasant (nunnery) which was known 21 as the Upasika(vihara) and the (vihara) called the Hatthal-fraka, those two convents as goodly dwellings for the bhik-khunis; and (furthermore) for the accepting of food by the 22

1 Cf. for this,- 19.66. 2 See note to 19. 61.

s I.e. people of the tMrd caste (Skt. vaisya). The Vessagiri-vihara is situated near Anuradhapura, south of Issarasamanaka-vihara, Arch. Surv. of Ceylon, Annual Rep. 1906 (xx. 1910), pp. 8-10; E. MULLEB, Ancient Inscriptions of Ceylon, pp. 32, 33; WICKREMASISTOHE, Epi-graphia Zeylanica, i, p. 10 foil.

4 I. e. in Cetiyapabbata-vihara on Mihintale. I would now prefer to take the words sapabbate vihare ('in the monastery, which, or tlae name of which was connected with the mountain') as belonging to the relative clause ya ya &c., and to place the comma here instead of after guha.

5 Cf. note to 15. 214.

6 See 17. 62-64.

7 On this passage cf. Mah. ed., pp. xxix, xxx. On the givadhatu see 1. 37 foil., on the silayupa 15. 173.

8 See note on 14. 45.138 Makavamsa xx. 23

brotherhood of bhikkhus when they were visiting' the dwell-

23 ing of the bhikkhunls (called) Hatthalhaka(vihara),1 the refectory called Mahapali, easy of approach, beautiful, stored

24 with all provisions and provided with service; then lavish gifts, consisting of the needful utensils for a thousand bhikkhus, (which things he gave) on the pavarana-day, every

25 year; in Nagadlpa the Jambukolavihara at this landing

26 place,2 the Tissamahavihara3 and the Pacmarama4: these works, caring for the salvation of the people of Lanka, Devanampiyatissa, king of Lanka, rich in merit and insight,

27 caused to be carried out, even in his first year, as a friend to virtue, and his whole life through he heaped up works of

28 merit. Our island flourished under the lordship of this king; forty years did he hold sway as king.

29 After his death, his younger brother since there was no son, the prince known by the name UTTITA, held sway piously

30 as king. But the great thera, Mahinda, who had taught the peerless doctrine of the Master, the sacred writings, the

31 precepts of righteousness and the higher perfection,5 full

1 The instrumental bhikkhusamghena, belongs to the verbal noun gahanam. Subordinate to this noun are the parallel gerunds osaritva and gantvana, the last being almost a pleonasm. On

this subject the Tlka remarks that at that time the monks In order to receive food went in order of seniority to the Hatthalhaka-convent. The new hall was built by Devanampiyatissa for this purpose, i.e. as refectory for the bhikkhus, separate from the nunnery.

2 On Nagadipa (note to 1. 4?) as the name of a district of Ceylon see 35. 124; 36. 9. On Jambukola, 11. 23, 38; 18. 7, &c.

s In south Ceylon, situated NE. of Hambantota.

* I.e. 'East 'Monastery in Anuradhapura.' Cf. 19. 84.

s Fariyaitim patipattim. pativedham ca. According to the Tlka pariyatti is a synonym of tipitaka, while patipatti represents the contents of the doctrines of the sacred scripture, namely, the way leading to deliverance as pointed out by the precepts of morality (Tlka: pariyattisasanassa atthabhuto sila-dikhandhattayasahito nibbanagimimaggo). By pativedha (literally * attainment') are meant the nine transcendental conditions (the lokuttaradhamma) which result from the observance of the pa$ipatti (Tiki: patipattislsanassa pkalabhuto navavidha-lokuttaradhaBamo). Those nine conditions of perfection are thexx. 42 The Nibbana of the Them 139

excellently in the island of Lanka, (Mahinda) the light of Lanka, the teacher of many disciples, he who, like unto the Master, had wrought great blessing for the people, did, in 32 the eighth year of king Uttiya, while he, being sixty years old,1 was spending the rain season on the Cetiya-mountain, pass, victorious over his senses, into nibbana, on the eighth 33 day of the bright half of the month Assayuja. Therefore this day received his name.

When king Uttiya heard this he went thither, stricken by 34 the dart of sorrow, and when he had paid homage to the thera and oft and greatly had lamented (over him) he caused the 35 dead body of the thera to be laid forthwith in a golden chest sprinkled with fragrant oil, and the well closed2 chest to be 36 laid upon a golden, adorned bier; and when he had caused it then to be lifted upon the bier, commanding solemn ceremonies, he caused it to be escorted by a great multitude of 37 people,3 that had come together from this place and that, and by a great levy of troops; commanding due offerings (he 38 caused it to be escorted) on the adorned street to the variously adorned capital and brought through the city in procession by the royal highway to the Mahavihara. 39

When the monarch had caused the bier to be placed here for a week in the Panhambamalaka?with triumphal arches, 40 pennons, and flowers, and with vases filled with perfumes the vihara was adorned and a circle of three yojanas around, by 41 the king's decree, but the whole island was adorned in like manner by the decree of the devas?and when the monarch 42 had commanded divers offerings throughout the week he built

four magga * paths* or stages of holiness, with the corresponding four phalani * results, effects 3, besides nibbana as the ninth. It is, therefore, said that Mahinda had proclaimed the Buddha's doctrine and the holiness resulting therefrom.

1 Reckoned from upasampada-ordination onwards. Notice the play on words in vassam satthivasso vasam vasi.

2 Sadhu phussitam. Cf. Jat. vi. 51010: nivase phussi-taggale 'in a safe-bolted dwelling'.

8 I refer janoghena and baloghena to anayitvana in 88 c, not to karento pujanavidhim. This should rather stand quite independently, as does karento sadhukilanam in 36 d.14:0 MaMvamsa xx. 43

up, turned toward the east in the Theranambandhamalaka,

43 a funeral pyre of sweet smelling wood, leaving the (place of the later) Great thupa on the right, and when he had brought

44 the beautiful bier thither and caused it to be set upon the pyre he carried out the rites of the dead.1

And here did he build a cetiya when he had caused the

45 relics to be gathered together. Taking the half of the relics the monarch caused thupas to be built on the Cetiya-mountain

46 and in all the viharas. The place where the burial of this sage's body had taken place is called, to do him honour, Isibhumangana.2

47 From that time onwards they used to bring the dead bodies of holy men from three yojanas around to this spot and there to burn them.

48 When the great then Samghamitta, gifted with the great supernormal powers and with great wisdom had fulfilled the duties of the doctrine and had brought much blessing to the

49 people, she, being fifty-nine years old, in the ninth year of this same king Uttiya, while she dwelt in the peaceful

50 Hatthalhaka-convent, passed into nibbana. And for her also, as for the thera, the king1 commanded supreme honours of

51 burial a week through, and the whole of Lanka was adorned as for the thera.

The body of the then laid upon a bier did he cause to be

52 brought when the week was gone by, out of the city; and to the east of the Thuparama, near the Cittasala3 (of later

53 times) in sight of the great Bodhi-tree, on the spot pointed out by the then (herself), he caused the burning to take place, And the most wise Uttiya also had a thupa built there.

54 The five great theras also/ and those theras too of whom Arittha was the leader, and many thousand bhikkhus who

55 were freed from the asavas, and also the twelve therls among whom SamghamittS stood highest, and many thousand bliik-

1 Sakkaraxp, antimam 4 the last honours'.

2 I.e. * Courtyard of the sage.' * Le. * Many-coloured hall/

4 Those who had come to Ceylon with For the following'

cf. 19.66 and 19, 5.xx. 58 The Nibbdna oftlie Them 141

khums who were freed from the asavas, who, endowed with 56 great learning and deep insight had expounded the holy scripture of the Conqueror, the vinaya and the rest, fell, in time, into the power of mortality.

Ten years did king Uttiya reign; thus is mortality the 57 destroyer of the whole world.

A man who, although he knows this overmastering, over- 58 whelming, irresistible mortality, yet is not discontented with the world of existence and does not feel,, in this discontent, resentment at wrong nor joy in virtue?that is the strength of the fetters of his evil delusion !?such an one is knowingly fooled.1

Here ends the twentieth chapter, called f The Nibbana of the Thera^inthe Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 Wijesinha gives a wrong sense to the clause in taking it as a question. The verbs nibbindate and kurute belong to the relative sentence. The governing clause is janam pi (so) sammuyhati. The words tassesa atimohajalabalata are only intelligible as a parenthesis.CHAPTEE XXI


1 UTTIYA'S younger brother, MAHASIVA, reigned after his

2 death ten years, protecting the pious. Being devoted to the thera Bhaddasala, he built the noble vihara, Nagarangana, in the eastern quarter (of the city).

3 MahSsiva's younger brother, SUEATISSA, reigned after his

4 death ten years, zealously mindful of meritorious works. In the southern quarter (of the city) he foundedl the Nagaran-gana-vihara, in the eastern quarter the vihara (called) Hat-

5 thikkhandha and the Gonnagirika(vihara); on the Vangut-tara-mountain the (vihara) named Pacmapabbata and near

6 Raheraka the (vihara) Kolambahalaka;2 at the foot of the Arittha(mountain) the Makulaka(vihara), to the east3 the Acchagallaka(vihara), but the Girmelavahanaka(vihara)

7 to the north of Kandanagara; these and other pleasing vihuras, in number five hundred, did the lord of the earth build on this and the further bank of the river/ here and

8 there in the island of Lanka, before and while he reigned, during the period of sixty years, piously and justly,5 devoted

9 to the three gems.6 Suvannapindatissa was his name before his reign, but he was named Suratissa after the beginning of the reign.

10 Two DamilaSj SENA and GUTTAKA, sons of a freighter who

2 Ttie verb on wMeh the accusatives in v. 4 foil, depend is karesi in 8.

3 See to 25. 80.

3 to the Tiki to the east of Anuridhapura near

4 I.e. the

?" i.e. according to pious aims, dhammena without


1 S«e it L m; 12, 28.xxi. 20 TJie Five Kings 143

brought horses hither/ conquered the king Suratissa, at the 11 head of a great army and reigned both (together) twenty-two 2 years justly. But when ASELA had overpowered them, the son of Mutasiva, the ninth among his brothers, born of the 12 same mother,3 he ruled for ten years onward from that time in Anuradhapura.

A Damila of noble descent, named ELARA, who came hither 13 from the Cola-country4 to seize on the kingdom, ruled when he had overpowered king Asela, forty-four years, with even 14 justice toward friend and foe, on occasions of disputes at law.

At the head of his bed he had a bell hung up with a long 15 rope so that those who desired a judgement at law might ring it. The king had only one son and one daughter. 16 When once the son of the ruler was going in a car to the Tissa-tank, he killed unintentionally a young calf lying on 17 the road with the mother cow, by driving the wheel over its neck. The cow came and dragged at the bell in bitterness 18 of heart;5 and the king caused his son's head to be severed (from his body) with that same wheel.

A snake had devoured the young of a bird upon a palm- 19 tree. The hen-bird, mother of the young one, came and rang the bell. The king caused the snake to be brought to 20 him, and when its body had been cut open and the young bird taken out of it he caused it to be hung up upon the tree.

1 This is perhaps the meaning of assanavika (lit. 'horse-seafarer*). The Sinh. Thupavamsa has as-nseviyakuge putvuj the Pujavaliya: Lak-diva-ta asun gena asvacari-de-bse-kenek; the Rajavaliya: Lak-diva-ta asun gena asuru-de-bas-kenek.

2 Following the reading duve dvavisavassani. See the Introduction, § 8.

3 Asela's eight brothers are enumerated in the Tlka. They are named Abhaya, Devanampiyatissa, Uttiya, Mahasiva, Mahanaga, Mattabhaya, Suratissa, and Kira.

4 Southern India.

5 Lit. *Wifch embittered heart.' Note the play on words in ghattesi ghattitasaya. The Tlka paraphrases the last word:, puttasokena knpitacitta.14:4: MaMvamsa xxi.2i

21 When the king, who was a protector of tradition, albeit he knew not the peerless virtues of the most precious of the

22 three gems,1 was going (once) to the Cetiya-mountain to invite the brotherhood of bhikkhus, he caused, as he arrived

23 upon a car, with the point of the yoke on the waggon, an injury to the thupa of the Conqueror at a (certain) spot. The ministers said to him : c King, the thupa has been injured by

24 thee/ Though this had come to pass without his intending it, yet the king leaped from his car and flung himself down upon the road with the words: ' Sever my head also (from

25 the trunk) with the wheel/ They answered him: e Injury to another does our Master in no wise allow; make thy peace

26 (with the bhikkhus) by restoring the thupaJ; and in order to place (anew) the fifteen stones that had been broken off he spent just fifteen thousand kahapanas.2

27 An old woman had spread out some rice to dry it in the sun. The heavens, pouring down rain at an unwonted season,

28 made her rice damp. She took the rice and went and dragged at the bell. When he heard about the rain at an unwonted

29 season he dismissed the woman, and in order to decide her cause he underwent a fast, thinking : c A. king who observes

30 justice surely obtains rain in due season/ The guardian genius who received offerings from him, overpowered by the fiery heat of (the penances of) the king, went and told the

31 four great kings3 of this (matter). They took him with them and went and told Sakka. Sakka summoned Pajjunna4

32 and charged him (to send) rain in due season. The guardian genius who received his offerings told the king. From thenceforth the heavens rained no more during the day throughout

33 his realm; only by night did the heavens give rain once every

1 Of. the note to 21. 8. By ratanaggassa is meant the Buddha,

with whom the doctrine of the ratanattaya originates. s Of* note to 4 18.

3 These are the four guardians of the world, the 1 oka pa la who usually appear near Indra in the brahmanic pantheon ; Bhatarattha, Vlrulhaka, Virupakkha, and Vessavanaj rulers, in the above order, of the east, south, west, and north.

4 Skt. Parjany % the god of rain.XXL 34 The Five Kings 145

week, in the middle watch of the night; and even the little cisterns everywhere were full (of water).

Only because he freed himself from the guilt of walking 34 in the path of evil did this (monarch),, though he had not put aside false beliefs,, gain such miraculous power; how should not then an understanding man, established In pure belief, renounce here the guilt of walking in the path of evil?

Here ends the twenty-first chapter, called (The Five Kings',, in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.CHAPTEE XXII


1 WHEN he had slain Elara, DUTTHAGAMANI became king-. To show clearly how this came to pass the story in due order (of events) is thisl:

2 King Devanampiyatissa's second brother, the vice-regent

3 named Mahanaga, was dear to his brother. The king's consort, that foolish woman, coveted the kingship for her own son and

4 ever nursed the wish to slay the vice-regent, and while he was making the tank called Taraccha she sent him a mango-fruit which she had poisoned and laid uppermost among

5 (other) mango-fruits. Her little son who had gone with the vice-regent, ate the mango-fruit, when the dish, was un-

6 covered, and died therefrom. Upon this the vice-regent, with his wives, men and horses, went, to save his lif e, to Rohana.2

7 In the Yatthalaya-vihara3 his wife, who was with child,

8 bore a son. He gave him his brother's name.4 Afterwards he came to Rohana and as ruler over the whole of Rohana the

9 wealthy prince reigned in Mahagama.5 He founded the

1 On the insertion of the Dutthagamani epic see Dip. and Mak., p. 20 (English ed.). In the Nidanakatha (Jat. i. 50s) the story of

the dream of Maya before the birth of the Buddha is inserted with almost the same introducing words. See WINDISCH, Buddha's Geimri und die JLehre Ton der Seelentcctnderuncf, p. 156.

8 The south and south-east part of the island.

® There is certainly better authority for the form Yatthllaja. However Y at thai ay a gives an appropriate meaning to the name: 'dwelling or temple of the sacrincer'. (Skt. yastar, p. yatthar and Skt P. Slaya.) Tradition seems to identify the monastery with the Yatagala-vihara to the NE. of Point de Galle. The Ceylon National Aerfac, iii, p. 110.

4 He was named (after his birthplace and Devanampiyatissa) YafthS-layakatlssa.

* ME. of Hambanto|a near the place where the ruins of theXXIT. 22 The Birth of Prince Gamani 147

NagamahaviharaI that bore his name; he founded also many (other) viharas, as the Uddhakandaraka (vihara) and so forth.

His son Yatthalayakatissa reigned after his death in that 10 same place, and in like manner also Abhaya,, son of this (last).

Gothabhaya's son, known by the name Kakavannatissa, 11 the prince, reigned there after his death. Viharadevi was 12 the consort of this believing king, firm in the faith (was she), the daughter of the king of Kalyanl.2

Now in Kalyam the ruler was the king named Tissa. His 13 younger brother named Ayya-Uttika, who had roused the wrath (of Tissa) in that he was the guilty lover of the queen, fled thence from fear and took up his abode elsewhere. The 14 district was named after hirn. He sent a man wearing the 15 disguise of a bhikkhu, with a secret letter to the queen. This man went thither, took his stand at the king's door and 16 entered the king's house with an arahant who always used to take his meal at the palace, unnoticed by that thera. When 17 he had eaten in company with the thera, as the king was going forth,3 he let the letter fall to the ground when the queen was looking.

The king turned at the (rustling) sound, and when he 18 looked down and discovered the written message he raged, unthinking, against the thera, and in his fury he caused the 19 thera and the man to be slain and thrown into the sea. Wroth at this the sea-gods made the sea overflow the land; 20 but the king with all speed caused his pious and beautiful daughter named Devi to be placed in a golden vessel, whereon 21 was written 'a king's daughter', and to be launched upon that same sea. When she had landed near to (the) Lanka 22

Tissanaahararna lie on the left bank of the Magama-river. The village at the mouth of the river still bears the name Magama.

1 The Mahanaga-dagaba still exists in the ruins of Mahagarna. See PARKEB, Ancient Ceylon, p. 324.

2 See note to i. 63.

8 Or *as she (i.e. the queen) was going forth with the king', according to the reading ranna saha viniggame of the Burmese MSS.; the Tika seems also to agree with this.

L2148 Mahavamsa XXII.' 2 3

(vihara,) the king Kakavanna consecrated her as queen. Therefore she received the epithet Vihara.

23 When he had founded the Tissamaha vihara1 and the Citta-lapabbata (vihara)2 and also the Gamitthavali and Kutali

24 (vihara) and so forth,, devoutly believing in the three gems, he provided the brotherhood continually with the four needful things.3

25 In the monastery named Kotapabbata there lived at that time a samanera,, pious in his way of life, who was ever busied with various works of merit.

26 To mount the more easily to the courtyard of the Akasa-

27 cetiya4 he fixed three slabs of stone as steps. He gave (the bhikkhus) to drink and did services to the brotherhood. Since his body was continually wearied a grievous sickness came

28 upon him. The grateful bhikkhus, who brought him in a litter, tended him at the Tissarama, in the Silapassaya-parivena.

29 Always when the self-controlled ViharadevI had given lavish gifts to the brotherhood in the beautifully prepared

30 royal palace, before the mid-day meal, she was used to take, after the meal, sweet perfumes, flowers, medicines and clothing and go to the arama and offer these (to the bhikkhus) according to their dignity.

31 Now doing thus, at that time, she took her seat near the chief thera of the community (in the vihara) and when ex-

32 pounding the true doctrine the thera spoke thus to her: ' Thy

1 Cf. above the note to v. 8.

s The ruins of the Cittalapabbata, or, in the later form, Sltulpaw-vlhara lie 15 miles NE. of the Tissamaharama near Katagamuwa. See A. JAYAWARDANA in The Ceylon National Review, ii, p. 23; ED. MtJLLERj Ancient Inscriptions in Ceylon, p. 29. The monastery Is mentioned once again in 35. 81, and in the Culavamsa 45, 59 under king Dathopatissa II, the first half of the seventh century A.D.

1 See note to 3.14.

4 I.e. the ' Air-cetiya', which is still shown, not far from the Cittalapabbata-monaBtery. It is so named because it is situated on the summit of a rock. Cf. Ceylon National Review, ii, p. 24, Set also note to S3, §8.xxii. 44 TJie Birth of Prince Gamani 149

great happiness them hast attained by works of merit; even now must thou not grow weary of performing works of . merit.' But she, being thus exhorted, replied : c What is our 33 happiness here, since we have no children ? Lo, our happiness is therefore barren !'

The thera, who, being gifted with the six (supernormal) 34 powers, foresaw that she would have children, said: 'Seek . t out the sick samanera, O queen/ She went thence and said 35 to the samanera, who was near unto death: c Utter the wish to become my son; for that would be great happiness for us.' And when she perceived that he would not the keen-witted 36 woman commanded, to this end, great and beautiful offerings of flowers, and renewed her pleading.

When he was yet unwilling, she, knowing the right means, 37 gave to the brotherhood for his sake all manner of medicines and garments and again pleaded with him. Then did he 38 desire (rebirth for himself in) the king's family, and she caused the place to be richly adorned and taking her leave sh^e mounted the car and went her way. Hereupon the 39 samanera passed away, and he returned to a new life in the \yqmb of the queen while she was yet upon her journey; when she perceived this she halted. She sent that message 40 to the king and returned with the king. When they two had both fulfilled the funeral rites for the samanera they, 41 duelling with collected minds in that very parivena^ appointed continually lavish gifts for the brotherhood of bhikkhus.

And there came on the virtuous queen these longings of 42 a woman with child. (This) did she crave: that while making a pillow for her head of a honeycomb one usabha long1 and 43 resting on her left side in her beautiful bed, she should eat the honey that remained when she had given twelve thousand bhikkhus to eat of it; and then she longed to drink (the 44 water) that had served to cleanse the sword with which the

..* A. certain measure. According to Abhidhanappadipika=20yattlii ('staves') each 7 rat an a ('cubits1). BHYS DAVIDS, Ancient Corns and Measures of Ceylon, p. 15.150 Mahavamsa XXII. 45

head of the first warrior among king Elara's warriors had

45 been struck off, (and she longed to drink it) standing on this very head, and moreover (she longed) to adorn herself with

46 garlands o£ unfaded lotus-blossoms brought from the lotus-marshes of Anuradhapura.

The queen told this to the king, and the king asked the

47 soothsayers. When the soothsayers heard it they said: 'The queen's son, when he has vanquished the Damilas and built up a united kingdom, will make the doctrine to shine forth brightly/

48 ' Whosoever shall point out such a honeycomb, on him the king will bestow a grace in accordance (with this service)/

49 thus did the king proclaim. A countryman who found,1 on the shore of the Gotha-sea2 a boat, which was turned upside

50 down, filled with honey, showed this to the king. The king brought the queen thither and, in a beautifully prepared pavilion, caused her to eat the honey as she had wished.

51 And that her other longings might also be satisfied the king entrusted his warrior named Velusumana with the

52 matter. He went to Anuradhapura and became the friend of the keeper of the king's state-horse and continually did

53 him services. When he saw that this man trusted him he, the fearless one, laid lotus-flowers and his sword down on tlie

54 shore of the Kadamba-river early in the morning;3 and when he had led the horse out and had mounted it and had

1 The Tika here contains a narrative, taken from the Atthakatha, of the finding of the boat; cf. Dip. and Mah., p. 37. The author of the Kanib. Mah. has versified and adopted it in his text.

s Gotbasamudda (cf. 22. 85) is a designation of the sea near Ceylon. In Sinhalese the corresponding word is golumuhudu 'the sea not far from the land, the shallow sea' (CLOUGH, Sinh.-EngL Diet., s. v.).

8 The Tiki explains the passage thus: Anuradbapurassa uppa-lakkhettato galiitam uppalamalam ca attano khagga-ratanaxp ca gahetvS pato va Kadambanadiya tiram netva kassaci a^ankito tattha tfaapesi 'When he had taken lotus-lowers gathered from the lotus-marshes of Anuradhapura, and his own precious swi-rd, he brought it early in the morning to the shore of tlie Kadambfrriver and laid it there down, without being afraid of anybody \ . ,.xxii. 63 The Birth of Prince Gamani 151

grasped the lotus-blossoms and the sword, lie made himself known1 and rode thence as swiftly as the horse could (go).2

When the king heard that he sent forth his first warrior 55 to catch him. This man mounted the horse that came second (to the state-horse) and pursued the other.3 He (Velusu- 5$ mana), sitting on the horsed back, hid himself in the jungle,, drew the sword and stretched it toward his pursuer.4 Thereby 57 was his head., as he came on, so swiftly as the horse could, severed (from the trunk), The other took both beasts and the head (of Elara's warrior) and reached Mahagama in the evening. And the queen satisfied her longings even as she would. 58 But the king conferred on his warrior such honours as were in accordance (with this service).

In time the queen bore a liable, son, endowed with all 59 auspicious signs,5 and great was the rejoicing in the house of the great monarch. By the effect of his merit there arrived 60 that very day, from this place and that, seven ships laden with manifold gems. And in like manner, by the power of 61 his merit, an elephant of the six-tusked race6 brought his young one thither and left him here and went his way. When a fisherman named Kandula saw it standing in the 62 jungle on the shore opposite the watering-place, he straightway told the king. The king sent his (elephant)-trainers to 63 bring the young elephant and he reared him. He was named Kandula as he had been found by Kandula.

1 Attanam nivedayitva as elsewhere namam savayitvana (10. 26; 33. 65).

2 Lit. ' with the swiftness of the horse.1

8 According to the Tika Elara's man-at-arms was named Nandasa-rathi, his horse was called Sirigutta, the horse stolen by Velusumana is called Vaha.

* Lit. ' To him who was coming at his back or after him.'

5 The Tika explains dhannam by paripake gabbhe maha-punnasampannam punnatejussadam ti va attho.

6 The chaddanta are supposed to be a particularly noble breed of elephants. Chaddanta is also a sacred lake in the Himalaya named after these elephants. Mah. 5.27,29. SUBBCUTI, Abhidhanappadtpika-Suci, p. 130: Chaddanto, nagaraja, tassa nivasatthanasanii-patta Chaddanto saro.,152 MaJiavamsa xxil C4

64 'A ship filled with vessels of gold and so forth, has arrived/ This they announced to the king. And he bade them bring* (the precious things) to him.

65 As the king had invited the brotherhood of the bhikkhus, numbering twelve thousand, for the name-giving festival of his

66 son, he thought thus: e If my son, when he has won the kingship over the whole realm of Lanka, shall make the doctrine of

67 the Sambuddha to shine forth (in clear brightness) then shall just one thousand and eight bhikkhus come hither and they shall wear the robe in such wise that the alms-bowl shall

68 be uppermost.1 They shall put the right foot first inside the threshold2 and they shall lay aside the prescribed waterpot

69 together with the umbrella (made of) one (piece).3 A thera named Gotama shall receive my son and impart to him the confession of faith and the precepts of morality/ 4 All fell out in this manner.

, * I.e. the alms-bowl shall not be covered by the folds of the garment. The twice repeated ca is striking. The author of the Kamb. Mahavamsa also feels this; he alters ca to sa. 2 The contrary would be an unlucky omen. This superstition still

; prevails among the modern Sinhalese. PAKKER, Village Folk-tales of

Ceylon, p. 14.

. : 3 Ekacchattayutam dhammakarakam niharantu ca. My translation is based on STJBHUTI'S interpretation (letter dated Colombo 2.1. 1911). The dhammakaraka is a pot into which the water is strained before drinking; the strainer being called paris-savana. See C.V. V. 13. 1 ; VI. 21. 3), 'The waterpot and the umbrella (chatta) are two principal articles used by the monks when going out.1 Ekacchatta or ' single umbrella1 is 'an umbrella made of leaf, having its own handle'. According to SILANANDA (letter received from H. T. de Silva, Colombo 21. I. 1911) ekac-chattayutam must be taken as 'provided with one handle' as an adjective belonging to dhammakarakam. The waterpots are made without or with a handle or neck. In this case the neck of the waterpot would be compared toachattaon the top of a building.

* WIJESINHA, Mah.j p. 87, n. 1, refers the words not to the boy but to the assembly present. He says: 'It must here be borne in mind that it is customary with the priesthood to administer the confession of faith fsarana) and the fiveprecepts (pancasila) TO THE ASSEMBLY before the commencement of any ceremony.' But Mah. 24. 24 Gotama (cf. v. 28) is expressly designated ranno^ (i.e. -of Duttha-. 84 The Birth of Prince Gamani 153

When he saw all these omens the king, glad at heart., 70 bestowed rice-milk on. the brotherhood; and to his son, bringing together in one both the lordship over Mahagama 71 and the name of his father, he gave the name Gamani-Abhaya.

When, on the ninth day after this, he had entered Maha- 72 gama, he had intercourse with the queen. She became thereby with child. The son born in due time did the king 73 name Tissa. And both boys grew up in the midst of a great body of retainers.

When, at the festival time of the presenting of the (first) 74 rice-foods to both (children), the king, full of pious zeal, set rice-milk before five hundred bhikkhus, he, when the half 75 had been eaten by them, did, together with the queen, take a ? little in a golden spoon and give it to them with the 76 words: ' If you, my sons, abandon the doctrine of the Sam-buddha then shall this not be digested in your belly/ Both 77 princes, who understood the meaning of these words, ate the rice-milk rejoicing as if it were ambrosia.

When they were ten and twelve years old the king, who 73 would fain put them to the test, offered hospitality in the same way to the bhikkhus, and when he had the rice that 79 was left by them taken and placed in a dish and set before the boys he divided it into three portions and spoke thus : * Never, 80 dear ones, will we turn away from the bhikkhus, the guardian-spirits of our house: with such thoughts as these eat ye this portion here/ And furthermore: 'We two brothers will for 81 ever be without enmity one toward the other; with, such thoughts as these eat ye this portion here/ And as if it 82 were ambrosia they both ate the two portions. But when it was said to them: e Never will we fight with the Damilas; with such thoughts eat ye this portion here/ Tissa dashed 83 the food away with his hand, but Gamani who had (in like manner) flung away the morsel of rice, went to his bed, and 84

gamani) sikkhaya dayako, with distinct reference to 22. 69. We take it then to mean that Gotama, from the very fact that he 'receives' the boy(patiganhati), expresses his williDgness to become his teacher in the future.154: MaMvamsa xxii. 85

drawing in his hands and feet he lay upon his bed. The

85 queen came, and caressing Gamani spoke thus: cWhy dost thou not lie easily upon thy bed with limbs stretched out, my son?'' c Over there beyond the Ganga1 are the Damilas,

86 here on this side is the Gotha-ocean,2 how can I lie with outstretched limbs ?3 he answered. When the king heard his thoughts he remained silent.

87 Growing duly Gamani came to sixteen years, vigorous, renowned, intelligent and a hero in majesty and might.

88 In this changing existence do beings indeed (only) by works of merit come to such rebirth as they desire; pondering thus the wise man will be ever filled with zeal in the heaping up of meritorious works.

Here ends the twenty-second chapter, called * The Birth of Prince Gamani', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 See note to 10. 44. 2 See note to 22.49.CHAPTEE XXIII


FOREMOST in strength, beauty^ shape and the qualities of 1 courage and swiftness and of mighty size of hody was the elephant Kandula. Nandhimitta, Suranimila; Mahasona, 2 Gothaimbara, Theraputtabhaya, Bharana, and also Velusu-mana, Khanjadeva, Phussadeva and Labhiyavasabha: these 3 ten were his mighty and great warriors.1

King Elara had a general named Mitta; and he had,, in 4 the village that he governed,3 in the eastern district3 near 5 the Citta-mountain, a (nephew, his) sister's son, named after bis uncle, whose secret parts were hidden (in his body). In 6 the years of his childhood, since he loved to creep far, they 4 were used to bind the boy fast with a rope slung about his "body, to a great mill-stone. And since, creeping about on 7 the ground, he dragged the stone after him and in crossing over the threshold the rope broke asunder, they called him 8 Nandhimitta. He had the strength of ten elephants. When he was grown up he went into the city and served his uncle. Damilas, who desecrated at that time thupas and other 9 (sacred memorials), this strong man used to tear asunder, treading one leg down with his foot while he grasped the 10 other with his hand, and then (he would) cast them out (over

1 The story of the ten paladins of Dutthagamani is treated also in the Rasavahim II, p. 78 foil. (Ed. by SAKANATISSATHERA, Colombo, 1901 and 1899.)

2 Karnmantagama, i.e. i Village of labour* or * activity*. 'I think the word is equivalent to the nindagama of the present day. It is a village the tenants of which are liable to render services to the landlords.' WIJESINHA, Hah., p. 88, no. 4.

3 Possibly the name of the village is Khandaraji. Basav. II. 8028 seems to bear this out.

4 That is the boy's parents.156 MaMvanisa xxm. ll

the walls). But the devas caused those dead bodies that he cast out to vanish.

11 When they observed the diminution of the Damilas they told the king; but the command c Take him with his prey !'l

12 they could not carry out.2 Nandhimitta thought: 'And if I do thus, it is but the destruction of men and brings not the

13 glory to the doctrine. In Eohana3 there are still princes who have faith in the three gems. There will I serve the

14 king, and when I have overcome all the Damilas and have conferred the overlordship on the princes, I shall make the doctrine of the Buddha to shine forth brightly/ Then he

15 went and told this to prince GamanL When this latter had taken counsel with his mother he received him with honour, and with high honours the warrior Nandhimitta continued to dwell with him.

16 King Kakavannatissa caused a guard to hold the Damilas in check to be kept continually at all the fords of the Maha-

17 ganga. Now the king had, by another wife, a son named Dlghabhaya; and he gave the guard near the Kacchaka-

18 ford4 into his charge. And to form the guard this (prince) commanded each noble family within a distance of two

19 yojanas round (to send) one son thither. Within the district of Kottnivala, in the village of Khandakavitthika, lived the chief of a clan the headman named -Saipgha who had seven

20 sons. To him, too, the prince sent a messenger demanding a son. His seventh son named Nimila 5 had the strength of

21 ten elephants. His six brothers who were angered at his

1 The reading should be, without doubt, sahodhani ganha-thenam, cf. J.KA.S. 1910, p. 860; J.P.T.S. 1910," p. 137. Ski

safaocjha. The Tika has hit the meaning with the paraphrase sabhancjakam. The Rasavah. II, p. 8015 makes the characteristic

alteration to sahasi ganhatlienam, a proof that the phrase was no longer understood in its original sense but had fallen into a stereotyped use. Cf. also Jilt. iii. 5910.

8 Since they did not succeed in finding out the doer of the deed, * See note to 22. 6. * See note to 10. 58.

5 Rasavahim: Nimmala or Suranirarnala. The first part of the latter name is derived from sura 'spirituous liquor', and must I according to II, p. 841'2) refer to the drinking prowess of the hero.xxiil. 33 The Levying of the Warriors 157

bent toward idleness,, wished that he might go, but not so his mother and his father. Wroth with his other brothers he 22 went, in the early morning, a distance of three yojanas, and sought out the prince even at sunrise. And he, to put him 23 to the test, entrusted him with a far errand : ' Near the Cetiya-mountain in the village of Dvaramandala is a brahman 24 named Kundali, my friend. In his possession is merchandise from over-seas.1 Go thou to him and bring hither the 25 merchandise that he gives thee.' When he had thus spoken to him and had offered him a meal he sent him forth with a letter. He travelled., yet in the forenoon, nine yojanas from 26 that place hither2 toward Anuradhapura and sought out the brahman. cWhen thou hast bathed in the tank, my dear, 27 come to me/ said the brahman. As he had never yet come to this place3 he bathed in the Tissa-tank, and when he had 28 done reverence to the great Bodhi-tree and the cetiya in the Thuparama he went into the city; when he had (then) seen the whole city and had bought perfumes in the bazaar, 29 had gone forth again by the north gate and had brought lotus-blossoms from the lotus-field he sought out the brahman, 30 and questioned by him he told him of his wayfaring. When the brahman heard of his first march4 and of his march hither5 he thought, full of amazement: ' This is a man of 31 noble race; if Elara hears of him he will get him into his power. Therefore must he not dwell near the Damilas^ he must 32 rather take up his abode with the prince's father.' When 33 he had written in the same sense he gave the written message into his hands, and giving him Punnavaddhana-garments6

1 The reading sanmddaparabhandani, in a Sinhalese MS., is only a conjecture, but is probably the correct reading.

2 Here, as frequently, taking the standpoint of the author, who lives in Anuradhapura.

8 I.e. to Anuradhapura.

4 I. e. the distance covered in the morning from Kacchakatittha to Dvaramandala.

5 That is, to Anuradhapura and from there back to Dvaramandala.

6 Tika: anagghani evamnamikani vatthayuganiti 'precious pairs of garments bearing that name \158 MaMvamsa xxin. 34

34 and many gifts (to take with him), and having fed him he sent him (back) to his friend. He came to the prince at the time

35 that the shadows grow longer and delivered up to the king's son the letter and the gifts. Then rejoicing (the prince) said ; ' Honour this man with a thousand (pieces of money).'

30 The other servitors o£ the prince grew envious^ then ordered

37 he to honour the youth with ten thousand (pieces). And when (according to his charge) they had cut his hair and bathed him in the river, and had put on him a pair of Punnavaddhana-garments and a beautiful fragrant wreath,

38 and had wound a silken turban about his head, they brought him to the prince/ and the latter commanded that food from

39 his own stores be given him. Moreover, the prince bade them give his own bed worth ten thousand (pieces of money) to the

40 warrior as -a couch. He gathered all these together and took them to his mother and father and gave the ten thousand (pieces of money) to his mother and the bed to his father.

41 The same night he eame and appeared at the place of the guard. When the prince heard this in the morning he was

42 glad at heart. When he had given him provision for the journey and an escort and had bestowed on him (as a gift) ten

43 thousand (pieces of money) he sent him to his father. The warrior brought the ten thousand to his mother and father, gave it to them and went into the presence of king

44 Kakavannatissa. The king gave him (into the service of) the prince Gamani, and with high honours the warrior Suranimila took up his abode with him*

45 In the Kulumbari-district 2 in the village Hundarivapi

46 lived Tissa's eighth son named Sona. At the time when he was seven years old he tore up young palms; at the time when he was ten years old the strong (boy) tore up great

1Yethayitva, a verb common to both and governing the accusative, must be supplied to punnavaddhanayugam and

* Kulumbarikaiixiikaya ; cf. Nakulanagakannikayam, Hah. 23, 77; K&layanakannikamlii, Mak 34. 89; and Hava-eakannike, Mali. 84. 90. Rasa?. II. 86lf reads Kadalumbari-kannikltya.xxiii. 61 The Levying oftlie Warriors 159

palm-trees. In time Mahasona became as strong* as ten 47 elephants. When the king heard that he was such, a man he took him from his father and gave him into the service of 48 the prince Gamani that he might maintain him. Receiving' honourable guerdon from him, the warrior took up his abode with him.

In the region named Giri, in the village Nitthulavitthika, 49 there lived a son of Mahanaga strong as ten elephants. By 50 reason of his dwarfish stature he was named Gothaka ; his six elder brothers made a merry jest of him. Once when they 51 had gone forth and were clearing the forest to lay out a bean-field they left his share and came back and told him. Then 52 forthwith he started out, and when he had torn up the trees called imbara and had levelled the ground he came and told (them). His brothers went and when they had seen his 53 amazing work they returned to him praising his work.1 Because of this he bore the name Gothaimbara, and him 54 too, in like manner, the king commanded to stay with Gamani.

A householder named Rohana, who was headman in the 55 village of Kitti near the Kota-mountain, gave to the son who was born to him the name of the king Gothabhaya.2 At the 513 age of ten to twelve years the boy was so strong that In his 57 play he threw like balls for playing stones that could not be lifted by four or five men. When he was sixteen years old 58 his father made him a club thirty-eight inches round and sixteen cubits long. When, with this, he smote the stems 59 of palmyra or coco-palms, he felled them. Therefore was he known as a warrior. And him, too, did the king in like 60 manner command to stay with Gamani. But his father was a supporter of the thera Mahasumma. Once when this house- 61 holder was hearing- a discourse of Mahasumma in the ELota-pabbata-vihara he attained to the fruition of (the first stage of

1 The Easav. II. 88 foil, tells yet another story of Gothaimbara,

that he subdued a yakklia named Jayasena and, then went among the monks. The * dwellers in the Uttaravihara' are mentioned as the source of this story.

2 Samananiznam karesi, lit. 'made of Mm of like name with . ? .160 Mahavamsa xxiii. 62

62 salvation called) sotapatti. "With heart strongly moved1 he told this to the king, and when he had given over (the headship of) his house to his son he received the pabbajja from the

63 thera. Given up to the practice of meditation he attained to the state of an arahant. Therefore his son was called Theraputt abhay a.2

64 In the village of Kappakandara 3 a son of Kumara4 lived named Bharana. In time, when he was ten to twelve years

65 old, he went with the boys into the forest and chased many hares; he struck at them with his foot and dashed them,,

66 (smitten) in twain,, to the ground. Then when he, at the age of sixteen years, went with the village-folk into the forest

67 he killed antelopes, elks, and boars in like manner. Therefore was Bharana known as a great warrior. And him did the king in like manner command to stay with Gamani.

68 In the district called Giri, in the village of Kutumbiyan-gana there dwelt, held in honour (by the people) there, a house-

69 holder named Vasabha. His fellow-countrymen Vela and Sumana, governor of Giri, came when a son was born to their

?70 friend, bringing gifts, and both gave their name to the boy. When he was grown up the governor of Giri had him to dwell

71 in his house. He had a Sindhu-horse5 that would let no man mount him. When he saw Velusumana he thought: c Here

72 is a rider worthy of me/ and he neighed joyfully. When the governor perceived this he said to him: e Mount the horse/

73 Then he mounted the horse and made him gallop in a circle ; and the animal appeared even as one single horse around the

74 whole circle, and he sat on the back of the courser seeming

1 JltaBamvego5 the conception of samvegais the negative side

to the positive pasada. See note to 1. 4

s I.e. Abfaaya, the son of the thera. The Easav. II. 947 foil.

that the son was already a samanera, then relates a story

from which it appears that in strength, he was even superior to

8 A river of this name In Hohana is also mentioned, Mah. 24. 22, a monastery, Rasa?. II. 881!, 9412.

4 II. 96s8; Kumaro nameko kutumbiko.

5 Skt. sainctbava 'horse from the Indus countryman excellent

in Indian literatare.xx nr. 87 The Levying of the Warriors 161

to be a chain of men1 and he loosed his mantle and girt it about him again and again fearlessly. When the bystanders 75 saw this they broke into applauding shouts. The governor of Giri gave him ten thousand (pieces of money) and thinking : 'he is fit for the king/ he gave him joyfully into the king's 76 service. The king made Velusumana dwell near him, giving 77 him honourable guerdon and favouring him greatly.

In the district of Nakulanaga in the village of Mahisa-donika there lived Abhaya's last son, named Deva, endowed 78 with great strength. Since he limped a little they called him Khanjadeva. "When he went a-hunting with the village-folk, 79 he chased at those times great buffaloes, as many as rose up, and grasped them by the leg with his hand, and when he had 80 whirled them round his head the young man dashed them to the ground breaking their bones. When the king heard this 81 matter, having sent for Khanjadeva, he commanded him to stay with Gamani.

Near the Cittalapabbata (vihara) 2 in the village named 82 Gavita there lived Uppala's son named Phussadeva. When 83 he went once as a boy to the vihara with the (other) boys he took one of the shells offered to the bodhi-tree and blew it mightily. Powerful even as the roar at the bursting asunder 84 of a thunderbolt was his tone, and all the other boys, terrified, were as if stunned. Therefore he was known by the name 85 Ummadaphussadeva. His father made him learn the archer^s art handed down in the family, and he was one of those who 86 hit their mark (guided) by sound, who hit by (the light of the) lightning, and who hit a hair. A waggon laden with sand and a hundred skins bound one upon another, a slab of 87 asana or udumbara-wood3 eight or sixteen inches thick, or

1 The Tlka (see Mah. ed. note on this passage) explains vassail ar am va by 'like an unbroken row of men holding together1. Vassa presupposes a Skt. varsan related to Skt. vrsan. The neuter gender in hara * string of pearls', is striking. Cf. the Greek legend of Alexander's horse Bukephalos.

2 See Mah. 22. 23 (with note); Kasav. II. 1012.

. .5 Skt. asana, Terminalia tomentosa and udumbara, Ficus glomerata.

M162 Mahavamsa xxm. 88

88 one of iron or copper two or four inches thick he shot through with the arrow; an arrow shot forth by him flew

89 eight usabhas1 over the land but one usabha through the water. When the great king heard this thing he had him taken away from his father and commanded him to stay with Gamani.

90 Near the Tuladhara-mountain in the village of Viharavapi

91 lived a son of the householder Matta, named Vasabha. Since his body was nobly formed they called him Labhiyavasabha. At the age of twenty years he was gifted with great bodily

92 strength. Taking some men with him he began, since he would fain have some fields, (to make) a tank. Making it he,

93 being endowed with great strength, flung away masses of earth such as only ten or twelve men had moved else, and thus in

94 a short time he finished the tank. And thereby he gained renown, and him too did the king summon and, allotting Mm honourable guerdon, he appointed him to (the service of)

95 Gamani. That field was known as Vasabha's Dam.2 So Labhiyavasabha abode near Gamani.

96 On these ten great warriors did the king henceforth confer

97 honours like to the honours conferred on his own son. TheD summoning the ten great warriors the king charged them:

98 £ Each one find ten warriors/ They brought thither warriors in this way and again the king commanded these hundred

99 warriors to levy (others) in like manner. They too brought thither warriors in this way and these thousand warriors did the king again command to levy (others) in like manner.

100 They also brought warriors thither. And they, reckoned altogether, were then eleven thousand one hundred and ten warriors,

101 They all continually received honourable guerdon from the ruler of the land and abode surrounding the prince Gamani.

102 Thus when a wise man, mindful of his salvation, hears of

1 See note to 22. 42.

5 TheBasav. 11. 103 135 says: Kakavannatissamaliarajl tarn anapetva mahantam sakkaram. katva udakavSragamaip tass* eva dapesi; tato patthaya so .Vasabhodakava'ro ti plkafo afaosLxxiil. 102 The Levying of the Warriors 163

the marvels wrought by the pious life, he should surely, turning aside from the evil path, evermore find pleasure in the path of piety.

Here ends the twenty-third chapter, called ' The Levying of the^ Warriors', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.



1 SKILLED in (guiding) elephants and horses, and in (tearing) the sword and versed in archery1 did the prince Gamani dwell

2 thenceforth in Mahagama. The prince Tissa, equipped with troops and chariots did the king cause to be stationed in

3 Dlghavapi2 in order to guard the open country. Afterwards prince Gamani, reviewing his host, sent to announce to his

4 father the king : c I will make war upon the Damilas/ The king, to protect him, forbade him, saying: f The region on this side of the river 3 is enough/ Even to three times he

5 sent to announce the same (reply). c If my father were a man he would not speak thus: therefore shall he put this on/

6 And therewith Gamani sent him a woman's ornament* And enraged at him the king said: c Make a golden chain! with that will I bind him, for else he cannot be protected/

7 Then the other fled and went, angered at his father, to Malaya,4 and because he was wroth with his father they named him Dotthagamani.5

8 Then the king began to build the Mahanuggala-cetiya. When the cetiya was finished the monarch summoned the

9 brotherhood. Twelve thousand bhikkhus from the Cittalapab-

1 I believe that npasana in katiipasana must be taken in the sense of 'archery', which, is borne out by Abhidh. 390. The Tika, it is true, explains katupisanOj in a general way, by katasikkho, dassitasippo.

f See note to 1. 78,

s Of. the note to 10. 44. The MahagangS is considered the border between the region occupied by the Bamiias and the provinces ruled OTer by the Mahagama dynasty.

4 Of. note to 7.68.

6 I.e. the angry Gamani, Cf. Dip. and Mak.y p. 21, n. 1.22 TJie War of the Two Brothers 165

bata (vihara) gathered together here, and from divers (other) places twelve thousand also.

When the king had celebrated the solemn festival of the 10 cetiya he brought all the (ten) warriors together and made them take an oath in the presence of the brotherhood. They 11 all took the oath : c We will not go to (thy) sons5 battlefield *; therefore did they also not come to the war (afterwards).

When the king had built sixty-four viharas and had lived 12 just as many years he died then in that same place.1 The 13 queen took the king's body, brought it to the Tissamaharama 2 in a covered car and told this to the brotherhood. When the 14 prince Tissa heard this he came from Dlghavapi, and when he himself had carried out with (due) care the funeral rites for his father, the powerful (prince) took his mother and the 15 elephant Kandula with him and for fear of his brother went thence with all speed back to Dighavapl To acquaint him 16 with these matters the whole of the ministers, who had met together,, sent a letter to Dutthagamani. He repaired to 17 Guttahala3 and when he had placed outposts there he came to Mahagama and caused himself to be consecrated king1. He 18 sent a letter to his brother (asking) for his mother and the elephant. But when after the third time he did not receive them he set forth to make war upon him. And between 19 those two there came to pass a great battle, in Cu}anganiya~ pitthi: and there fell many thousands of the king's men.4 The king and his minister Tissa and the mare DTghathunika, 20 those three, took flight; the prince (Tissa) pursued them. The bliikkhus created a mountain between the two (brothers). 21 When, he (Tissa) saw it he turned about, thinking: £ This is the work of the brotherhood of the bhikkhus/

When he came to the Javamala ford 5 of the river Kappa- 2 2

1 In MahSgama. * Cf. note to 22. 8.

5 Now Buttala, situated thirty to thirty-five miles to the north of Mahilgiixna, where the high-road the Menik-ganga. The road

from Mabuguma to Mah.iyanga$a led through Guttah&laka (cf. 25, 8).

The outposts were stationed there by Dut|bag5inanl as a security against a surprise from Tissa, residing at Dlgharapi.

4 I.e. of DatflaagaBianl.

r' ! think that the battle took place at distance from Gutta-166 Mahavamsa, XXIV. 23

kandara the king said to his minister Tissa : ' I am spentl

23 with hunger/ He offered him food that was placed in a golden vessel. When he had set aside o£ the food for the

24 brotherhood and had divided it into four portions he said : ' Proclaim the meal-time/ Tissa proclaimed the time. When., by means of his heavenly ear/ he who had taught the king

25 the holy precepts,3 the thera (Gotama), dwelling in Piyan-gudlpa/ heard this he sent the thera Tissa the son of a house-

26 holder, thither, and he went there through the air. Tissa (the minister) took his almsbowl from his hand and offered it to the king. The king commanded the portion for the brotherhood

27 and his own portion to be poured into the bowl. And Tissa poured his portion in likewise, and the mare also would not have her portion. Therefore did Tissa pour her share too into the bowl.

28 The king handed to the thera the bowl filled with food; and hastening away through the air he brought it to the thera

29 Gotama. When the thera had offered their share in morsels5 to five hundred bhikkhus, who partook of the food,

30 and had (again) filled the bowl with the fragments that he received from them, he caused it to fly through the air to the king. (The minister) Tissa who saw it coming received it

31 and served the king. When he himself then had eaten he fed the mare also; then the king sent the almsbowl away, making of his own field-cloak a cushion to bear it upon.6

haiaka in the direction of Dighavapi. The site of Culanganiyapitthi may, therefore, be near Mappana, about ten miles to the north-east from Guttahalaka. On his flight the king had to cross the Kumbuk-kan-oya. This may be the Kappukandara-nadi. Then the Javamala ford was near the village Eumbukkan.

1 Chatajjhatto, In this sense also Jat. i. 34529.

2 See note to 4.12.

s See note to 22. 69 and below, v. 28.

4 I.e. 'Panicum, or Saffron Island/ The monks living there enjoyed a reputation for particular holiness. Cf. Mah. 25. 104 foil.

§ On Slopa see CHILDEBS, JP.Z>., s. v.; literally translated it would be: *when he had given (of it) in morsel-portions.'

1 By cumbaia Is meant a cloth rolled into a circular shape .which serres as the support for a vessel when carried upon the head.xxiv. 45 The War of the Two Brothers 167

Arrived in Mahagama he assembled again a host of sixty 32 thousand men and marching into the field began the war with his brother. The king riding on his mare and Tissa on the 33 elephant Kandula, thus did the two brothers now come at once together, opposing each other in battle. Taking the 34 elephant in the middle the king made the mare circle round him. "When he, notwithstanding, found no unguarded place he resolved to leap over him.1 Leaping with the mare over 35 the elephant he shot his dart over his brother, so that he wounded only the skin on the back (of the elephant).2

Many thousands of the prince's men fell there, fighting in 36 battle, and his great host was scattered. c By reason of the 3 7 weakness of my rider one of the female sex has used me contemptuously'; 3 so thought the elephant, and in wrath he rushed upon a tree in order to throw him (Tissa). The prince 38 climbed upon the tree; the elephant went to his master (Dutthagamani). And he mounted him and pursued the fleeing prince. The prince came to a vihara and fleeing to the 39 cell of the chief thera, he lay down, in fear of his brother, under the bed. The chief thera spread a cloak over the bed, 40 and the king, who followed immediately, asked: cWhere is Tissa ?' c He is not in the bed, great king'; answered the 41 thera. Then the king perceived that he was under the bed, and when he had gone forth he placed sentinels round about 42 the vihara; but they laid the prince upon the bed and covered him over with a garment and four young ascetics, grasping 43 the bed-posts, bore him out as if (they were carrying) a dead bhikkhu. But the king, who perceived that he was being 44 carried forth, said: ' Tissa, upon the head of the guardian genii of our house art thou carried forth; to tear away anything 45 with violence from the guardian genii of our house is not my

1 To see whether lie could perhaps attack him from above.

2 This passage was corrupt at an early period. The Tika, too, mentions varying readings. The sense appears to me to be that Dutthagamani only wishes to show his superiority without wounding either his brother or the elephant seriously. Cf. Mah. ed., Introd., p. xxii.

3 Lit. 'Has leaped over me.' But the word 'langhayi' is evidently to be taken also metaphorically here.Mah&vamsa xxiv. 46

custom. Mayst thou evermore remember the virtue of the

46 guardian genii of our house I' Hereupon the king- went to MahSgama, and thither did he bring- his mother, whom he

47 greatly reverenced. Sixty-eight years did the king live, whose heart stood firm in the faith, and he built sixty-eight viharas,

48 But the prince Tissa, carried forth by the bhikkhus, went

49 thence unrecognizedl and came to Dlghavapi. The prince said to the thera Godhagatta Tissa:2 ' I have done ill, sir; I

50 will make my peace with my brother \ The thera took Tissa, in the habit o£ a servitor^ and five hundred bhikkhus with him

51 and sought the king out. Leaving the prince above on the stairs the them entered with the brotherhood. The monarch

52 invited them all to be seated and had rice-milk and other (food) brought (to them). The thera covered his almsbowl, and on the question : ' Wherefore this1? he answered: 'We have

53 come bringing Tissa with us/ To the question: 'Where is the traitor?' he pointed out the place where he stood. The Viharadevi hurried thither and stood sheltering- her young son.

54 The king said to the thera : ' It is known to you that we are now also 3 your servants. I£ you bad but sent a samanera of

55 seven years our strife had not taken place (and all had ended) without loss of men/ ' O king, this is the brotherhood's guilt, the brotherhood will do penance/

56 "You will (first) have (to do) what is due to (guests)4 arriving. Take the rice-milk and the rest/ With these words he offered the (food) to the brotherhood; and when he

57 had called his brother hither he took his seat with his

1 According to the conjectural reading anatako. Cf. Mali. ed», Introd., p. xlviL

s We have here a surname given to the thera because of his spotted complexion, Tika: evamnamikassa. TUENOTJB translates, concerning- tie explanation of the name given in the Tika, thus ; * Who wns witli a cutaneous complaint which made his skin scaly

of the godha.' (WuBSipHA : of an iguana.) .

f TO dlsabhavo idani no, ie. even after I have become

no ut honorific plur.

* Sgatakiccam vo stands briefly for agatanam kic-

e*ip vo klceam. With these words the king returns to

the shown to the bhikkhus.xxiv. 59 The War of the Two Brothers 169

brother even there in the midst of the brotherhood; and when he had eaten together with him he gave the brotherhood leave to depart. And thither too1 he sent his brother to direct the 58 work o£ harvest; and he too, when he had made it known by beat of drum, directed the work of harvest.

Thus are pious men wont to appease an enmity, though 59 heaped up from many causes, even if it be great; 2 what wise man,, pondering this, shall not be of peace-loving mind toward others ?

Here ends the twenty-fourth chapter, called c The War of the two Brothers \ in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 That is, there, where he had sent the bhikkhus, i.e. to Dighavapi. The sassakammani are preparations for the campaign against the Damilas.

2 The Tika explains anekavikappacitam by anekadha upa-citam, punappunanusaranavasena rasikatam ti attho.CHAPTER XXV


1 WHEN the king Dufrthagamani had provided for his people and had had a relic put into his spear1 he marched, with

2 chariots, troops and beasts for riders/ to Tissamaharama, and when he had shown favour to the brotherhood he said: c I will go on to the land on the further side of the river 3 to bring

3 glory to the doctrine. Give us, that we may treat them with honour, bhikkhus who shall go on with us, since the sight of

4 bhikkhus is blessing and protection for us/ As a penance 4 the brotherhood allowed him five hundred ascetics; taking this

5 company of bhikkhus with him the king marched forth, and when he had caused the road in Malaya leading hither5 to be made ready he mounted the elephant Kandula and, surrounded

6 by his warriors, he took the field with a mighty host. With the one end yet in Mahagama6 the train of the army reached to Guttahalaka.

7 Arrived at Mahiyangana7 he overpowered the Damila Chatta. When he had slain the Damilas in that very place lie came then to Ambatitthaka;8 which had a trench leading

8 from the river, and (conquered) the Damila Titthamba; fighting the crafty9 and powerful foe for four months he

1 The spear as a royal standard, which is always carried before the prince.

2 See note to 15, 139-190, s See note to 24. 4. * Cf. 24, 55.

" That ig to the north of the island, towards Annradhapura. Note to If). 77. On Malaya see note to 7. 68.

% sambaddha, lit. 'connected with Mahagama.'

7 « Blntenne (Alut-nuwara). See Appendix C.

n A fed of the Mahaw»IIganga, not far from Bintenne. ? KftUhattha « Skt krtahasta, and must be taken in the samexxv. 22 The Victory of Dutthagamani 171

(finally) overcame him by cunning,1 since lie placed his mother 9 in his view.

When the mighty man marching thence down (the river) had conquered seven mighty Damila princes in one day and 10 had established peace, he gave over the booty to his troops. Therefore is (the place) called Khemarama.

In Antarasobbha he subdued Mahnkottha, in Dona Gavara, 11 in Halakola Issariya, in Nalisobbha Nalika. In Dlghabhaya- 12 gallaka he subdued,, in like manner, Dlghabhaya; in Kaccha-tittha, within four months, he subdued KapisTsa. In Kotana- 13 gara he subdued Kota, then Halavahanaka, in Vahittha the Damila Vahittha and in Gamain (he subdued) Gamani, in Kum- 14 bagamaKumba^in Nandigama Nandika, Khanu in Khanugama but in Tamba and Unnarna the two, uncle and nephew, named 15 Tamba and Unnama. Jambu also did he subdue, and each village was named after (its commander.)

When the monarch heard (that it was said:) f Not knowing 16 their own army they slay their own people', he made this solemn declaration;2 (Not for the joy of sovereignty is this toil 17 of mine, my striving (has been) ever to establish the doctrine of the Sambuddha. And even as this is truth may the armour 18 an the body of my soldiers take the colour of fire/ And now it came to pass even thus.

All the Damilas on the bank of the river who had escaped 19 death threw themselves for protection into the city named Vijitanagara.3 In a favourable open country he pitched a 20 camp, and this became known by the name Khandhavara-pitthi.

Since the king, in order to take Vijitanagara, would fain 21 put Nandhimitta to the test, he let loose Kandula upon him (once) when he saw him coming towards him. When the 22

1 The allusion is too terse for us to make any safe conjecture as to the cunning mentioned. According to the Tika (vivahakaranale-sena) the reference is to Gamani*s promising to his adversary marriage with Ids mother, and with it the expectation of government.

2 On saccakiriyi see note to 18. 39.

3 Near the northern bank of the Kalavapi (Kaluwaewa), about 24 miles SSE. from Anuradhapura.172 MaMvamsa xxv. 23

elephant came to overpower him, Nandhimitta seized with his hands his two tusks and forced him on his haunches.

23 Since Nandhimitta fought with the elephant the village built on the spot where (it came to pass) is therefore named Hatthipora.

24 When the king had (thus) put them both to the test he marched to Vijitanagara. Near the south gate befell a

25 fearful battle between, the warriors. But near the east gate did Velusumana, sitting on his horse, slay Damilas in great numbers.

26 The Damilas shut the gate and the king sent thither his men. Kandula and Nandhimitta and Suranimila, at the

27 south gate, and the three, Mahasona, Gotha and Theraputta,

28 at the three other gates did their (great) deeds. The city had three trenches, was guarded by a high wall, furnished with gates of wrought iron, difficult for enemies to destroy.

29 Placing himself upon his knees and battering stones, mortar and bricks with his tusks did the elephant attack the gate of

30 iron. But the Damilas who stood upon the gate-tower hurled down weapons of every kind, balls of red-hot iron and molten

31 pitch. When the smoking pitch poured on his back Kandula, tormented with pains, betook him to a pool of water and dived there.

32 f Here is no sura-draught1 for thee, go forth to the destroying of the iron gate, destroy the gate!' thus said Gothaimbara

33 to him. Then did the best of elephants again proudly take heart, and trumpeting- he reared himself out of the water and stood defiantly on firm land.

34 The elephants' physician washed the pitch away and put on balm; the king mounted the elephant and, stroking

35 his temples with his hand, he cheered him on with the words; (To thee I give, dear Kandula, the lordship over the whole island of Lanka/ And when he had had choice

36 fodder given to him, had covered him with a cloth and had put his armour on him and had bound upon his skin a seven

1 Sura is an. mtoxieating drink. Tlie meaning is: ii is not for pleasure's sake that thorn hast come here*XXV. 51 TJie "Victory of DuttJiagamani 173

times folded buffalo-hide and above it had laid a hide steeped 37 in oil he set him free. Roaring like thunder he came, daring danger, and with his tusks pierced the panels of the gate and 38 trampled the threshold with his feet; and with uproar the gate crashed to the ground together with the arches of the gate. The crumbling mass from the gate-tower that fell 39 upon the elephant's back did Nandhimitta dash aside, striking it with his arms. When Kandula saw his deed, in contentment 40 of heart he ceased from the former wrath he had nursed since he (Nandhimitta) had seized him by the tusks.

That he might enter the town close behind him Kandula 41 the best of elephants turned (to Nandhimitta) and looked at that warrior. But Nandhimitta thought: ' I will not enter 42 (the town) by the way opened by the elephant" and with his arm did he break down the wall. Eighteen cubits high 43 and eight usabhas long it crashed together. The (elephant) looked on Suranimila, but he too would not (follow in) the track but dashed forward, leaping the wall into the town. 44 Gotha also and Sona pressed forward, each one breaking down a gate. The elephant seized a cart-wheel, Mitta a waggon- 45 frame, Gotha a cocos-palm, Nimila his good sword, Mahasona 46 a palmyra-palm, Theraputta his great club,1 and thus, rushing each by himself into the streets, they shattered the Damilas there.

When the king in four months had destroyed Vijitanagara 47 he went thence to Girilaka and slew the Damila Giriya. Thence he marched to Mahelanagara that had a triple trench 48 and was surrounded by an undergrowth of kadamba flowers, possessed but one gate and was hard to come at; and staying 49 there four months the king subdued the commander of Mahela by a cunningly planned battle.2 Then nearing Anuradhapura 50 the king pitched his camp south of the Kasa-mountain.3 When he had made a tank there in the month Jetthamula he held 51

1 Cf. 23. 58.

2 Mantaynddhena. TunffOUR translates: 'By diplomatic

8 On parato see note to 36. 56; on Kasapabbata, note to 10. 27.174 MaMvamsa xxv. 52

a water-festival. There is to be found the village named Pajjotanagara.

52 When the king Elara heard that king Dutthagamani was come to do battle he called together his ministers and said:

53 ' This king is himself a warrior and in truth many warriors (follow him). What think the ministers, what should we

54 do ?' King Elara's warriors, led by Dighajantu, resolved: < To-

55 morrow will we give battle/ The king Dutthagamani also took counsel with his mother and by her counsel formed thirty-two

56 bodies of troops. In these the king placed parasol-bearers and figures of a king; * the monarch himself took his place in the innermost body of troops.

57 When Elara in full armour had mounted his elephant Mahapabbata he came thither "with chariots, soldiers and

58 beasts for riders. When the battle began the mighty and terrible Dighajantu seized his sword and shield for battle,

59 and leaping eighteen cubits up into the air and cleaving the effigy of the king with his sword, he scattered the first body

60 of troops. When the mighty (warrior) had in this manner scattered also the other bodies of troops, he charged at the

61 body of troops with which king Gamani stood. But when he began to attack the king, the mighty warrior Suranimila

62 insulted him, proclaiming his own name.2 Dighajantu thought: c I will slay him/ and leaped into the air full of rage. But Suranimila held the shield toward him as he alighted (in

63 leaping). But Dighajantu thought: CI will cleave him in twain, together with the shield/ and struck the shield with

64 the sword. Then Suranimila 3 let go the shield. And as he clove (only) the shield thus released Dighajantu fell there, and Suranimila, springing up, slew the fallen (man) with his

65 spear. Phussadeva blew his conch shell, the army of the Damias was scattered; nay, Elara turned to flee and they

1 ffkl: ranfio patirSpakam katthamayarupakam ti, Le. wooden figures to represent the king.

f The usual form of challenge to single combat.

s In the original text of w. 62, 63 there are only the pronouns itaro, itaro, so, itaro, instead of the names Dighajantu, Sfiranimila, y Stttaairaila,xxv. 79 The Victory of Dutthagamani 175

slew many Damilas. The water in the tank there was dyed 66 red with the blood of the slain, therefore it was known by the name Kulantavapi.1

King Dutthagamani proclaimed with beat of drum : £ None 6 7 but myself shall slay Elara/ "When he himself, armed, had 68 mounted the armed elephant Kandula he pursued Elara and came to the south gate (of Anuradhapura).

Near the south gate of the city the two kings fought; 69 Elara hurled his dart, Gamani evaded it; he made his own 70 elephant pierce (Elara's) elephant with his tusks and he hurled his dart at Elara; and this (latter) fell there, with his elephant.

"When he had thus been victorious in battle and had united 71 Lanka under one rule 2 he marched, with chariots, troops and beasts for riders, into the capital. In the city he caused the 72 drum to be beaten, and when he had summoned the people from a yojana around he celebrated the funeral rites for king Elara. On the spot where his body had fallen he burned it 73 with the catafalque, and there did he build a monument and ordain worship. And even to this day the princes of Lanka, 74 when they draw near to this place, are wont to silence their music because of this worship.

When he had thus overpowered thirty-two Damila kings 75 DUTTHAGAMANI ruled over Lanka in single sovereignty.

When Vijitanagara was destroyed the hero Dlghajantuka 76 had told Elara of the valour of his nephew, and to this 77 nephew named Bhalluka he had sent a message to come hither. When Bhalluka had received (the message)3 from him 78 he landed here, on the seventh day after the day of the burning of Elara, with sixty thousand men.

Although he heard of the king's death after he had landed 79

1 I would now like to adopt the form of this name as given in the Burmese MSS., as it gives good sense: i End of the tribe.* The Tika ed. has Kulatthavapi This, however, is no guarantee for the reading of the MSS.

2 Ekatapattaka, lit. 'Being under one parasol (atapatta).' Cf. ekachattena in v. 75.

3 The Tika adds to tassa the subst. lekhasaindesam.176 Mahavamsa xxv. 80

yet, from shame, with the purpose: '* I will do battle/ he

80 pressed on from Mahatittha hither.1 He pitched his camp near the village Kolambahalaka.2

When the king heard of his coming he marched forth to

81 battle in full panoply of war, mounted on the elephant Kandula, with warriors mounted on elephants, horses and chariots, and with foot-soldiers in great numbers.

82 Ummadaphussadeva, who was the best archer in all the island (followed) armed with the five weapons,3 and the rest

83 of the heroes followed him (also). While the raging battle went forward Bhalluka in his armour came at the king

84 there; but Kandula, the king of elephants, to weaken his onslaught, yielded his ground quite slowly and the army with

85 him drew also back quite slowly. The king said: ' Aforetime in twenty-eight battles he has never retreated, what may this

86 be, Phussadeva ?' And he answered: f Victory lies behind us, 0 king; looking to the field o£ victory the elephant draws

87 back, and at the place of victory he will halt/ And when the elephant had retreated he stood firm beside (the shrine of) the guardian god of the city within the precincts of the Mahavihara.

88 When the king of elephants had halted here the Damila Bhalluka came toward the king in that place and mocked at

89 the ruler of the land. Covering his mouth with, his sword the king returned insult for insult. * I will send (an arrow4) into

90 the king's mouth/ thought the other, and he let fly an arrow. The arrow struck on the sword-blade and fell to the ground. And Bhalluka, who thought: * He is struck in the mouth/

91 uttered a shout for joy. But the mighty Phussadeva sitting behind the king, let fly an arrow into his mouth wherewith (as

92 the arrow passed) he lightly touched the king's ear-ring. And since he made him thus to fall with his feet toward the king, he let fly yet another arrow at the falling man and struck

1 To Aniuadnapura. Of. note to 7. 58.

9 It Is called Eolambllaka in 38. 42, and was situated (cf. note to that not far from the north gate of Anuradhapura.

8 See note to 7.16. 4 After pStemi41 let fly', understand 'kan-flaia*, as in the Tlka.XXV. 105 The Victory of DuttJiagamani 177

him in the knee; and making him (now) to turn with his 93 head toward the king, thus with swift hand he brought him down.1 When Bhalluka had fallen a shout of victory went up.

To make known his fault Phussadeva himself forthwith cut 94 off the lobe of his own ear and showed the king the blood streaming down. When the king saw this he asked:? What does 95 this mean ? ' (I have carried out the royal justice upon myself/ he said (in answer) to the ruler of the land. And to the 96 question : ' What is thy guilt ? ' he answered ; £ Striking thy ear-ring/ ' Why hast thou done this, my brother, taking as guilt that which was no guilt?' replied the great king, and 97 in gratitude he said moreover : c Great shall be thy honourable guerdon, even as thy arrow.'

When the king, after winning the victory, had slain all 98 the Damilas he went up on the terrace of the palace, and when, in the royal chamber there in the midst of the dancers 99 and ministers, he had sent for Phussadeva's arrow and had set it in the ground with the feathered end uppermost, he 100 covered the dart over and over with kahapanas 2 poured forth upon it, and these he forthwith caused to be given to Phussadeva.

Sitting then on the terrace of the royal palace, adorned, 101 lighted with fragrant lamps and filled with many a perfume, 102 magnificent with nymphs in the guise of dancing-girls, while he rested on his soft and fair couch, covered with costly draperies, 103 he, looking back upon his glorious victory, great though it was, knew no joy, remembering that thereby was wrought the destruction o£ millions (of beings).

When the arahants in Piyangudipa3 knew his thought 104 they sent eight arahants to comfort the king. And they, 105 coming in the middle watch of the night, alighted at the

1 Padato katva and sisato katva, lit. lie made him ' foot-wise ' or ' head wise *. Bajanam (Dutthagamanim) is dependent on padato (sisato). On the first shot Bhalluka fell backwards, so that he would have lain with his feet towards Dutthagamani. To prevent this Phussadeva then shot a second arrow at him, which struck Bhalluka in the knee, even as he fell, so that he now fell forward on his face. From that moment he lay in the posture of one conquered and overthrown, or of a slave before the king.

1 See note to 4. 13. s See note to 24 25.

N178 MaMvamsa xxv. 106

palace-gate. Making known that they were come thither through the air they monnted to the terrace of the palace.

106 The great king greeted them., and when he had invited them to be seated and had done them reverence in many ways he

107 asked the reason of their coming. ' We are sent by the brotherhood at Piyangudlpa to comfort thee, O lord of men.J

108 And thereon the king said again to them: 'How shall there be any comfort for me, 0 venerable sirs, since by me was caused the slaughter of a great host numbering millions ? '

109 *From this deed arises no hindrance in thy way to heaven. Only one and a half human beings have been slain here by

110 thee, 0 lord of men. The one had come unto the (three) refuges, the other had taken on himself the five precepts.1 Unbelievers and men of evil life were the rest, not more to be

111 esteemed than beasts. But as for thee, thou wilt bring glory to the doctrine of the Buddha in manifold ways ; therefore cast away care from thy heart, 0 ruler of men !'

112 Thus exhorted by them the great king took comfort. When he had bidden them farewell and had given them leave to

113 depart he lay down again and thought: ' Without the brotherhood you shall never take a meal/ thus our mother and father

114 have caused to swear us in our boyhood at the meal. Have I ever eaten anything whatsoever without giving to the brotherhood of bhikkhus ?' Then he saw that he had, all

115 unthinkingly, eaten pepper in the pod, at the morning meal, leaving none for the brotherhood; and he thought: 'For this I must do penance.'

116 Should a man think on the hosts of human beings murdered for greed in countless myriads, and should he carefully keep in mind the evil (arising from that), and should he also very carefully keep in mind the mortality as being the murderer of all, then will he, in this way, shortly win freedom from suffering and a happy condition.

Here ends the twenty-fifth chapter, called f The Victory of Dutthagsmani \ in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene

joy emotion of the pious.

1 See notes to 1. 32 and 62.CHAPTER XXVI


WHEN that king of high renown had united Lanka in one 1 kingdom he distributed places of honour to his warriors according to their rank. The warrior Theraputtabhaya would 2 not have that which was allotted to him, and being asked : "Wherefore?1 he answered: 'It is war.' And questioned 3 (yet again): < When a single realm is created what war is there ?' he answered: ' I will do battle with those rebels, the passions, (battle) wherein victory is hard to win.' Thus 4 said he, and again and again the king sought to restrain him. When he had entreated again and again he took the pabbajja with the king's consent. After taking- the pabbajja he attained 5 in time to arahantship, and he lived in the midst of five hundred (bhikkhus) who had overcome the asavas.

When the week of the festival of kingship was gone 6 by the fearless king Abhaya,1 who had carried out the consecration with great pomp, went to the Tissa-tank, that was 7 adorned according to the festival custom, to hold festival plays there and to observe the tradition of crowned kings.

All that had been made ready for the king and hundreds 8 of offerings did they place on the spot where the Marieavatti-vihara2 (afterwards stood). There in the very place where 9 the thupa (afterwards) stood the king's people who carried the spear planted the splendid spear with the relic.3 When 10 the king had disported himself in the water the whole day

1 A play upon the words abhayo and gat abhayo.

2 Now M iris wseti in the south-west part of Anuradhapura, north of Tissawsewa. SMITHER, Architectural Remains, Anurddhapura, p. 19 foil.; PAKKEE, Ancient Ceylon, p. 294 foil.

3 Cf. 25, 1, with note.

N 2180 MaMvamsa xxvi. n

through, together with the women of the harem, he said,, in the evening : c We will go hence; carry the spear before us.'

11 And the people entrusted with (this duty) could not move the spear from its place; and the king's soldiers came to-

12 gether and brought offerings of perfumes and flowers. When the king saw this great miracle, glad at heart he appointed sentinels there, and after he had returned forthwith into

13 the city he built a cetiya in such wise that it enclosed the spear and founded a vihara that enclosed the thupa.

14 In three years the vihara was finished and the ruler of men called the brotherhood together to hold the festival (on

15 the consecration) of the monastery. A hundred thousand bhik-khus and ninety thousand bhikkhunls were gathered together

16 there. Then in this assembly the king spoke thus to the brotherhood : * Without a thought of the brotherhood, vener-

17 able sirs, I ate pepper in the pod. Thinking : This shall be my act of expiation, I have built the pleasant Marieavatti-

18 vihara, together with the cetiya. May the brotherhood accept it!' With these words he poured forth the (ceremonial) water of a gift and piously gave the monastery to the brother-

19 hood. When he had set up a great and beautiful hall in the vihara and round about it, he commanded that lavish gifts

20 should be given there to the brotherhood. The hall was so planned that stakes were set even in the water of the Abhaya-tank,1 what need of further words to speak of the remaining space (covered) ?

21 When the ruler of men had given food, drink and so forth, for a week, he offered as a gift the whole of the costly

22 necessaries for samanas.2 These necessaries began with a cost of a hundred thousand (kahapanas) and ended with a cost of

23 a thousand. All this did the brotherhood receive. The money that was spent there in gratitude by the wise king,

1 See note to 10. 84.

3 The most costly parikkhara (see note to 4. 26) was allotted to themcwt distinguished monks (TL samghatthergnam); the value was then graduated according to the rank of the recipient. The literal translation runs thus: the parikkhara had at first (at the beginning; the value of ...»at the end the value of .....xxvi. 2 6 Consecrating of the Maricavatti-viJi am 181

who was a hero in battle as in largess, whose pure heart was filled with faith in the Three Gems, who desired to raise the (Buddha's) doctrine to glory, (that was spent) to honour the 24 Three Gems, beginning with the building of the thupa and ending with the festival of the vihara, (all this money), leaving 25 aside the rest of the priceless (gifts), is reckoned as but one less than twenty kotis.1

Treasures which, in truth, bear on them the blot of the five 26 faults 2 become, if they be acquired by people who are gifted with special wisdom, possessed of the five advantages ; 3 therefore let the wise man strive to have them thus.

Here ends the twenty-sixth chapter, called 'The Consecrating of the Maricavatti-vihara', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 The construction of the sentence in vv. 23-25 is thus: dhanani tena katannuna ranna pariccattani, ratanattayam puje-turp.?sesaui anagghani (danani) vimunciya? honti ekaya unavisatikotiyo. The instrumental cases yuddhe dane ca su-rena, surina, ratanattaye pasannanialacittena, sasanujjo-tanatthina are attributes of ranna, and the plural neuter thupakarapanadito viharamahanantani attribute of dhanani.

2 According to the Tika the five dangers which threaten the wealth are meant; loss by fire, "water, living creatures, confiscation or brigandage.

3 The construction is : bhoga ... honti ... gahitasara. The five benefits are, according to the Tika: popularity among men, high esteem among pious men, fame, fidelity in fulfilment of lay-duties, and attainment of heaven after death. These advantages are possessed by a kingdom when well governed.CHAPTEE XXVII


1 HEREUPON the king called to mind the tradition known to all, and duly handed down: 'The thera rich in merit, ever intent on meritorious works, who formed his resolves in

2 wisdom, who converted the island did, as is known, speak thus to the king, my ancestor: " Thy descendant, the king

3 Dutthagamani, the wise, will hereafter found the Great Thupa, the splendid Sonnamalil a hundred and twenty cubits

4 in height, and an uposatha-house, moreover, adorned with manifold gems, making it nine stories high, namely the Lohapasada.^ *

5 Thus thought the ruler of the land, and finding, when he made search, a gold plate kept in a chest and laid by in the

6 palace with such a written record thereon, he commanded that the inscription be read aloud: fWhen one hundred and

7 thirty-six years have run their course, in future time will Kakavanna's son, the ruler of men, Dutthagamani, build

8 this and that in such and such wise/ When the king had heard this read he uttered a cry of joy and clapped his hands.2 Then early in the morning he went to the beautiful Maha-

9 megha-park, and when he had arranged a gathering together of the brotherhood of the bhikkhus he said to them: ? I will

10 build for you a plsada3 like to a palace of the gods. Send

1 I.e. * provided with golden garlands,' now RuwanwselL The usual designation in Mah. is MahSthtipa.

s For tie sense of apphoteti (=Skt. a-sphotayati) cf. Thupa-8$*~M: vlmahattham abhujitva dakkhinahatthena apphotesi

8 See mote to v. 14, The building was destined to contain the cells ofthebhikklius.xxvii. 20 The Consecrating of the LoJiapdsada 183

to a celestial palace1 and make me a drawing o£ it/ The brotherhood of the bhikkhus sent thither eight (theras) who had overcome the asavas.

In the time of the sage Kassapa2 a brahman named Asoka, 11 who had set out eight ticket-meals s (to be apportioned) to the brethren, commanded his serving-woman named Blranl: 12 c Give of this continually/ When she had given these gifts faithfully her whole life long she left this (world) and was 13 reborn as a lovely maiden in a gleaming palace, floating in the air, (and she was) continually served by a thousand nymphs. Her gem-palace was twelve yojanas high4 and 14 measured forty-eight yojanas round about; it was adorned 15 with a thousand jutting window-chambers, nine-storied and provided with a thousand chambers, gleaming with light, four-sided, with a thousand shell-garlands and with windows 16 as eyes and provided with a vedika (adorned) with a network of little bells. In the middle of the (building) was the 17 beautiful Ambalatthika-pasada, visible from every side, bright with pennons hung out. When the theras, going to the 18 heaven of the thirty-three (gods), saw that (palace) they made a drawing of it with red arsenic upon a linen cloth, and they returned, and being arrived they showed the linen 19 to the brotherhood. The brotherhood took the linen and sent it to the king. When the king full of joy saw it he went 20

1 By vimana are meant the palaces serving as abodes for the gods and happy spirits, Cf. the Vimanavatthu, note to 14. 58.

2 The last Buddha before Gotaina ; see 1. 10 ; 15. 125, 8 Salakabhatta. See note to 15. 205.

4 Here then we have a construction of several stories, diminishing In size towards the top (navabhumika!) after the style of the Assyro-Babylonian ziggarat (KEYS DAVIDS, Biiddhist India, p. 70 foil.; PERROT et CHIPIEZ, Histoire de VArt dans Vantiguite, ii, p. 390 foil.). Such a building is the Sat-mahal-prasada at Polannaruwa, although belonging to a later time. See TENTSTENT, Ceylon, ii, p. 588; BURROWS, Archaeological Report, x, 1886, p. 8 ; FERGTJSSON, History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 1910, i, p. 245; Arch. Survey of Ceylon, Annual Heport, 1903 (Ixv, 1908), p. 14 foil. The word p a s a d a serves now to designate the graduated galleries which form, the base of t hup as. See SMITHER, Anuradhapura, p. 20, &c.184 Mahavamsa XXVIL21

to the splendid arama and caused the noble Lohapasada to be built after the drawing.

21 At the time that the work was begun the generous (king) commanded that eight hundred thousand gold pieces should be

22 placed at each of the four gates; moreover, at each gate he commanded them to lay a thousand bundles of garments and many

23 pitchers filled with ball-sugar, oil, sugar-dust, and honey, and proclaiming, c No work is to be done here without reward/ he had the work done (by the people), appraised, and their wage given to them.

24 The pasada was four-sided, (measuring) on each side a

25 hundred cubits, and even so much in height. In this most beautiful of palaces there were nine stories, and in each story

26 a hundred window-chambers. AH the chambers were overlaid with silver and their coral vedikasl were adorned with mani-

27 fold precious stones, gay with various gems were the lotus-flowers2 on the (vedikas) and they (the vedikas) were surrounded with rows of little silver bells.

28 A thousand well-arranged chambers were in the pasada,

29 overlaid with various gems and adorned with windows. And since he heard of Vessavana's 3 chariot which served as a car for the women, he had a gem-pavilion set up in the middle

30 (of the palace) fashioned in like manner. It was adorned with pillars consisting of precious stones, on which were figures of lions, tigers, and so forth, and shapes of devatas;

31 a bordering of pearl network ran round the edge of the pavilion and thereon was a coral vedika of the kind that has been described above.

32 Within the pavilion, gaily adorned with the seven gems, stood a shining beauteous throne of ivory with a seat of

33 mountain-crystal, and in the ivory back (was fashioned) a sun

1 On the balustrades of the projecting windows, cf. the descriptions in FOTJCHER, IS Art Grfco-Bouddhique du GandMm, fig. 100; GROTWEDEL, Buddhist. Kunst, fig. 27. See Appendix B, no. 30.

2 For lotus-blossoms as a frequent ornament: FOUCHER, in the

same work, fig. 97, 98; G-RUNWEDEL, fig, 8; balustrade with leaf-ornaments on cornices: FOUCHER, fig. 99.

3 See note to 10. 89.XXVIL 45 The Consecrating of the Lohayasada 185

in gold; a moon in silver, and stars in pearls,, and lotus-blossoms 34 made of various gems were fitly placed here and there and Jataka-tales in the same place * within a festoon of gold.

On the exceedingly beautiful throne covered with costly 35 cushions was placed a beautiful fan of ivory, gleaming (magnificently),, and a white parasol with a coral foot, resting 36 on mountain-crystal and having a silver staff, shone forth over the throne. On it, depicted in the seven gems, were 37 the eight auspicious figures 2 and rows of figures of beasts with jewels and pearls in between ; and rows of little silver 38 bells were hung upon the edge of the parasol. Palace, parasol, throne, and pavilion were beyond price.

Costly beds and chairs, according to rank, and carpets and 39 coverlets of great price did he command them to spread about. The rinsing- vessel and the ladle (belonging thereto) were even 40 of gold ; 3 what need then to speak of the other utensils in the palace? Surrounded by a beautiful enclosure and provided 41 with four gateways the pasada gleamed in its magnificence like the hall in the heaven of the thirty-three (gods). The 42 pasada was covered over with plates of copper, and thence came its name e Brazen palace '.

When the Lohapasada was ready the king assembled the 43 brotherhood, and the brotherhood came together as at the consecration-festival of the Maricavatti (vihara). Those 44 bhikkhus who were yet simple folk stood on the first story, those learned in the tipitaka on the second, but those who had entered on the path of salvation and the others (stood) 45

1 On events in the former existences of the Buddha as a motive for decorative scenes see particularly FOUCHER, I. L, p. 270 foil. For arrangements in the manner described here, see CUNNINGHAM, Bharhut, plate xl foil.

2 WIJESINHA enumerates the attha niangalikani: lion, bull, elephant, water-pitcher, fan, standard, conch-shell, lamp. The Thu-pavamsa, 6425, mentions sirivaccha as the first (cf. 30. 65).

3 Acamakumbhi or acamanakurnbhi ? thus the Thupavamsa 542 ? is a vessel to hold water for washing the feet and hands, and is placed at the entrance of the temple (WIJESINHA). See M.Y. I. 25. 19; C.V.Y. 35. 4.186 Mahavama xxvii. 46

each on one of the third and higher stories/ but the arahants stood on those four stories that were highest of all.

46 When the king had bestowed the pasada on the brotherhood, after pouring forth the (ceremonial) water of presentation, he commanded,, as before, a lavish gift of alms for

47 a week. That which was spent by the generous king for the pasada, leaving aside all that which was beyond price, is reckoned at thirty kotis.

48 The wise who consider how marvellously precious is the giving of alms, while the gathering together of treasures (for oneself) is worthless, give alms lavishly, with a mind freed from the fetters (of lust), mindful of the good of beings.

Here ends the twenty-seventh chapter, called 'the Consecrating of the Lohapasada", in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 That is, on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th stories stood those who had attained to the first three stages of the path: the sotapanna, the sakadagamino, and the anagamino. See notes to 1. 33, 15. 18 and 13. 17. eSimple folk' in verse 44 is puthujjana, the unconverted, those who had not even entered on the path.CHAPTEE XXVIII


SPENDING a hundred thousand (pieces of money) the king 1 hereupon commanded a great and splendid ceremony of gifts for the great Bodhl-tree. As he then, when entering the 2 city, saw the pillar of stone raised upon the place of the (future) thupa and remembered the old tradition, he became glad, thinking: c I will build the Great Thupa/ Then he mounted 3 the high terrace (of his palace), and when he had taken his repast and had lain down he thought thus : f At the conquer- 4 ing of the Damilas this people was oppressed by me. It is not possible to levy a tax; yet if without a tax I build the 5 Great Thupa how shall I be able to have bricks duly made ?'

As he thus reflected the devata of the parasol observed his 6 thought, and thereupon arose a tumult among the gods; when Sakka was aware of this he said to Vissakamma:l f King Gamani has been pondering over the bricks for the 7 cetiya: Go thou a yojana from the city near the Gambhlra-river and prepare the bricks there/ 2 8

Thus commanded by Sakka, Vissakamma came hither 3 and prepared the bricks in that very place.

In the morning a huntsman there went into the forest with 9 his dogs; the devata of the place appeared to the huntsman in the form of an iguana. The hunter pursued it, and 10 when he came (to the place) and saw the bricks, and when the iguana vanished there, he thought: f Our king intends to 11 build the Great Thupa;4 here is an aid thereto !' Thereupon he went and told (this thing). When the king, to whom his 12

1 See note to 18. 24. 2 See note to 7. 44.

3 To Lanka or to Anuradhapura. 4 Or 'a great thupa'.188 Mahavamsa xxvm. 13

people's good was dear, heard his welcome words he, glad at heart, bestowed on him a rich guerdon.

13 In a north-easterly direction from the city,, at a distance of three yojanas and near Acaravitthigama,, on a plain covering

14 sixteen kaiisas (of land) there appeared nuggets of gold of different sizes; the greatest measured a span, the least were

15 of a finger's measure. When the dwellers in the village saw the earth full of gold, they put some of it into a gold vessel and went and told the king of this matter.

16 On the east side of the city, at a distance of seven yojanas, on the further bank of the river and near Tambapittha, copper

17 appeared. And the dwellers in the village there put the nuggets of copper into a vessel, and when they had sought the king they told him this matter.

18 In a south-easterly direction from the city, four yojanas distant, near the village of Sumanavapi many precious stones

19 appeared. The dwellers In the village put them, mingled with sapphires and rubies, into a vessel and went and showed them to the king.

20 In a southerly direction from the city, at a distance of eight yojanas, silver appeared in the Ambatthakola-cave.1

21 A merchant from the city, taking many waggons with him, in order to bring ginger and so forth from Malaya, had set

22 out for Malaya. Not far from the cave he brought the waggons to a halt and since he had need of wood for whips

23 he went up that mountain. As he saw here a branch of a bread-fruit-tree, bearing one single fruit as large as a water-pitcher, and dragged down by the weight of the fruit, he cut

24 the (fruit) which was lying on a stone away from the stalk with his knife, and thinking: c I will give the first (produce as alms)/ with faith he announced the (meal) time. And there came thither four (theras) who were free

1 Where the Rajatalena-vlhara (Mah. 35. 4) was afterwards built, now the Ridl-vihara (Silver Monastery), to the north-east of Kurunsegala, cf. E. MULLER, Ancient Inscriptions in Ceylon, p. 39; TUENOUR, Mah. Index, g.7. Ambatthakola; RHYS DAVIDS, Ancient Coins, &c., p. 17.

The distance between Annradhapnra and Ridi-vihara is 55 miles

s= 95 km. as the crow Hies.xxvin 39 Wheremthal to luild the Great Thupa 189

from the asavas. When he had greeted them gladly and 25 had invited them with all reverence to be seated, he cut away the rind around the stalk with his knife and tore out the 26 bottom (of the fruit), and pouring the juice which filled the hollow forth into their bowls he offered them the four bowls filled with fruit-juice. They accepted them and went their way. 2 7 Then he yet again1 announced the (meal) time. Four other theras, free from the asavas, appeared before him. He took their 2 8 alms-bowls and when he had filled them with the kernels of the bread-fruit he gave them back. Three went their way, but one did not depart. In order to show him the silver he 2 9 went further down and seating himself near the cave he ate the kernels. When the merchant also had eaten as he wished 30 of the kernels that were lef t, and had put the rest in a bundle, he went on, following the track of the thera, and when he saw the 31 thera he showed him the (usual) attentions. The thera opened a path for him to the mouth of the cavern: 'Go thou now 32 also on this path, lay brother! * When he had done reverence to the thera he went that way and saw the cave. Standing 33 by the mouth of the cave and seeing the silver he struck upon it with his axe, and when he knew it to be silver he took 34 a lump of the silver and went to his freight-waggons. Then leaving the waggons behind and taking the lump of silver with him the excellent merchant went in haste to Anuradha- 35 pura and told the king of this matter, showing him the silver.

In a westerly direction from the city, at a distance of five 35 yojanas, near the landing-place TJruvela,2 pearls in size like to great myrobalan fruits, mingled with coral, six waggon- 37 loads, came forth to the dry land. Fishermen who saw them piled them together in a heap, and taking the pearls together 38 with coral in a vessel they went to the king and told him of this matter.

In a northerly direction from the city, at a distance of 39

1 Pan a should probably be altered to puna.

2 According to our passage the site of Uruvela seems to be near the mouth of the Kala-oya, which is distant about 40 miles, as the crow flies, from Anuradhapura.190 Mafmmmsa xxvili. 40

seven yojanas, in a cave opening* on the Pelivapikagama-1

40 tank, above on the sand, four splendid gems had formed in size like to a small mill-stone, in colour like flax-flowers,

41 (radiantly) beautiful. When a hunter with his dogs saw these he came to the king and told him: ' I have seen precious stones of such and such a kind/

42 The lord of the land, rich in merit, heard, on one and the same day, that the bricks and the other (treasures) had

43 appeared for the Great Thupa. Glad at heart he bestowed due reward upon those people, and appointing them forthwith as watchers he had the treasures all brought to him.

44 Merit, that a man has thus heaped up with believing heart, careless of insupportable ills of the body, brings to pass hundreds of results which are a mine of happiness; therefore one must do works of merit with believing heart.

Here ends the twenty-eighth chapter,, called e the Obtaining of the wherewithal to build the Great Thupa', in the Maha-vamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 The Pelivapi is the present Vavunik-kulam, a little over 50 miles north of Anuradhapura. The river, of which the damming-up has formed the tank, is called Pali-am. PARKER, Ancient Ceylon, pp. 256, 365-366.CHAPTEE XXIX


WHEN the wherewithal to build was thus brought together 1 he began the work of the Great Thupa on the full-moon day of the month Vesakha,1 when the Visakha-constellation had appeared. When he had ordered to take away the stone pillar 2 the lord of the land had the place for the thupa dug out to a depth of seven cubits2 to make it firm in every way. Bound stones that he commanded his soldiers to bring hither 3 did he cause to be broken with hammers, and then did he, having knowledge of the right and the wrong ways, command 4 that the crushed stone, to make the ground firmer; be stamped down by great elephants whose feet were bound with leather.

The fine clay that is to be found on the spot, for ever 5 moist,, where the heavenly Ganga falls down (upon the earth3) (on a space) thirty yojanas around, is called because of its fine- 6 ness, ' butter-clay/ Samaneras who had overcome the asavas, brought the clay hither from that place. The king commanded 7 that the clay be spread over the layer of stones and that bricks then be laid over the clay, over these a rough cement and over 8 this cinnabar,4 and over this a network of iron, and over this sweet-scented marumba 5 that was brought by the samaneras 9

1 See note to 1. 12.

2 The reading sattahatthe is undoubtedly the correct one. WIJESINHA (note to this passage) says: the Tika has sata. That, however, is not the case. It also reads satta.

8 The idea is that the Ganga flows through the atmosphere, the earth and underworld.

4 Kuruvinda is ' ruby ' or ' cinnabar'.

5 Marumba is used (C.V. V. 14. 5; 35.4; VI. 3. 8) for besprinkling a damp parivena (living-cell). At Pacittiya X. 2 (Yin. Pit. iv, p. 33) pasana, sakkhara, kathala, marumbaj valika follow one upon another.192 Mahavamsa XXIX. 10

from the Himalaya. Over this did the lord of the land eom-

10 raand them to lay mountain-crystal. Over the layer of mountain-crystal he had stones spread ; everywhere throughout the

11 work did the clay called butter-clay serve (as cement). With resin of the kapittha-tree,1 dissolved in sweetened water,2

12 the lord of chariots laid over the stones a sheet of copper eight inches thick,, and over this, with arsenic dissolved in sesamnm-oil, (he laid) a sheet of silver seven inches thick.

13 When the king, glad at heart, had thus had preparation made upon the spot where the Great Thupa was to be built,

14 he arranged, on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month Asalha, an assembly of the brotherhood of the

1 5 bhikkhusj and spoke thus : * To-morrow, venerable sirs, I shall

lay the foundation-stone of the Great Cetiya. Then let our 16 whole brotherhood assemble here, to the end that a festival

may be held for the Buddha, mindful of the weal of the people ;

and let the people in festal array, with fragrant flowers and 1 7 so forth, come to-morrow to the place where the Great Tliupa

will be built/

He entrusted ministers 3 with the adorning of the place of 18 the cetiya. Commanded by the lord of men, they, filled

with deep reverence for the Sage (Buddha), adorned the 1 9 place in manifold ways. The whole city also and the streets

leading thither did the king command to be adorned in

20 manifold ways. On the following morning he placed at the four gates of the city many barbers and servants for the

21 bath and for cutting the hair, clothes likewise and fragrant flowers and sweet foods (did) the king (place there) for his

22 people's good, he \\ ho rejoiced in the people's welfare. Taking, according to their wish, the things thus put before them, townsfolk and country-people went to the place of the thupa.

23 The king supported, in order of their rank, by many

24 ministers, richly clothed as befitted their office, surrounded


2 Rasodaka is translated by TUEKOITB ( water of the small red cocoanut '. The gives no explanation. 5 The life, following the Atthakatha, gives their names, VisSkhaxxix. 36 The Beginning of the Great TJmpa 193

by many dancers richly clothed like to celestial nymphs, (he himself) being- clad in his state-raiment, attended by 25 forty thousand men, while around him crashed the music (he being) glorious as the king of the gods; in the evening 26 he who had knowledge of fit and unfit places went to the place of the Great Thupa,1 delighting the people (with the sight). A thousand and eight waggon-loads of clothes rolled 27 in bundles did the king place in the midst, and on the four sides he had clothes heaped up in abundance; and moreover 28 he had honey, clarified butter, sugar and so forth set (there) for the festival.

From various (foreign) countries also did many bhikkhus 29 come hither; what need to speak of the coming of the brotherhood living here upon the island? With eighty thou- 30 sand bhikkhus from the region of Rajagaha2 came the thera Indagutta, the head of a great school. From Isipatana3 31 came the great thera Dhammasena with twelve thousand bhikkhus to the place of the cetiya.

With sixty thousand bhikkhus came hither the great thera 32 Piyadassi from the Jetarama-vihara.4 From the Mahavana 33 (monastery) in Vesall5 came the thera Urubuddharakkhita6 with eighteen thousand bhikkhus. From the Ghositarama in 34 Kosambl7 came the thera Urudhammarakkhita with thirty thousand bhikkhus. From the Dakkhinagiri in UjjenI8 came 35 the thera Urusamgharakkhita with forty thousand ascetics.

With a hundred and sixty thousand bhikkhus came the 36

1 We should rather expect Mahathupapatitthanatthanam thanavicakkhano: 'he went to the place where the Great Thupa should "be built, having knowledge of (fitting) places.'

2 Of. note to 2. 6.

3 A park and afterwards a monastery near Baranasi (Benares) where the Buddha had preached his first sermon. M.Y. I. 6. 6 foil.

4 I. e. Jetavana. See note to 1. 44.

5 See note to 4. 9. Also M.V. VI 30. 6 ; C.Y. V. 13.3, and in many other places.

6 I. e. Mahabuddharakkhita.

7 See note to 4. 17; M.Y. X. 1. 1; C.Y. L 25. 1, and often.

8 See note to 5. 39; 13. 5. Notice that the names of the three theras in 33, 34, 35, contain the words buddha, dhanima, samgha,

o194 Mahavamsa, xxix. 3 7

thera named Mittinna from the Asokarama in Pupphapura.1

37 From the Kasmira country came the thera Uttinna bringing

38 with him two hundred and eighty thousand bhikkhus. The wise Mahadeva came from Pallavabhogga 2 with four hundred

39 and sixty thousand bhikkhus, and from Alasanda3 the city of the Yonas came the thera Yonamahadhammarakkhita with

40 thirty thousand bhikkhus. From his dwelling by the road through the Vinjha forest mountains/ came the thera Uttara with sixty thousand bhikkhus.

41 The great thera Cittagutta came hither from the Bodhi-

42 manda-vihara5 with thirty thousand bhikkhus. The great thera Candagutta came hither from the Vanavasa6 country

43 with eighty thousand ascetics. The great thera Suriyagutta came from the great Kelasa-vihara with ninety-six thousand

44 bhikkhus. As for the number of the bhikkhus dwelling in the island who met together from every side, no strict account

45 has been handed down by the ancients. Among all these bhikkhus who were met in that assembly those alone who had overcome the asavas, as it is told, were ninety-six kotis,

46 These bhikkhus stood according to their rank around the place of the Great Thupa, leaving in the midst an open space

47 for the king. As the king stepped into this (space) and saw7

1 I.e. Pataliputta; see note to 4. 31. For Asokarama, cf. 5. 80.

2 Pallava is the name of the Persians=Skt. Pal lava or Pahlava. Bhoggam is perhaps 'fief; cf. rajabhoggam in D. I. 879 and often elsewhere.

3 Alexandria in the land of the Yonas, i.e. the Greeks, probably the town founded by the Macedonian king in the country of the Paropanisadae near Kabul. See ARKIAN, Anabasis iii. 28, iv. 22.

* I.e. Yindhya. See 19. 6 with note.

5 A monastery built near the bodhimanda at Bodhgaya, the place "where G-otama attained to Buddhaship.

? See note to 12. 31.

7 The Tika gives here (from the Atthakatha) the following peculiar explanation: *As the king steps into the middle of the circle lie expresses the following wish : if his work is to come to a happy issue then, as a sign thereof, may theras who bear the name of the Buddha, Ms doctrine and his order, take their places on the east, sooth, and west sides; but on the north side a thera with the name of Ananda, tlu Buddha's beloved disciple. Each bhikkhu shall be surrounded byxxix. 58 The Beginning of the Great Thupa 195

the brotherhood of bhikkhus standing thus he greeted them joyfully, with believing heart; when he had then duly offered 48 them fragrant flowers and had passed round them three times, turning to the left/ he went into the midst, to the consecrated place of the 'filled pitcher3. Then forthwith uplifted by the 49 power of pure gladness he, devoted to the welfare of the beings, commanded that the pure turning staff (for tracing the circular boundary), made of silver and secured (by means 50 of a rope) to a post of gold, be grasped by a minister of noble birth, well attired and in festival array,2 and, being 51 resolved to allot a great spaee for the cetiya, he ordered him to walk round (with the turning staff in his hands) along the ground already prepared.3 But the great thera of wondrous 52 power named Siddhattha, the far-seeing, prevented the king as he did this. Reflecting : 'If our king shall begin to build 53 so great a thupa death will come upon him, ere the thupa be finished; moreover, so great a thupa will be hard to repair,' 54 he, looking to the future, prevented (the measuring of) that great dimension. In agreement with the brotherhood and 55 from reverence toward the thera, the king, though he would fain have made (the thupa) great, hearkened to the thera's word and did, according to the thera's instruction, allot a 56 moderate space for the cetiya, that the (foundation) stones might be laid.

Eight vases of silver and eight (vases) of gold did he, with 57 tireless zeal, place in the midst, and in a circle around these he 58 placed a thousand and eight new vases, and likewise (around

a troop of companions of the same name. The king's wish is fulfilled.' The theras in question and their companions are called (cf. Tika, pp. 383-384 and above v. 33 foil.) Mahabuddharakkhita, Mahadhamnia-rakkhita, Mahasamgharakkhita, and Mahananda.

1 Katvana tipadakkhinam. See note to 18. 36.

2 Tika: Abhimangalabhutena ti, janehi pinitatta abhi-mangalasammatehi ahatavatthadihi alamkarehi patiman-ditatta ca samangaliko ti 'he was samangalika because he was liked by the people and because he was adorned with ornaments that were believed to be festival, as new garments (not washecl before) and so forth *.

3 And to draw, in this way, the circular outline of the thupa.

o 2196 MaMvamsa xxix. 59

59 each of these) a hundred and eight garments.1 Eight splendid bricks did he ]ay, each one apart by itself.2 When he then had

60 commanded an official chosen for this and adorned in every way to take one of them, he laid on the east side, which had been

61 prepared with many ceremonies, the first foundation stone,3 solemnly, upon the sweet-smelling clay.

When jasmine-flowers4 had been offered on that spot an

62 earthquake came to pass. And he caused the other seven (stones) to be laid by seven (other) ministers and ceremonies (of

63 consecration) to be carried out. Thus he caused the stones to be laid on the day appointed, the fifteenth uposatha day in the bright half of the month Asalha.

64 When he had reverentially greeted the four great theras who were free from the asavas, who stood there at the four heavenly quarters, and when he had honoured them

65 with gifts he came in due course, grea.tly rejoicing, to the north-east side, and when he (here) had greeted the great thera Piyadassi, who was free from the asavas, he took his

66 place near him. Exalting the festival ceremony there this thera preached the true doctrine to him; the preaching of the

67 thera was rich in blessing for the people. The conversion of forty thousand to the true doctrine took place, and (yet) forty thousand (more) became partakers in the fruit of entering

68 into the path of salvation.6 A thousand lay-folk became even

1 According to the Tika from atthuttare atthuttare to visum

vis um is to be read as OKE sentence, so that the stop after a (in 58 d) in the edition should be deleted. In this case we must add in 58c,d a second parivariya with the meaning: Maying around (them)/ and the translation would be 'and in a circle around these he placed a thousand and eight new vases, and eight splendid bricks did lie lay, each one apart by itself, (laying in a circle around) each of them a hundred and eight garments'.

2 Namely East, NE., N., and so forth. The stones are called pa?ari as they were of gold.

8 According to the Tiki the thera Mittasena had mixed the clay (gandhapi^fa), the them Jayasena had poured the water on it.

4 Jlti gumani are both, names for Jaaminum grandi-

5 They to the of sanctification. See notes to 1. 32 tad 33.xxix. 70 The Beginning of the Great Thupa 197

such as have but one (earthly) existence before them, a thousand became such as have no other (earthly) existence (to come), and a thousand also became arahants.1 Eighteen 69 thousand bhikkhus and fourteen thousand bhikkhunls attained to arahantship.

Even so may every one whose heart is inclined to (faith in) 70 the Three Gems, knowing that by a benefactor of mankind, whose heart is set on generous giving, the highest blessing is brought to pass for the world, strive toward the attainment of many virtues, as faith and so forth.

Here ends the twenty-ninth chapter, called ' The beginning of the Great Thupa', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 They attained to the second and third, and to the last and highest stage of sanctification. See notes to 15. 18 and 13. 17.CHAPTEE XXX


1 WHEN the great king had reverentially greeted the whole brotherhood he invited them, saying: < Even till the cetiya is

2 finished accept ye alms from me/ The brotherhood would not consent; when he then by degrees1 prayed (them to

3 accept) for a week he won acceptance, for one week, by the half of the bhikkhus. When he had obtained this from them

4 he, satisfied, had pavilions set up in eighteen places around the place of the thupa and commanded there, for one week, lavish gifts to the brotherhood. Then he gave the brotherhood leave to depart.

5 Thereupon commanding that the drums be beaten he called the master-builders together with all speed; in number they

6 were five hundred. And one of them answered the king, on his asking: e How wilt thou make (the thupa) ? * f Taking a

7 hundred workmen I will use one waggon-load of sand in one day/

The king rejected him.2 Thereon they offered (to work with) one half less and yet one half less again, and (at last

8 with) two ammanas 3 of sand. These four master-builders also did the king reject. Then an experienced and shrewd master-

9 builder to the king: e I shall pound (the sand) in a mortar, and then, when, it is sifted, have it crushed in the mill (thus will use) one ammana (only) of sand/

1 I.e. limiting Ms invitation more and more.

1 The u« of too much sand would tell against the durability of the Therefore the Tiki makes the king say to the master-builder: * thou do so the cetiya would be like a heap of pure

be covered with grass and bushes/

8 As m of capacity. The Abhidhanappadipika 484 defines

the- at 11 The dona is 64 patata, i.e. handfuk

Cf. BATi0st Coins and Mwwr& of Ceylon, pp. 23 The Making oftJie Eelic-CJumiber 199

And on these words the lord of the land, whose courage 10 was like to Indra's, consented, with the thought: ' There will be no grass nor any such thing on our cetiya/ and he 11 questioned him saying: 'In what form wilt thou make the cetiya?' At that moment Vissakamma1 entered into (and possessed) him. When the master-builder had had a golden 12 bowl filled with water, he took water in his hand and let it fall on the surface of the water. A great bubble rose up 13 like unto a half-globe of crystal. He said: "Thus will I make it/ And well-pleased the king bestowed on him 14 a pair of garments worth a thousand (pieces of money) and ornamented shoes and twelve thousand kahapanas.

' How shall I have the bricks transported without laying 15 burdens on the people?' Thus pondered the king in the night-time; when the gods were aware of this they brought 16 night after night bricks to the four gates of the cetiya and laid them down there, always as many as sufficed for one day* When the king heard this, glad at heart, he began work on 17 the thupa. And he made it known : ' Work shall not be done here without wage/ At every gate he commanded to place 18 sixteen hundred thousand kahapanas^ very many garments, different ornaments, solid and liquid foods and drink withal, 19 fragrant flowers, sugar and so forth, as well as the five perfumes for the mouth*

'Let them take of these as they will when they have 20 laboured as they will/ Observing this command the king's work-people allotted (the wages).

A bhikkhu who wished to take part in the building of the 21 thupa took a lump of clay which he himself had prepared,2 went to the place of the cetiya, and deceiving the king's 22 work-people, he gave it to a workman. So soon as he received it he knew what it was,3 perceiving the bhikkhu's design. 23

1 Of. the note to 18. 24. Thus it is the god who acts and speaks through the medium of the master-builder.

2 I.e. had kneaded and mixed. As he received no wage for this he hoped to have a share in the meritorious work of building the thupa.

3 He recognized the brick by the difference in the composition.200 MaMvamsa xxx. 24

A dispute arose there. When the king afterwards heard this he came and questioned the workman.

24 'Sire with flowers in the one hand the bhikkhus are used

25 to give me a piece of clay with the other; but I can onlj know (just so much) whether he be a bhikkhu from another knd or of this country, Sire/ 1

26 When the king heard this word he appointed an overseer to show him the ascetic who had offered the lump of clay. The other showed him to the overseer and he told the king.

2 7 Tbe king had three pitchers with jasmine-blossoms placed in the courtyard of the sacred Bodhi-tree and bade the overseer give

28 them to the bhikkhu.2 When the bhikkhu,, observing nothing, had offered them,, the overseer told him this while he yet stood there. Then did the ascetic understand,

29 A thera living in Piyangalla in the Kotthivala district, who also wished to take part in the work of building the cetiya

30 and who was a kinsman of that brick-worker, came hither and when lie had made a brick in the size (such as was used there)

3! after having learned (the exact measure) he, deceiving the work-people, gave it to the workman. This man laid it on its place (in the thupa), and a quarrel arose (on this matter),

32 When the king knew this he asked : c Is it possible to recognize the brick ? * Although the workman knew it, he

33 answered the king: * It is impossible/ To the question: £ Dost thou know the thera ? ' he answered : 'Yes/ So that he might be made known the king placed an overseer near

34 him. When the overseer had thereby come to know him he went, with the king^s consent, and visited the thera in the

35 Katthahiila-parivena and spoke with him; and when he had

the day of the thera's departure and the place whither

1 He means by this that a more exact description of the

was impossible to him. The conjectural reading of the

neva ti instead of devati is unnecessary. The has also (p. 01M;: ayam pana agantuko ayam

II ettakaip jlnlrni. S-ee Hah. ed,y note to this

a So that tto might "be rewarded in this way for his work

§a tbexxx. 45 The Making of the EeUc-Cham'ber 201

he was going, and had said to him: {I am going with thee to thy village/ he told the king all. The king commanded that 36 a pair of garments,, worth a thousand (pieces o£ money), and a costly red coverlet he given to him,, and when he had (also) 37 commanded to give him many things used by samanas, and sugar and a naltl of fragrant oil withal, he laid his command upon him.

He went with the thera, and when Piyangallaka was in 38 sight he made the thera sit down in a cool shady place where there was water, and when he had given him sugar-water and 39 had rubbed his feet with fragrant oil and put sandals upon them, he gave him the necessaries (saying): c For the thera 40 who visits my house 2 have I brought these with me, but the two garments for my son. All this do I give to thee now/ When with these words he had given those (necessaries)3 to 41 the thera who, after receiving them, set out again upon his journey, he, taking leave of (the thera), told him, in the king's words, the king's command.

While the Great Thupa was built, people in great numbers 42 who laboured for wages, being converted to the faith, went to heaven. A wise man who perceives that only by inner faith 43 in the Holy One is the way to heaven found, will therefore bring offerings to the thiipa.4

Two women, who since they had also laboured here for hire, 44 were re-born in the heaven of the thirty-three (gods), pondered when the thupa was finished, upon what they had formerly 45

1 A. measure of capacity (Abhidh. 1057), Sinh. nseliya, according to CLOUGH ' about three pints ?wine-measure '.

2 Kulupaka or -aga is the name given in a family to a bhikkhu who continually frequents the house to receive alms, and enters thus into confidential relations with the family.

3 After te must be understood parikkhare.

4 It is significant that in the Tika there is no explanation of verses 42-50. These have indeed the look of a monastic legend (cf. particularly the practical application in verse 43), which may have been interpolated at a later period. In any case the interpolation must be old. It is found in all the groups of MSS. and also in the Kambodian Mahavamsa, and the story appears again in the Thupa-vamsa.202 MaMvamsa xxx. 46

done, and when they both became aware of the reward of their deeds, they took fragrant flowers and came to do

46 reverence to the thupa with offerings. "When they had offered the fragrant flowers they did homage to the cetiya. At this moment came the thera Mahasiva who dwelt in

47 Bhativanka (with the thought): el will pay homage by night to the Great Thupa/ As he, leaning against a great

48 sattapanna-tree,1 saw those women and without letting himself be seen stood there gazing at their marvellous splendour, he, when their adoration was ended asked them:

49 'Here the whole island shines with the brightness of your bodies; what works have ye done that ye have passed from

50 this world into the world of gods ?' The devatas told him of the work done by them in the (building of the) Great Thupa ; thus does faith in the Tathagata bring a rich reward.

51 The three terraces for the flower-offerings to the thupa2 did the theras of miraculous power cause to sink down so soon as they were laid with bricks, making them equal to the

52 surface of the soil. Nine times did they cause them to sink down when they were laid. Then the king called together an

53 assembly of the brotherhood of bhikkhus. Eighty thousand bhikkhus assembled there. The king sought out the brotherhood, and when he had paid homage to them with gifts and had

54 reverentially greeted them he asked the reason of the sinking down of the bricks. The brotherhood answered: fln order that the thupa may not sink down of itself was this thing

55 done by the bhikkhus of miraculous power, O great king; they will do it no more, make no alteration and finish the Great Thupa/

56 When the king heard this, glad at heart he caused the work on the thupa to be continued. For the ten flower-terraces 3

1 Skt. saptaparna, AIstonia scholaris.

2 It seems that pup phadh an a means the three concentric galleries (the so-called pasada) which form the base of the thupa proper. SMITHEE, Architectural Remains, Amtrddhapura, p. 27; PAEKER, Ancient Ceylon, p. 286.

s I.e. for the nine pupphadhanattayani which had sunk and the tenth that remained on the 71 The Making of the Relic-Chamber 203

ten kotis of bricks (were used). The brotherhood of 57 bhikkhus charged the two samaneras, Uttara and Sum an a, saying: e Bring hither, to (make) the relic-chamber in the eetiya, fat-coloured stones/1 And they set out for (the land 58 of) the Northern Kurus 2 and brought from thence six massive fat-coloured stones measuring eighty cubits in length and 59 breadth, bright as the sun, eight inches thick and like to ganthi blossoms.3 When they had laid one on the flower- 60 terrace in the middle and had disposed four (others) on the four sides, in the fashion of a chest, the (theras) of wondrous 61 might placed the sixth, to serve (afterwards) as a lid,-upon the east side, making it invisible.

In the midst of the relic-chamber the king placed a bodhi- 62 tree made of jewels, splendid in every way. It had a stem 63 eighteen cubits high and five branches; the root, made of coral, rested on sapphire. The stem made of perfectly pure 64 silver was adorned with leaves made of gems, had withered leaves and fruits of gold and young shoots made of coral. The eight auspicious figures 4 were on the stem and festoons 65 of flowers and beautiful rows of fourfooted beasts and rows of geese. Over it, on the border of a beautiful canopy, was 66 a network of pearl bells and chains of little golden bells and bands here and there. From the four corners of the canopy 67 hung bundles of pearl strings each worth nine hundred thousand (pieces of money). The figures of sun, moon and 68 stars and different lotus-flowers, made of jewels, were fastened to the canopy. A thousand and eight pieces of 69 divers stuffs, precious and of varied colours, were hung to the canopy. Around the bodhi-tree ran a vedika made of all manner 70 of jewels; the pavement within was made of great myrobalan-pearls.5

Rows of vases (some) empty and (some) filled with flowers 71

1 See note to I. 39. 2 See note to 1. 18.

3 The Tika explains ganthipuppha by bandhujlvaka-p u p p h a. Of. B.E., Skt. - Wib., s. v. bandhujiva: Pentapetes phoe-nicea (hat erne schdne rote Blume . . .).

4 Cf. note to 27.37.

c See 11.14 ; cf. 28. 36.204 MaJiavamsa xxx. 72

made of all kinds of jewels and filled with four kinds of fragrant water were placed at the foot of the bodhi-tree.

72 On a throne, the cost whereof was one koti; erected to the east of the bodhi-tree,, he placed a shining golden Buddha-

73 image seated. The body and members of this image were duly1 made of jewels of different colours., beautifully shining. Maha-

74 brahma stood there holding a silver parasol and Sakka carry-

75 ing out the consecration with the Vijayuttara shell, Pancasikha with his lute in his hand,2 and Kalanaga with the dancing-girls, and the thousand-handed Mara with his elephants and train

76 of followers. Even like the throne to the east (other) thrones were erected, the cost of each being a koti, facing the other

77 seven regions of the heavens. And even thus, so that the bodhi-tree was at the head, a couch3 was placed, also worth one koti, adorned with jewels of every kind.

78 The events 4 during the seven weeks 5 he commanded them to depict duly here and there in the relic chamber, and also the

79 prayer of Brahma/ the setting in motion the wheel of the

1 According to the Tika the finger-nails and the whites of the eyes were made of mountain-crystal, the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and the lips of red coral, the eyebrows and pupils of sapphire, the teeth of diamonds, &c.

2 Pancaaikho gandhabbaputto (D. II. 26512 foil.; Jat. IV. 691) is the poet and minstrel of the gods. He appears in. attendance on Sakka in Jat. III. 22210, &c.; IV. 637, &c., and often. The gandhabba (Ski gandharva) are the heavenly musicians.

8 To represent the death-bed of the Buddha, the parinibbana-xnanca, and intended as a receptacle for the relics.

4 In the vv. 78-87 scenes from the Buddha's life, from the sambodhi to his death and obsequies, are enumerated. Of. for this especially M.V. I. 1-28 (OLDENBERG, Tm. Pit. i, p. 1 foil.); the Jatakanidana (FAUSBOLL, Jutakas, i, p. 77 foil.); and for 84d foil, the Mahapari-mbbanasutta (D. II. p. 106 foil.; RHYS DAVIDS, S.B.E. xi, p. 44 foil, and S.B.B. iii, p. 71 foil.). KERN, Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 21 foil. On such scenes as the subject of bas-reliefs in buddhistic monuments see FOUCHEE, UArt Greco-Bouddhique, i, p. 414 foil.; GsttNWEDEL, Buddk. Kun$t, pp. 61 foil., 118 foil.

* The time immediately after the sambodhi which the Buddha spent near the bodhi-tree.

* Brahma and the other gods entreat the Buddha to preach the discovered truth to the 84 The Making of the Relic-Chamber 205

doctrine, the admission of Yasa into the order, the pabbajja of the Bhaddavaggiyas and the subduing o£ the jatilas; the visit 80 of Bimbisara and the entry into Rajagaha, the accepting of the Veluvana, the eighty disciples/ the journey to Kapilavatthu 81 and the (miracle of the) jewelled path in that place/ the pab-bajja of Rahula and Nan da/ the accepting of the Jetavana^ the 82 miracle at the foot of the mango-tree, the preaching in the heaven of the gods, the miracle of the descent of the gods,,4 and the assembly with the questioning of the thera/ the Mahasa- 83 mayasuttanta/ and the exhortation to Eahula/ the Mahaman-galasutta/ and the encounter with (the elephant) Dhanapala;9 the subduing of the (yakkha) Alavaka, of the (robber) Anguli- 84

1 The smaller circle of the disciples after the admission of Sariputta and Moggallana.

2 The miracle of the ratanacankama consisted in this that the Buddha created a path of gems in the air, pacing upon which he preached to the Sakyas. According to Jat, i, p. 88, the Buddha performed in Kapilavatthu the yamakapatihariya (also called in v. 82 ambamule patihira). Of. note to 17. 44.

3 Mah. ed. read Rahulananda0 instead of Rahulan0.

4 On these legends see SPENCE HARDY, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 295 foil., 298 foil., 301. Of. FOUCHER, I L, pp. 473 foil., 483 foil., 537 foil.

5 The allusion is to the assembly before the gates of Sankapura, where the Buddha appears, after his return from the heaven of the gods, and Sariputta's intellectual superiority to the other disciples is demonstrated. SPENCE HARDY, L ?., p. 302.

6 = Sutta 20 of the Dighanikaya (D. II. p. 253 foil.) preached in Kapilavatthu.

7 In MajjhimarNik. I, p. 414 foil, is an Ambalatthika-Rihulova-dasutta preached in Veluvana near Rajagaha ; and at III. p. 277 foil, a Cula-Rahulovadasutta preached at Jetavana. Cf. also Samyutta-Nik. III. 135-136 ; IY. 105-107.

8 = Sutta-nipata II. 4 (ed. PAITSBOLL, p. 45),

9 A later name of the elephant which Devadatta lets loose upon the Buddha to crush him and whom the Buddha subdues by the power of his gentleness. SPENCE HARDY (LI., p. 320 foil.) mentions Nalagiri or Malagiri as his original name. The Milindapanba (ed. TRENCKXBR), p. 20725, has Dhanapalaka. In Sanskrit Buddhist sources Yasupila also occurs. EERK, Bttddhismus, transL by Jacobi, i, p. 251; FOXJCHER,. L L, p. 542 foil.206 Mahavamsa xxx. 85

mala and the (naga-king) Apalala,1 the meeting with the

85 Parayanakas,2 the giving-up of life,3 the accepting of the dish of pork/ and of the two gold-coloured garments/ the drinking

86 of the pure water/ and the Parinibbana itself; the lamentation of gods and men, the revering of the feet by the thera/ the burning (of the body8), the quenching of the fire,9 the funeral

87 rites in that very place and the distributing of the relics by Dona.10 Jatakas n also which are fitted to awaken faith did the

88 noble (king) place here in abundance. The Vessantarajataka12

1 SPENCEHARDY, U., pp. 261 foil., 249 foil.; BURNOUF,Introduction a VMstoire du Bouddhisme Indien, p. 377 ; FOUCHER, 1.1, pp. 507 foil,, 544 foil.

2 TURNOUR : * the Parayana brahman tribe (at Bajagaha).'

3 Three months before his death the Buddha resolves to enter into the nibbana at the end of that appointed time. An earthquake accompanies his resolve.

4 The dish set before the Buddha by the smith Cunda?the suka-ramaddava?brought on the illness which finally caused his death*

5 The garments were presented to the Buddha by the Malla Pukkusa. As Ananda put them on him his body radiated unearthly brightness, as a sign of approaching death.

6 The turgid waters of the Kakuttha-river become clear by a miracle when Ananda takes from it a draught for the Master.

7 None can succeed in setting light to the funeral pyre on which the body of the Buddha is lying, for the thera Mahakassapa is still on his way from Pava to pay the last honours to the dead Master.

8 After Mahakassapa has passed round the funeral pyre three times, and has then uncovered the master's feet and done homage to them, the pyre breaks into flame of itself.

9 Streams of water fall from heaven and extinguish the fire.

10 In order to settle the dispute that threatens to burn fiercely over the remains of the Buddha the brahman Dona divides them into eight parts.

11 On pictorial representations of the Buddha's former existences (jatakarstories) see FOUCHER, L L, p. 270 foil.

12 The Jataka, ed. FATJSBOLL, vi, p. 479 foil. The existence as Vessantara is the Buddha's last earthly existence. He passes from. this into the Tusita-heaven. Hence this jataka has a particular significance. See FOUCHEB, 1.1., pp. 283-285. On a fresco representing this jataka in a series of detached single scenes, in the Degaldoruwa monastery in Ceylon, see COOMARASWAMY, Open Letter io the Kandyan Chieft, p. 6 foil, (reprinted from Ceylon Observer, Feb. 17, 1905).xxx. 97 The Making of the JReUc-CJiam'ber 207

he commanded them to depict fully, and In like manner (that which befell beginning at the descent) from the Tusita-heaven even to the Bodhi-throne.1

At the four quarters of the heaven stood the (figures of) 89 the four Great kings/ and the thirty-three gods and the thirty-two (celestial) maidens and the twenty-eight chiefs of 90 the yakkhas; but above these3 devas raising their folded hands, vases filled with flowers likewise, dancing devatas and 91 devatas playing instruments of music, devas with mirrors in their hands, and devas also bearing flowers and branches, devas with lotus-blossoms and so forth in their hands and 92 other devas of many kinds, rows of arches made of gems and (rows) of dhammacakkas;4 rows of sword-bearing devas and 93 also devas bearing pitchers. Above their heads were pitchers five cubits high, filled with fragrant oil, with wicks made of 94 dukula fibres continually alight. In an arch of crystal there was in each of the four corners a great gem and (moreover) 95 in the four corners four glimmering heaps of gold, precious stones and pearls and of diamonds were placed. On the wall 96 made of fat-coloured stones sparkling zig-zag lines5 were traced, serving as adornment for the relic-chamber. The king 97 commanded them to make all the figures here in the enchanting relic-chamber of massive wrought gold.6

1 FOUCHEK, I I., pp. 285-289, 290 foil. The tusita are a class of gods, Skt. tusita.

2 The four guardians of the world (lokapala) : Dhatarattha in the N., Yirulha in the S.} Virupakkha in the W., and Yessavana in the E.

3 According to the Tiki's interpretation this tatopari belongs to anjalipaggaha deva. The conuna in Mah. ed. should then be moved accordingly.

4 The t wheel of the doctrine', a sacred symbol of the Buddhists. Originally perhaps a sun-symbol. See SEWELL, J.E.A.S. 1886, p. 392.

5 Yijjulata, literally 'lightnings'. The Tika explains vijju-lata by meghalata nama vijjukumariyo, and quotes from the Porana (cf. G-EIGER, Dip. and Mah., p. 45) the following verse: meghalata vijjukumari medapindikabhittiya | samanta caturo passe dhatugabbhe parikkhipi.

6 The Tika goes into fuller details, to refute those who may perhaps doubt the truth of the description. GEIGEE, Z. 1., p. 35.208 Mahavamsa XXX. 98

98 The great thera Indagutta, who was gifted with the six supernormal faculties,, the most wise, directed here all this.,

99 being set over the work. All this was completed without hindrance by reason of the wondrous power of the king, the wondrous power of the devatas, and the wondrous power of the holy (theras).

100 If the wise man who is adorned with the good gifts of faith; has done homage to the blessed (Buddha) the supremely venerable, the highest of the world, who is freed from, darkness, while he was yet living, and then to his relics, that were dispersed abroad by him who had in view the salvation of mankind ; and if he then understands: herein is equal merit; then indeed will he reverence the relics of the Sage even as the blessed (Buddha himself) in his lifetime.

Here ends the thirtieth chapter, called cThe Making of the Relic-Chamber', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.OHAPTEE XXXI


WHEN the subduer of foes had completed the work on the I relic-chamber he brought about an assembly of the brotherhood and spoke thus : e The work on the relic-chamber has been com- 2 pleted by me; to-morrow I will enshrine the relics; do yon, venerable sirs, take thought for the relics/ When the great 3 , king had spoken thus he went thence into the city; but the assembly of bhikkhus sought out a bhikkhu who should bring relics hither; and they charged the ascetic named Sonuttara, 4 gifted with the six supernormal faculties, who dwelt in the Puja-parivena, with the task of bringing the relics.

Now once, when the Master was wandering about (on the 5 earth) for the salvation of the world,, on the shore of the Ganges a brahman named Nanduttara invited the Sam- 6 buddha and offered him hospitality together with the brotherhood. Near the landing-place Payaga1 the Master, with the brotherhood, embarked on a ship. As then tke 7 thera Bhaddaji of wondrous might, endowed with the six supernormal faculties, saw there a place where the water whirled in eddies, he said to the bhikkhus: e The golden 8 palace measuring twenty-five yojanas wherein I dwelt, when, I was (the king) Mahapanada,2 is sunk here. When the, 9 water of the Ganges comes to it here it whirls in eddies/

The bhikkhus, who did not believe him, told this to the Master. The Master said: 'Banish the doubts of the'10 bhikkhus/ Then to show his power to command even in the Brahma-world he rose, by his wondrous might, into the 11

1 Skt. Prayaga, the holy place where Granga and Yamuna unite. .'

2 Of. Mah. 2. 4 ; Dip. 3. 7. There is also mention of M.'s palace, Mah. 37. 62 (.== Culavamsa 37. 12, ed. Col., p. 7 ; TUKNOTJK,

p. 239).

p210 Mahavamsa xxxi. 12

air and when he, floating at a height even of seven talas, had taken the Dussa-thupal in the Brahma-world upon his

12 outstretched hand, and had brought it hither and shown it to the people, he put it again in the place to which it belonged.

13 Thereon he dived, by his wondrous power, into the Ganges, and seizing the palace by its spire2 with his toe he raised it high up, and when he had shown it to the people he let it

14 fall again there (to its place). When the brahman Nand-uttara saw this wonder he uttered the wish: 'May I (at some time) have the power to procure relics that others

15 hold in their possession.' Therefore did the brotherhood lay this charge upon the ascetic Sonuttara3 although he

16 was but sixteen years old. < Whence shall I bring a relic ?' he asked the brotherhood, and thereupon the brotherhood described the relics thus :

17 ' Lying on his deathbed the Master of the world, that with his relics he might bring to pass salvation for the world,

18 spoke thus to (Sakka) the king of the gods: O king of the gods, of the eight donas 4 of my bodily relics one dona, adored

19 (first) by the Koliyas in Kamagama,5 shall be borne thence into the kingdom of the nagas and when it will be adored even there by the nagas it (at the last) shall come to be

20 enshrined in the Great Thupa on the island of Lanka, The far-seeing and most wise thera Mahakassapa 6 then, mindful of the (coming) division of the relics by king Dhammasoka,

1 DEthavamsa 55 (J.P.T.S. 1884, p. 113).

s Fort lie meaning of thupika see Attanagaluvamsa, ed. Aiwis, IX. 7 (p. 32lS4j: cetiyasise kiritam viyakanakamayam thupikam cayojetvl *ha¥ing fastened a golden thiipika on the summit of the cetiya like a diadem *.

s Who had In fact been that same Nanduttara in a former existence,

* A. certain measure of capacity. See 17. 51. For the passage following cf. D. II. pp. 165-168.

* Tie Kojiyas were a tribe related to the Sakyas. The Rohini was the rl?er between them. In the Sumangala-Vilasini (ed.

DAVIDS and CARPEKTSB, i, p. 262) the capital of the Koliyas is

1 ffee the Buddha's death and head of the Firstxxxi. 32 The Enshrining of the Relics 211

had a great and well-guarded treasure of relics placed1 near 21 Kajagaha (the capital) o£ king Ajatasattu as he brought 22 thither the seven donas of relics ; but the dona in K/amagama he did not take, knowing the Master's intention. When the 23 king Dhammasoka saw the great treasure of relics he thought to have the eighth dona also brought thither. But, bethinking 24 them that it was destined by the Conqueror to be enshrined in the Great Thupa, the ascetics2 of that time who had overcome the asavas prevented Dhammasoka from (doing) this. The thupa in Rajagama, that was built on the shore 25 of the Ganges, was destroyed by the overflowing of the Ganges, but the urn with the relics reached the ocean and 26 stayed there in the twofold divided waters3 on a throne made of many-coloured gems surrounded by rays of light. When 27 the nagas saw the urn they went to the naga palace Manjerika of the king Kalanaga and told him. And he went 28 thither with ten thousand kotis of nagas^ and when he had brought the relics to his palace, (adoring them) with offerings meanwhile, and had built over them a thupa made 29 of all kinds of jewels and a temple above the (thupa) also, he, filled with zeal, brought offerings continually, together with the (other) nagas. There a strong guard is set; go thou 30 and bring the relics hither. To-morrow will the lord of the land set about enshrining the relics.5

When he had heard these words of the brotherhood he, 31 answeringf Yes (I shall do so) \ withdrew to his cell pondering over the time when he must set forth. * To-morrow the 32 enshrining of the relics shall take place/ thus proclaimed the king by beat of drums in the city^ by which all that

1 Karapento at21c seems to be employed pleonastically. The construction of the sentence may be explained, as I have indicated by the punctuation in the edition, thus: Mahakassapathero . . . mahadhatunidhanam ... karayi, Raj agahassa ranno Ajata-sattuno samante (tam nidhanam) karapento.

2 Tika: tattha khinasava yati ti tasmim Dhammaso-kakale khinasava bhikkhu.

8 The waters of the sea divide to receive the urn. TUKNOUR'S translation : ' Where the stream of the Ganges spreads in two opposite directions/ certainly does not give the right sense.

P 2212 MaMmmsa xxxi. 33

33 must be done is set forth. He commanded that the whole city and the road leading hither1 be carefully adorned and

34 that the burghers be clad in festal garments. Sakka, the king of the gods, summoning VIssakamma (for this task),, caused the whole island of Lanka to be adorned in manifold ways.

35 At the four gates of the city the ruler of men had garments, food and so forth placed for the use of the people.

36 On the fifteenth uposatha-day in the evening, (the king) glad at heart, well versed in the duties of kings, arrayed in all

37 his ornaments, surrounded on every side by all his dancing-women and his warriors in complete armour, by a great body

38 of troops, as well as by variously adorned elephants, horses and chariots, mounted his car of state 2 that was drawn by

39 four pure white Sindhu-horses 3 and stood there, making the (sumptuously) adorned and beautiful elephant Kandula pace

. before him, holding a golden casket* under the white parasol.

40 A thousand and eight beautiful women from the city, with the adornment of well-filled pitchers, surrounded the car and,

41 even as many women bearing baskets (filled) with various

42 flowers, and as many again bearing lamps on staves. A thousand and eight boys in festal array surrounded him, bearing

43 beautiful many-coloured flags. While the earth seemed as it were rent5 asunder by all manner of sounds from various instruments of music, by the (thundering) noise of elephants,

44 horses and chariots, the renowned king shone forth, as he went to the Mahameghavana, in glory like to the king of the gods when he goes to Nandavana.6

45 When the ascetic Sonuttara, sitting in his cell, heard the noise of the music in the city7 as the king began to *

1 I.e. to the Mahavihara.

; 2 Suratlia, according to the Tika, is used here as mangalaratha elsewhere.

s See note to 28. 71.

4 To receive the relics.

5 The loc. absol. bhijjante viya bhutale does not belong to the whole sentence but especially to the pres. part, yanto.

6 See note to 15. 185.

7 Pure is not 'for the first time' (TURKOUE) but = nagaramhixxxi. 56 The Enshrining of the Eelics 213

set out, lie went, plunging into the earth to the palace of the 46 nagas and appeared there In a short time before the naga-king. When the king of the nagas had risen up and.had 47 greeted him and invited him to be seated on a throne, he paid him the honours due to a guest and questioned him as to the country whence he had come. When this was told he 48 asked the reason of the thera's coming. And he told him the whole matter and gave him the message of the brother- ' hood: cThe relics that are here in thy hands are appointed 49 by the Buddha to be enshrined in the Great Thupa; do thoii then give them to me/ When the naga-king heard this, he 50 was sorely troubled and thought: £ This samana might have the power to take them from me by force; therefore must the 51 relics be carried else where,' and he made this known by a sign to his nephew, who was present there* And he, who was 52 named Vasuladatta, understanding the hint, went to the temple of the cetiya, and when he had swallowed the urn (with the relics) he went to the foot of Mount Sineru1 and 53 lay there coiled in a circle. Three hundred yojanas long was the ring and one yojana was his measure around2 When 54 the (naga) of wondrous might had created many thousand (heads with puffed-up) hoods he belched . forth, as he lay there, smoke and fire. When he (then) had created many 55 thousand snakes like to himself, he made them lie about him * in a circle.

Many nagas and devas came thither then with the thought: '56 < We will behold the combat of the two nagas/ 3

1 Name of the mythical mountain Meru which, is the central point r of the universe.

2 That is, the naga's body was a yojana in circumference. The Tika gives another sense to the passage. According to it bhogo is equal to bhogava, i.e. snake, and yojanavattava equal to yojanasata-.vattava, sata being understood from what precedes. That is certainly too artificial. TTJKN"OUE translates, ' with a hood forty yojanas broad'; WIJESIKTHA : ' one yojana broad.' But none of this appears in the text.

3 A double meaning. Read one way naga * snake-demon ', refers to Vasuladatta; the other way, referring to the thera, it means, e hero, great or mighty man.1214 Mahavamsa XXXL 57

57 When the uncle perceived that the relics had been taken thence by his nephew, he said to the thera: 58 relics with me/ The thera told him the story of the coming of the relics from the beginning, and said then to the naga-king: ' Give thou the relics/

59 And to content him by some other means the serpent-king took the thera with him and went to the temple with the

60 cetiya and described it to him ; ' See, O bhikkhu, this cetiya adorned with many gems in many ways and the nobly built

61 temple for the cetiya. Nay, but all the jewels in the whole island of Lanka are not of so great worth as the stone-slab * at the foot of the steps; what shall be said of the other (treasures) ?

62 Truly it beseems thee not, 0 bhikkhu, to bear away the relics from a place of high honour to a place of lesser honour/

63 £Verily, there is no understanding of the truth2 among you nagas. It were fitting indeed to bear away the relics to

64 a place where there is understanding of the truth. The Tathagatas are born for deliverance from the samsara, and thereon is the Buddha intent, therefore I will bear away the

65 relics. This very day the king will set about enshrining the relics; swiftly then give me the relics without delay/

66 The naga said: 'If thou shalt see the relics, venerable sir, take them and go/ Three times the thera made him repeat

67 this (word), then did the thera standing on that very spot create a (long) slender arm, and stretching the hand straight-SB way down the throat of the nephew he took the urn with

the relics, and crying: * Stay, naga !' he plunged into the earth and rose up (out of it) in his cell, §9 The nSgarking thought: 1 At the lower end of the stairway of buildings in Ceylon lie semicircular stones with gracefully executed ornaments, the so-called 4Moonstones*. SMITHES, Anurfdhapura, p. 58, with Plate LVII,

fig, 3.

9 Certainly to be taken in the concrete sense of the four holy Traits (ariyasaccini) which form the foundation of Buddhist

doctrine: the Troths concerning sorrow, the cause of sorrow, the of §0rrow» and the way leading to the cessation of sorrow, ?, 420.xxxi. 83 The Enshrining oftJie Eetics 215

deceived by us/ and he sent to his nephew to bring the relics (again). But when the nephew could not find the urn in his 70 belly he came lamenting and told his uncle. Then the naga- 71 king also lamented: ' We are betrayed/ and all the nagas who came in crowds lamented likewise. But rejoicing in the victory 72 of the mighty bhikkhul the gods assembled, and adoring the relics with offerings they came together with the (thera).

Lamenting*, the nagas came to the brotherhood and made 73 right woful plaint sorrowful over the carrying away of the relics. ? From compassion the brotherhood left them a few of 74 the relics ; rejoicing at this they went and brought treasures as offerings.

Sakka came to the spot with the gods bringing a throne 75 set with jewels and a casket of gold. In a beautiful pavilion 76 made of jewels that was built by Vissakamma on the spot, where the thera had emerged (from the earth), he set up the throne and when he had received the urn with the relics from 7 7 the hand o£ the thera, and had put them in the casket he placed it on the throne.

Brahma held the parasol, Samtusita the yak-tail whisk, 78 Suyaina2 held the jewelled fan, Sakka the shell with water. The four great kings3 stood with swords in their grip and the 79 thirty-three gods of wondrous power with baskets in their hands. When they had gone thither offering paricchattaka- 80 flowers 4 the thirty-two celestial maidens stood there bearing lamps on staves. Moreover, to ward off the evil yakkhas the 81 twenty-eight yakkha-chieftains stood holding guard. Panca- 82 sikha stood there playing the lute, and Timbaru who had set up a stage, making music to sound forth.5 Many devas (stood 83 there) singing sweet songs and the naga-king Mahakala

1 Lit. ' Of the naga among bhikkhus.' See note to v. 56.

2 Samtusita and Suyama also appear as devaputta at A. IV". 24226, 2481, and S. IV. 28023. Of. also Jat. L 4816, 5317, 8110-11; IV. 266s.

3 See note to 30. 89.

4 Blossoms of a tree growing in the Tavatimsa-heaven. M.V. I. 20. 10; Jat. L 20214, IV 26518.

6 On Pancasikha see note to 30. 75 ; Timbaru is called in D. II. 26S2-3 Gandhabba-raja. With rangabhumicf. Sinh. rangabim (= rangamadulu) * place for acting, theatre'.2l6 'MaMvamsa xxxi. 84

84 chanting praises in manifold ways. Celestial instruments of music resounded, a celestial chorus pealed forth, the devatas

85 let fall a rain of heavenly perfumes and so forth. But the thera Indagutta created, to ward off Mara, a parasol of copper

86 that he made great as the universe. On the east side of the relics and here and there in the five regions 1 the bhikkhus raised their song in chorus.

87 Thither, glad at heart, went the great king Dutthagamani, and when he had laid the casket with the relics in the golden

88 casket that he had brought upon his head, and had placed it upon a throne, he stood there with folded hands, offering gifts to the relics and adoring them.

89 When the prince saw the celestial parasol, the celestial perfumes, and the rest, and heard the sound of celestial in-

90 straments of music and so forth, albeit he did not see the Brahma-gods he, rejoicing and amazed at the miracle, worshipped the relics, with the offering of a parasol and investing them with the kingship over Lanka.

91 'To the Master of the world, to the Teacher who bears the threefold parasol, the heavenly parasol, and the earthly and

92 the parasol of deliverance I consecrate three times my kingly rank.* With these words he, with joyful heart, thrice conferred on the relics the kingship of Lanka.

93 Thus, together with gods and men, worshipping the relics with offerings, the prince placed them, with the caskets, upon

94 his head, and when he, surrounded by the brotherhood of the bhikkhus, had passed three times, going toward the left, around the thupa, he ascended it on the east side and

95 descended into the relic-chamber. Ninety-six kotis of ara-hants stood with folded hands surrounding the magnificent

96 thiipa. While the king, filled with joy, when he load mounted into the relic-chamber, thought: 97 costly and beautiful couch/ the relic-casket, together with the relics, rose up from his head, and, floating at a height of

98 in the air, the casket forthwith opened of itself;

1 By IMi is east, west, south, and north, and north-east,

?lio cf. 29,64 and 65. la Ski the north-east is called aparajita. no The Enshrining of the Eelics

the relics rose up out of it and taking the form of the Buddha, gleaming with the greater and lesser signs/ they performed, 99 even as the Buddha (himself) at the foot of the gandamba-tree that miracle of the double appearances,, that was brought to pass by the Blessed One during his lifetime.2 As they 100 beheld this miracle, with believing and joyous heart, twelve k'otis of devas and men attained to arahantship; those 101 who attained the three other fruits (of salvation)3 were past reckoning.

Quitting the form of the Buddha those (relics) returned to their place in the casket; but the casket sank down again 102 and rested on the head of the king. Then passing round 4 the relic-chamber in procession with the thera Indagutta and 103 the dancing-women, the glorious king coming even to the beautiful couch laid the casket on the jewelled throne. And 104 when he, filled with zeal, had washed again his hands in water fragrant with perfumes, and had rubbed them with the five kinds of perfumes,, he opened the casket, and taking out 105 the relics the ruler of the land, who was intent on the welfare of his people, thought thus:6 f If these relics shall 106 abide undisturbed by any man soever, and if the relics, serving as a refuge for the people, shall endure continually, then may they rest, in the form of the Master as he lay upon 107 his deathbed, upon this well-ordered and precious couch/

Thinking thus he laid the relics upon the splendid couch; 108 the relics lay there upon the splendid couch even in such a shape. On the fifteenth uposatha-day in the bright half 109 of the month Asalha, under the constellation TJttarasalha, were the relics enshrined in this way. At the enshrining of 110 the relies the great earth quaked and many wonders came to pass in divers - ways.


1 See note to 5. 92.

. 2 Of. 17. 44, also the note to 80. 81.

, 3 I.e. the state of a sotapanno, of a sakadagami or of an anagami. ; See notes to 1. 33; 15. 18.; 13. 17, !

4 Pariharam (part. pres.). The subst. parihara=Sinh.. pserail sera means a solemn procession.

5 Asaccakiriya, cf. note to 18. 39.218 MaMvamsa xxxi. 1 i 1

111 With believing heart did the king worship the relics by (offering) a white parasol, and conferred on them the entire overlordship of Lanka for seven days.

112 All the adornments on his body he offered in the relic-chamber, and so likewise (did) the dancing-women, the

113 ministers, the retinue and the devatas. When the king had distributed garments, sugar, clarified butter and so forth among the brotherhood, and had caused the bhikkhus to recite

114 in chorus the whole night, then, when it was again day, he had the drum beaten in the city, being mindful of the welfare of the people: ? All the people shall adore the relics

115 throughout this week/ The great thera Indagutta, of wondrous might, commanded: ' Those men of the island

116 of Lanka who would fain adore the relics shall arrive hither at the same moment, and when they have adored the relics here shall return each one to his house/ This came to pass as he had commanded.

117 When the great king of great renown had commanded great offerings of alms to the great brotherhood of the

118 bhikkhus for the week uninterruptedly, he proclaimed: f All that was to be done in the relic-chamber has been carried out by me; now let the brotherhood take the charge of closing-the relic-chamber/

119 The brotherhood charged the two samaneras with this task. They closed up the relic-chamber with the fat-coloured stone that they had brought.1

120 'The flowers here shall not wither, these perfumes shall not dry up; the lamps shall not be extinguished; nothing

121 whatsoever shall perish; the six fat-coloured stones shall hold together for evermore/ All this did the (theras) who had overcome the asavas command at that time.

122 The great king, mindful of the welfare (of the people), issued the command: * So far as they are able (to do so) the

123 people shall enshrine relics/ And above the great relic-treasure did the people, so far as they could, carry out the

124 enshrining of thousands o£ relics. Enclosing all together

1 Cf. with this 30. 61. The two novices are Uttara and Sunwna,

mentioned in 80. 57.xxxi. 126 The Enshrining of the Belies 219

the king completed the thupa and,, moreover, he completed the four-sided buildingl on the cetiya.

Thus are the Buddhas incomprehensible, and incompre- 125 hensible is the nature of the Buddhas, and incomprehensible is the reward of those who have faith in the incomprehensible.2

Thus do the pious themselves perform pure deeds of merit, 126 in order to obtain, the most glorious of all blessings; and they, with pure heart, make also others to perform them in order to win a following of eminent people of many kinds.3

Here ends the thirty-first chapter, called ' The Enshrining of the Relics', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 A dagaba consists essentially of three elements. The dome, usually hemispherical, and ordinarily raised on a cylindrical base, forms the principal part. In the upper part of this is the relic chamber. The second part is a square block of brickwork now mostly known by the Burmese term 'tee*. This is the caturassacaya of our passage. Finally the 'tee' forms the base for the conical spire (chatta = parasol) that crowns the whole. PAKKEE, Ancient Ceylon, p. 263. In 32. 5 is evidently muddhavedi 'top or upper-terrace* or 'rail1, a designation of the ' tee '. Cf. Appendix D, s.v. vedi.

2 Cf. 17. 56.

3 Tika: khattiyabrahmanadivividhavisesajanaparivara-hetubhutani puniiani pi pare ca karentiti attho'they make also others to perform meritorious works which are the cause of (obtaining) a following of eminent people of various kinds as khattiyas, brahmanas and so forth.1CHAPTEK XXXII


1 ERE yet the making of the chatta and the plaster-work 1 on the cetiya was finished the king fell sick with a sickness

2 that was (fated) to be mortal. He sent for his younger brother Tissa from Dighavapi and said to him: f Complete

3 thou the work of the thupa that is not yet finished/ Because of his brother's weakness he had a covering made of white cloths by seamsters and therewith was the cetiya

4 covered, and thereon did he command painters to make on it a vedika duly and rows of filled vases likewise and the row with

5 the five-finger ornament.2 And he had a chatta made of bamboo-reeds by plaiters of reeds and on the upper vedika

6 a sun and moon of kharapatta.3 And when he had had this (thupa) painted cunningly with lacquer and kankutthaka 4 he declared to the king: c That which was yet to do to the thupa is completed/

7 Lying on a palanquin the king went thither, and when on

1 On chatta see note to 31. 124. By sudhakamma is meant covering with stucco the dome of the cetiya which was made of


2 The vedika (rail) seems, as it was counterfeited in painting, to

have been merely an ornament. * Buddhist railings' occur in low-relief as ornament on the cornice of the first pasada of the Ruwan-wseli-dagaba (SHITHER, Anurddhapura, p. 26) as also, which, may

be taken into account here, on the * tee' of the Abhayagiri and the Jetavana-dagaba (SMITHEE, pp. 47 and 52), We also frequently meet with 'urns * as ornaments. But it is not clear what ornament is meant by paficangulikapantika.

1 Muddhavedi=4tee', see note to 31. 124. The picture of the gnu on the four sides of the * teef is an emblem constantly found. Khmrapatta5=Skt. kharapatra is a name of different plants.

1 On kankuffhaka * a kind of soil or mould of a golden or silver coloir'»Skikanki2||fea5 see Mah. ed., p. 355,xxxii. 19 The Entrance into the TusitarHeaven 221

his palanquin he had passed round the cetiya, going toward ; the left; he paid homage to it at the south entrance, and as he 8 then, tymg on ^is righ^ side on his couch spread upon the ground, beheld the splendid Great Thupa, and lying on his 9: left side the splendid Lohapasada, he became glad at heart, surrounded by the brotherhood of bhikkhus. :

Since they had come from here and there to have news of the 10 sick (king), there were (present) in that assembly ninety-six kotis of bhikkhus. The bhikkhus, group by group, recited in 11 chorus. "When the king did not see the thera Theraputtabhaya among them he thought: "The great warrior, who fought 12 victoriously through twenty-eight great battles with me nor ever yielded Ms ground, the thera Therasutabhaya comes not 13 now to help me, now that the death-struggle is begun, for methinks he (fore)sees my defeat/

"When the thera, who dwelt by the source of the Karinda- 14 river1 on the Panjali-mountain, knew his thought he came 15 with a company of five hundred (bhikkhus) who had overcome the asavas, passing through the air by his miraculous power, and he stood among those who surrounded the king. "When the king1 saw him he was glad at heart and he bade him 16 be seated before him and said: ' Formerly I fought with you, the ten great warriors, by my side; now have I entered alone 17 upon the battle with death, and the foe death I cannot conquer/

The thera answered: ' O great king, fear not, ruler of men. 18 "Without conquering the foe sin the foe death is unconquerable. All that has come into (this transitory) existence 19 must necessarily perish also, perishable is all that exists;2

1 The Kirindu-oya or Magama-ganga of -which the mouth is in the Southern Province, east of Hambantota, and the source in the mountains south of Badulla. Consequently the Panjali-pabbata must be sought here also.

2 The'thera-alludes to the oft-quoted verse that is put into Sakka's mouth after the Buddha's death in the Mahaparinibbanasutta (D. II. 1578):

? anicca vata s-amkhara uppadavayadhammlno

uppajjitva nirujjhanti tesam vupasamo sukho

'Transient are, alas! the samkharas,-having" the nature of growth and222 MaMvamsa xxxii. 20

20 thus did the Master teach, Mortality overcomes even the Buddhas, untouched by shame or fear; therefore think thou: all that exists is perishable, full of sorrow, and unreal.

21 In thy last mortal existence l thy love for the true doctrine was indeed great. Albeit the world of gods was within thy

22 sight, yet didst thou, renouncing heavenly bliss, return to this world and didst many works of merit in manifold ways. Moreover, the setting up of sole sovereignty by thee did serve

23 to bring glory to the doctrine. Oh thou who art rich in merit, think on all those works of merit accomplished by thee even to this present day, then will all be well with thee straightway!'

24 When the king heard the thera's words he was glad at heart and said: * In single combat also thou art my help/

25 And rejoicing he forthwith commanded that the book of meritorious deeds be brought, and he bade the scribe read it aloud, and he read the book aloud:

26 (Ninety-nine viharas have been built by the great king, and, with (the spending of) nineteen kotis,2 the Maricavatti-

27 vihara; the splendid Lohapasada was built for thirty kotis.3 But those precious things 4 that have been made for the Great

28 Thupa were worth twenty kotis; the rest that was made for the Great Thupa by the wise (king was worth) a thousand

29 kotis, 0 great king/ Thus did he read. As he read further: 5 'In the mountain-region called Kotta, at the time of the famine called the Akkhakhayika6 famine, two precious ear-rings were

30 given (by the king), and thus a goodly dish of sour millet-decay ; having been produced they are dissolved again; blissful is their subjection.' The meaning of samkhara is by no means fully rendered by * existence'. RHYS DAVIDS, S.B.K xi, p. 117; S.B.B. iii, pp. 175-176, translates it with * each being's parts and powers'.

1 This refers to the story told in 22. 25-41.

2 Of. 26. 25. 3 Cf. 27. 47.

4 According to the Tika the adorning of the relic-chamber is meant here.

s Translation of the words ti vutte in 32.

1 Lit. famine during which the nuts called akkha (Terminalia Bttieritft} were eaten, which at other times are used as dice. In the according to the Tika, the famine is called Pasana-ebXtftk*.. 39 The, Entrance into the Tusita-Heaven 223

gruel was gotten for five great tlieras who had overcome the asavas^ and offered1 to them with a believing heart; when; 31 vanquished irx the battle of Culanganiya, he was fleeing2 he proclaimed the hour (of the meal) and to the ascetic (Tissa); 32 free from the asavas, who came thither through the air he, without thought for himself, gave the food from his bowl9? then did the king take up the tale:

6 In the week of the consecration-festival of the (Mari- 33 cavatti) vihara as at the consecration of the (Loha) pasada, in the week when the (Great) Thupa was begun even as when the relics3 were enshrined, a general, great and costly giving 34 of alms was arranged by me to the great community of both (sexes) from, the four quarters.4 I held twenty-four great 35 "Vesakha-festivals;5 three times did I bestow the three garments on the brotherhood of the island.

Five times., each time for seven days, have I bestowed (glad 36 at heart) the rank of ruler of this island upon the doctrine.6 I have had a thousand lamps with oil and white wicks 37 burning perpetually in twelve places, adoring the Blessed (Buddha) witli this offering. Constantly in eighteen places 38 have I bestowed on the sick the foods for the sick and remedies, as ordered by the physicians.

In forty-four places have I commanded the perpetual giving 39 of rice-foods prepared with honey;7 and in as many places

1 Tika: kang-utandulam gahetva ambilayagum pacapetva attano santikam agatanam Malayamahadevattheradinana pancannam thinasavamahatheranam adasi.

2 Cf. with"this 24. 22-31.

3 Cf. 26. 21 ; 27. 46 ; 30. 4; 81. 117.

4 Ubhato-saingha is bhikkhusamgha and bhikkhuni-samgha. We meet with the epithet catuddisa 'of the four quarters', frequently in the oldest cave-inscriptions of Ceylon. Cl E. MTJLLER, Ancient Inscriptions in Ceylon, p. 73 ; WICKKEMASINGHE, Epigraphia Zeylanica, i, p. 144 foil.

5 Tradition makes the Buddha's nibbana fall on the full-moon day of the month Yesakha (at that time March-April), Sum. I, p. 2; Smp., p. 283 ; Mah. 3. 2. See FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 6 foil.

6 Cf. 31. 90-92; 111.

7 Tika: sanikhatam madhupayasam, sakkharamadhusap-jpitelehi sam.yojita,m madhupayasam,224 MaMvamsa xxxn. 40

40 lumps of rice with oil,1 and in even as many places great jala-cakes,2 baked in butter and also therewith the

41 ordinary rice. For the uposatha-festivals I have had oil for the lamps distributed one day in every month in eight

42 viharas on the island of Lanka. And since I heard that a gift (by preaching) of the doctrine is more than a gift of worldly wealth I said: At the foot of the Lohapasada, in

43 the (preacher's) chair in the midst of the brotherhood, I will preach the Mangalasutta to the brotherhood;3 but when I was seated there I could not preach it, from reverence for

44 the brotherhood. Since then I have commanded the preaching of the doctrine everywhere, in the viharas of Lanka,

45 giving rewards to the preachers. To each preacher of the doctrine did I order to give a nail4 of butter, molasses and

46 sugar; moreover, I bestowed on them a handful of liquorice,5 four inches long, and I gave them, moreover, a pair of garments. But all this giving while that I reigned, rejoices

47 not my heart; only the two gifts that I gave, without care for my life, the while I was in adversity, those gladden my heart.'

48 "When the thera Abhaya heard this he described those two gifts, to rejoice the king's heart withal, in manifold ways:

49 * When (the one) of those five theras 6 the thera Malayama-hadeva, who received the sour millet-gruel, had given thereof

50 to nine hundred bhikkhus on the Sumanakuta-mountain7 he ate of it himself. But the thera Dhammagutta who

51 could cause the earth to quake shared it with the bhikkhus in the Kalyanika-vihara,8 (who were) five hundred in num-

52 ber, and then ate of it himself. The thera Dhammadiima,

3 Tika: telnllopakam eva cati, telaussadakhirasappi-

mandasaniknatam alopadanam ca adapayim. 8 What jilapuva is I do not know. Nor does the TikE give any

explanation. $ Sutta-nipSta, eel. FAXTSBOLL, p. 45. See note to 30. 83.

4 See note to 30. 87.

5 Yatthimadhuka (« Skt. yastimadhuka) the same as ma* dhulatihikii in CHILDEES, P.D., s. v.

§ A detailed narration of the story alluded to in 82. SO* 7 See note to 1. SB. ?. 8 See note to 1. 63.xxxil. 63 The Entrance into the Tusita-Heaven 225

dwelling in Talanga, gave to twelve thousand (bhikkhus) in ? Piyangudipa1 and then ate of it. The thera Khuddatissa of 53 wondrous power, who dwelt in Mangana, divided it among sixty thousand (bhikkhus) in the Kelasa (vihara) and then ate of it himself. The thera Mahavyaggha gave thereof 54 to seven hundred (bhikkhus) in the Ukkanagara-vihara and then ate of it himself.2

The thera3 who received the food in his dish divided it 55 among twelve thousand bhikkhus in Piyangudipa and then ate of it himself/

With such words as these the thera Abhaya gladdened the 56 king's mood, and the king, rejoicing in his heart, spoke thus to the thera:

c Twenty-four years have I been a patron of the brother- 57 hood, and my body shall also be a patron of the brotherhood* In a place whence the Great Thupa may be seen, in the 58 malaka4 (bounded about) for the ceremonial acts of the brotherhood, do ye burn the body of me the servant of the brotherhood/

To his younger brother he said: CA11 the work of the 59 Great Thupa which is still unfinished, do thou complete, my dear Tissa, caring duly for it. Evening and morning offer 60 thou flowers at the Great Thupa and three times (in the day) command a solemn oblation at the Great Thupa. All the 61 ceremonies introduced by me in honour of the doctrine of the Blessed (Buddha) do thou carry on, my dear, stinting nothing-. Never grow weary, my dear, in duty toward the brother- 62 hood/ When he had thus exhorted him, the king fell into silence.

At this moment the brotherhood of bhikkhus began the 63 chanting in chorus, and the devatas led thither six cars with

1 See note to 24. 25. We cannot establish the identity of Talanga. TURNOTJR (Mah., p. 25) says: 'Singh. Talaguru.-wihare in Rohana not identified.'

2 The geographical names in 53 and 54 cannot be identified. Kelasa according to 29. 43 was a monastery in India.

* The allusion in this verse is to the story in 24. 22-31; 32. 31-32. 4 See note to 15. 29.226 MaMvamsa XXXIL 64

64 six gods, and severally the gods implored the king as they stood in their cars: e Enter into our delightful celestial world, O king/

65 When the king heard their words he stayed them with a gesture of his hand: * Wait ye as long as I listen to the

66 dhamma/ Then the bhikkhus thinking: ' He would fain stop the chanting in chorus,' ceased from their recitations;

67 the king asked the reason of the interruption. ' Because the sign (to bid us) ce be still" was given/ they answered. But the king said: f It is not so, venerable sirs,* and he told them what had passed.

68 When they heard this, certain of the people thought: c Seized by the fear of death, he wanders in his speech/ And

69 to banish their doubts the thera Abhaya spoke thus to the king: * How would it be possible to make known (the presence

70 of) the cars that have been brought hither?' The wise king commanded that garlands of flowers be flung into the air, these severally wound themselves around the poles of the cars and hung loose from them.

71 When the people saw them floating free in the air, they conquered their doubts; but the king said to the thera:

72 < Which of the celestial worlds is the most beautiful, venerable sir ?' And the other answered: ' The city of the Tusitas,1

73 0 king, is the fairest; so think the pious. Awaiting the time when he shall become a Buddha, the compassionate Bodhisatta Metteyya2 dwells in the Tusita-city/

74 When the most wise king heard these words of the thera, he, easting a glance at the Great Thupa, closed his eyes as he lay.

75 And when he, even at that moment, had passed away, he was seen, reborn and standing in celestial form in the car

76 that had come from Tusita-heaven. And to make manifest the reward of the works of merit performed by him he drove,

77 showing himself in all his glory to the people, standing on the same ear, three times around the Great Thupa,

1 See note to 30. 88.

s Metteyya = Skt. Mai trey a is the name of the future Buddha, successor of the historic Bud dim Gotama.XXXIL 84 TJie Entrance into the Tusita-Heaven 227

going to the left, and then,, when he had done homage to the thupa and the brotherhood he passed into the Tusita-heaven.

Even where the dancing-women who had come thither laid 78 off their head-ornaments there was a hall built called Maku-tamuttasala. Even where the people, when the body of the 79 king was laid on the funeral pyre, broke into wailing there was the so-called Ravivattisala built.

The malaka outside the precincts (of the monastery), in 80 which they burned the body of the king here bears the name Rajamalaka.

The great king Dutthagamani, he who is worthy of the 81 name of king, will be the first disciple of the sublime Metteyya, the king's father (will be) his father1 and the 82 mother his mother.1 The younger brother Saddhatissa will be his second disciple, but Salirajakumara, the king's son, 83 will be the son of the sublime Metteyya.

He who, holding the good life to be the greatest (good), 84 does works of merit, passes, covering over much that perchance is evil-doing,2 into heaven as into his own house; therefore will the wise man continually take delight in works of merit.

Here ends the thirty-second chapter, called ( The Entrance into the Tusita-heavenJ, in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 That is, Metteyya's.

2 Niyatapapakara is that which is certainly or without doubt evil; aniyatapapakam that which is possibly evil. Here there is an allusion to the scruples of conscience which the king himself felt at the close of his warlike career. See 25. 103 foil.? CHAPTEE XXXIII


the rule of the king Dutthagiimani the subjects in the kingdom lived happily; Salirajakumara was his famous son.

2 Greatly gifted was he and ever took delight in works of merit; he tenderly loved a candfila woman of exceedingly

3 great beauty. Since he was greatly enamoured of the Aso-kamaladevi, who already in a former birth had been his consort,1 because of her loveliness, he cared nothing for

4 kingly rule. Therefore Dutthagamani's brother, SADDHA-TISSA, anointed king after his death, ruled, a peerless (prince),

5 for eighteen years. He finished the work on the parasol, and the plaster-work and the elephant-wall2 of the Great

6 Thupa, he who won his name by his faith.3 The magnificent Lohapasada caught fire from a lamp; he built the LohapasEda

7 anew, seven stories high. And now was the pasada worth (only) ninety times a hundred thousand. He built the Dak-

8 khinagiri-vihara 4 and the (vihara) Kallakalena, the Kalam-baka-vihara,, and the (vihara) Pettangavalika, (the viharas)

1 The story is told at length in the Tika. Cf. GEIGEE, D%p. and Hah., p. 37. ;

2 Hatthipakara: according to PAEKEE (Ancient Ceylon, p. 284), who bases his conjecture on the dimensions of the tiles, the sustaining-wall of the upper * pasada' on which are figures of elephants in relief. The sustaining-wall of the great terrace on which the Ruwanwseli-dagaba stands is also ornamented with similar figures of elephants in relief, the forepart of the body jutting out from the wall (SMITHEE, Anurddhapura, p. 40). But this hatthipakara seems to be of later origin.

8 A play on the name Saddhatissa from saddha = faith.

4 A monastery of this name appears also in the Culavamsa, 52. 60.XXXIIL 21 The Ten Kings 229

Velangavitihika,1 Dubbalavapitissaka and Duratissakavapi,2 9 and the Matuviharaka. He also built viharas (from Anura-dhapura) to Dighavapi, one for every yojana (of the way).

Moreover, he founded the Dighavapi-vihara3 together 10 with the cetiya; for this cetiya he had a covering of network4 made set with gems, and in every mesh thereof was 11 hung a splendid flower of gold, large as a waggon-wheel, that he had commanded them to fashion. (In honour) of 12 the eighty-four thousand sections of the dhamma the ruler commanded also eighty-four thousand offerings. When the 13 king had thus accomplished many works of merit he was reborn, after his death, among the Tusita gods.

While the great king Saddhatissa lived yet in Dighavapi 14 his eldest sou Lanjatissa5 built the beautiful vihara called Girikumbhila; and Thulathana, a younger son of this same 15 (king), built the vihara called Kandara. When his father 16 (Saddhatissa) went to his brother (Duttliagamani at Anura-dhapura) Thulathanaka went with him, to bestow land for the use of the brotherhood upon his vihara.

When Saddhatissa died all the counsellors assembled, and 17 when they had summoned together the whole brotherhood of bhikkhus in the Thuparama, they, with the consent of the 18 brotherhood consecrated the prince THULATHANA as king, that he might take the kingdom under his protection. When LANJATISSA heard this he came hither,6 overpowered7 him, 19 and took the government upon himself. Only for one month and ten days had Thulathana been king.

During three years did Lanjatissa use the brotherhood 20 slightingly and neglect them, with the thought: ' They did not decide according to age/ When, afterwards, he was 21

1 See 37. 48.

2 The tank Duratissa is situated in Rohana not far from Mahagama. PARKER, 11., p. 393 foil.

3 See note to 1. 78.

4 The Tika explains nanaratanakacchannam by sattarata-nakhacitajalam.

5 Lajjitissa or Lanjitissa are variants of this name.

6 That is, to Anuradhapura.

7 Gahetva is, without doubt3 an euphemism for * (having) killed '.230 MaMvamsa xxxili. 22

reconciled with the brotherhood,, the king built, in atonement,

22 spending three hundred thousand (pieces of money), three stone terraces for offerings of flowers * to the Great Cetiya, and then did the lord of the land, with (the expense of)

23 a hundred thousand, have the earth heaped up between the Great Thupa and the Thuparama2 so that it was level Moreover, he made a splendid stone mantling to the thupa in the

24 Thuparama, and to the east of the Thuparama a little thupa built of stones,3 and the Lanjakasana hall for the brotherhood

25 of bhikkhus. Moreover, he had a mantling made of stone for the Khandhakathiipa. When he had spent a hundred

26 thousand for the Cetiya-vihara4 he commanded that at the (consecration) festival of the vihara called Girikumbhila the six garments 5 be distributed to sixty thousand bhikkhus.

27 He built the Arittha-vihara6 and the (vihara) Kunjarani-naka, and to the bhikkhus in the villages he distributed

28 medicines. To the bhikkhunls he ordered to give rice as much as they wanted. Nine years and one half-month did he reign here.

29 When Lanjakatissa was dead his younger brother named

30 KHALLATANAGA. reigned six years. Round about the Loha-

1 See note to 30. 51.

2 The Thuparama is situated 400 yards north of the Ruwanwseli-dagaba.

s PARKER, Ancient Ceylon, p. 297, identifies the thupa called Digha-thupa In the Dip., with the so-called Khujjatissarama or Sela-dagaba. But this is not situated to the east (the Mah. has parato just as the Dip. 20.11 describes the position of the Dighathupa by Thuparama-puratthato) but to the south-east of the Thuparama, and it is twice as far from this latter as from the Buwanwaeli-dagaba, so that orientation by the last-named, would be much more to the purpose. SMITHER (Anurddhapura, p. 55) is probably right in the conjecture that there is a reference insilathupakatoa little stone dagaba, a sort of model, similar to one that stands on the platform of the Riiwanwseli-dagaba.

* The monastery on the Cetiyapabbata or Missaka-mountain. Of. nete to 20.16.

* That is, to each one a pair of the three articles of clothing (ticlrart), the antaraiisaka *ander-garment, shirt', the ntta-

* robe', and the uaniglilf f ' mantle \ 9 Oa tit now Elfigala. See note to 10. 68.xxxiil. 42 The Ten Kings 231

pasada he built thirty-two exceedingly beautiful (other) pasadasl to make the Lohapasada yet more splendid. Round 31 the Great Thupa, the beautiful HemamalT,2 he made as a border a court3 (strewn) with sand and a wall. Moreover, he 32 built the Kurundavasoka-vihara, and yet other works of merit did the king carry out.

A commander of troops named Kammaharattaka, over- 33 powered the ruler, king Khallatanaga, in the capital itself. But the king's younger brother named VATTAGAMANI killed 34 the villainous commander and took on himself the government. The little son of his brother, king Khallatanaga, 35 whose name was Mahaeulika, he took as his son; and the 36 (child's) mother, AnuladevI, he made his queen. Since he had thus taken the place of a father they called him Pitiraja.4

In the fifth month after he was thus anointed king, a young 3 7 brahman named Tissa, in Rohana, in the city (that was the seat) of his clan,5 hearkened, fool that he was, to the pro- 33 phesying of a brahman and became a rebel, and his following waxed great. Seven Damilas landed (at the same time) 39 with their troops in Mahatittha.6 Then Tissa the brahman and the seven Damilas also sent the king a written message 40 concerning the (handing over of the) parasol*7 The sagacious king sent a written message to Tissa the brahman: *The 41 kingdom, is now thine, conquer thou the Damilas/ He answered: * So be it,' and fought a battle with the Damilas, but they conquered him.

Thereupon the Damilas made war upon the king; in 42

1 Perhaps dwellings of smaller dimensions, for the bhikkhus.

2 See 15. 167? 17. 51 and 27. 3.

3 Literally, a * sandcourt-boundary *. The allusion is to the so-called elephant-path that runs all round the terrace of the Kuwanwsell-dagaba and is bounded on the outside by a wall* On the east, south, and north it is 97 feet wide, on the west, ie. at the back, 881 feet, SMITHER,/. Z., p.41.

4 I.e. * King father."

& I read kulanagare and understand bj this Mahlglma the town from which the dynasty of Dutthagamani came*

* See note to 7. *>8, 7 As the symbol of 'kingly rank.232 Mahavansa xxxili. 'A3

a battle near Kolambalaka1 the king was vanquished. (Near the gate of the Tittharama he mounted into his car and fled. But the Tittharama was built by king Pandukabhaya and it

43 had been constantly inhabited under twenty-one kings.)2 As a nigantha3 named Giri saw him take flight he cried out

44 loudly: f The great black lion is fleeing/ 4 When the great king heard that he thought thus: ' If my wish be fulfilled I will build a vihara here/

45 He took Anuladevi with him, who was with child, thinking: ( She must be protected/ and Mahacula also and (his son) the prince Mahanaga, also thinking: ' They must be

46 protected.' But,, to lighten the car the king gave to Soma-devi5 his splendid diadem-jewel and let her, with her own consent; descend from the car.

4 7 When going forth to battle he had set out, full of fears, taking his little son and his two queens with him. Being

48 vanquished he took flight and, unable to take with him the almsbowl used by the Conqueror/ he hid in the Vessagiri-

49 forest.7 When the thera Mahatissa from Kupikkala (vihara) saw him there, he gave him food, avoiding thereby the giving

50 of an untouched alms.8 Thereon the king, glad at heart,

1 Evidently identical with the Kolambahalaka, mentioned in

25. 80. See the note thereon.

2 The passage enclosed in brackets occurs in all the groups of MSS. and is also referred to in the Tlka. I have omitted the three lines of verse from the edition, chiefly for reasons of form (see Introduction, p. xxi) as being a later gloss. The battle took place not far from the north gate of the city. See also 25, 80 foil, and the note to 33. 81.

s See note to 10. 97. The name Tittharama alone indicates that the monastery was inhabited by non-Buddhist monks (tittha=sect). 4 Mahakilasihala is a play on the word siha *lion* and the name sihala (Mah. 7, 42). 6 His second wife.

* According to Mah. 17. 12 foil, it had come to Ceylon as a relic in the time of king DevSnampiyati&sa.

T South of AnarEdhapura. See note to 20.15 on the Vessagm-vihara.

g The bMkkhu is not allowed to share with a layman before he

has of the food that he has received as alms. So

irst ate of the food and then offered some to the king;

communication in aletter of Feb. 27, 190B.64 The Ten Kings 233

recording it upon a ketaka-leaf,1 allotted lands to his vihara for the use of the brotherhood. From thence, he went to 51 Silasobbhakandaka2 and sojourned there; then he went to Matuvelanga near Samagalla and there met the thera (Kupik- 52 kalamahatissa) whom he had already seen before. The thera entrusted the king with due carefulness to TanasTva, who was his attendant. Then in the house of this TanasTva, his subject, 53 the king lived 3 fourteen years, maintained by him.

Of the seven Darnilas one, fired with passion for the lovely 54 SomadevT, made her his own and forthwith returned again to the further coast.4 Another took the almsbowl of the 55 (Master) endowed with the ten miraculous powers, that was in Anuradhapura, and returned straightway, well contented, to the other coast.

But the Damila PULAHATTHA reigned three years, making 56 the Damila named Bahiya commander of his troops. BAHIYA 57 slew5 Pulahattha and reigned two years; his commander-in-chief was Panayamara. PANAYAMARAKA slew Bahiya and was 58 king for seven years; his commander-in-chief was Pilayamara. PILAYAMARAKA slew Panayamara and was king for seven 5$ months; his commander-in-chief was Dathika. And the 60 Damila DATHIKA slew Pilayamara and reigned two years in Anuradhapura. Thus the time of these five Damila-kings 61 was fourteen years and seven months.

When one day, in Malaya, Anuladevi went to seek 62 her (daily) portion the wife of TanasTva struck against her basket with her foot. And she was wroth and came weeping 63 to the king. When TanasTva heard this he hastened forth (from the house) grasping his bow. When the king had 64 heard what the queen said, he, ere yet the other came, took

1 Pandanus odoratissimus. As a rule royal donations were recorded on copper plates or might be on silver and gold plates. GEIGER, Litteratur und Sprache der 8inghalesen, pp. 24-25.

2 Cf. note to 33. 87; judging from the Tika we should probably read °kandakamhi rather than °katakamhi.

3 Tahim = in Malaya, according to 33. 62.

4 That is, he returned oversea to India.

5 Gahetva. Cf. note to 33. 19.234: MaMvamsa, XXXTII. 65

65 the two boys and his consort and hastened out also. Patting the arrow to his bowl the glorious (hero) transfixed Siva 2 as he came on. The king proclaimed (then) his name and gathered

66 followers around him. He obtained as ministers eight famous warriors, and great was the following of the king and his equipment (for war).

67 The famous (king) sought out the thera Mahatissa of Kupikkala and commanded that a festival in honour of the

68 Buddha be held in the Aechagalla-vihara.3 At the very time when the minister Kapisisa, having gone up to the courtyard of the Akasa-cetiya to sweep the building, had come down

69 from thence, the king, who was going up with the queen, saw him sitting by the road, and being wroth with him that he had not flung himself down (before him) he slew Kapisisa.

70 Then in anger against the king the other seven ministers withdrew themselves from him, and going whither it seemed

71 good to them, they were stripped of their possessions by robbers on the way, and they took refuge in the vihara Hambugallaka where they sought out the learned thera Tissa.

72 The thera, who was versed in the four nikayas,4 gave them, as he had received it (as alms), clothing, sugar and oil, and rice, too, in sufficing measure.

73 When he had refreshed them the thera asked them: 74 to him, and told him this matter. But when they were asked afterwards: 'With whom will it be possible to further the doctrine of the Buddha? With the Damilas or with the

75 king?' they answered: * By the king will this be possible.' And when they had thus convinced them the two theras,

1 Cf. the Sid. dhanuh samdtxl in the same sense B.B., Skt. Wib., s. v. dha with sam.

2 A play on the words Slvam and mahasivo.

2 See note to 21. 6. If the Tika is right in placing the Accha-galla-idliSra to the east of Anumdhapura, the akasacetiya mentioned in verse 68 cannot be identical with that mentioned in 22. 26 (see the note). The site of the latter is, no doubt, in Rohana.

4 I,e* in the four oldest collections of the Sutta-pltaka: Digha-f Majjhixaa-, Stupytittar and Aftgattara-mkSya.XXXIIT. 86 The Ten Kings 235

Tissa and Mahatissa, took them forth from thence and brought 76 them to the king and reconciled them one to another. The king and the ministers besought the theras saying: 'If our 77 undertaking has prospered then must ye come to us, when a message is sent to you.* The theras agreed and returned each one to his place.

When the renowned king had come to Anuradhapura and 78 had slain the Damila Dathika he himself assumed the government. And forthwith the king destroyed the arama of the 79 niganthas and built there a vihara with twelve cells. When 80 two hundred and seventeen years ten months and ten days had passed since the founding of the Mahavihara the kino-,, 81 filled with pious zeal, built the Abhayagiri-vihara.1 He sent 82 for the (two) theras, and to the thera Mahatissa, who had first assisted him of the two, he gave the vihara, to do him honour. Since the king Abhaya built it2 on the place of the 83 arama of (the nigantha) Giri, the vihara received the name Abhayagiri.

When he had sent for SomadevI he raised her again to her 84 rank and built, in her honour, the Somarama,3 bearing her name. For this fair woman, who had alighted from the car 85 at this spot and had concealed herself in a thicket of flowering Kadambas, saw in that very place a samanera who was relieving 86

1 According to 33. 42-44 the monastery of the niganthas, the Tittharama stood outside the north gate of Anuradhapura. Since, on its place the Abhayagiri-vihara was built, it cannot be identical with the vihara of the dagaba, which is now called the Abhayagiri-dagaba, but it must be that of the now so-called Jetavana-dagaba. On the other hand, as we will see below (cf. note to 37. 33), the site of the Jetavana-vihara must be looked for south of the city where now the so-called Abhayagiri-dagaba stands. Tradition appears to have confounded one name with the other. PARKER, Ancient Ceylon, p.299foir.

2 The king's full name was Vattagamani Abhaya.

s The Somarama or Manisomarama, as the monastery is called 36. 8, 106,107 (in allusion to the story in 33. 46) after the culamani entrusted to SomadevI, must be sought near the Abhayagiri-vihara, perhaps in the place of the building described by SMITHER, Anurd-dhapura, p. 61, which is popularly designated the ' Queen's Pavilion*.236 Mahavamsa xxxm. 87

his need, using (decently) his hand for concealment. When the king heard her story he built a vihara there.

87 To the north of the Mahathupa this same king founded upon a lofty spot the cetiya called Silasobbhakandaka.1

88 One of the seven warriors (of the king), Uttiya, built, to

89 the south of the city, the so-called Dakkhina-vihara.2 In the same place the minister named Mula built the Mulavokasa-

90 vihara, which was, therefore, called after him. The minister named Saliya built the Saliyarama, and the minister named

91 Pabbata built the Pabbatarama; but the minister Tissa founded the Uttaratissarama. When the beautiful viharas were completed they sought out the thera Tissa and gave them to him

92 with these words: 'In gratitude for thy kindness we give thee these viharas built by us/

93 The thera established sundry bhikkhus everywhere (in these viharas), according to their rank, and the ministers bestowed upon the brotherhood the different (things) useful to a samana.

94 The king provided those (bhikkhus) living in his vihara with the (needful) things for use, so that nothing was lacking: therefore were they many in number.

95 A thera known by the name Mahatissa, who had frequented the families of laymen, was expelled by the brotherhood from our monastery 3 for this fault, the frequenting of lay-families.

96 His disciple, the thera who was known as Bahalamassutissa, went in anger to the Abhayagiri (vihara) and abode there,

97 forming a (separate) faction. And thenceforward these bhikkhus came no more to the Mahavihara: thus did the bhikkhus of the Abhayagiri (vihara) secede from the Thera-

1 The statement as to locality, given in our verse, points, as PAEKEK, Ancient Ceylon, p. 311, rightly insists, to the Lankarama-dagaba, which is situated about a mile north of the Ruwanwseli-dagaba. It received this name in remembrance of the place where Vatfagamani had found refuge, according to 83. 51.

1 I.e. * South Monastery/ PABKER, 7. I, p. 312, identifies the remains of the thupa belonging to this monastery with the building south of the Haha1 vihara, which is called by the people, * Ellra's sepulchre.' Sea also note to 85. 5.

9 Ito 'from here1 is from the ftaadpoint of the author, * out of the MahEviham.'103 The Ten Kings 237

vada. From tie monks of the Abhayagiri-vihara those of the 98 Dakkkina-vihara separated (afterwards); in this wise those bhikklms (who had seceded) from the adherents of the Theravada were divided into two (groups).1

He (the king) built the cells of the vihara so that a greater 99 number were joined together, for he reflected: * In this way it will be possible to restore them/

The text of the three pitakas and the atthakatha thereon 1°(^ did the most wise bhikkhus hand down in former times orally, but since they saw that the people were falling away (from 101 religion) the bhikkhus came together., and in order that the true doctrine might endure, they wrote them down in books.

Thus did the king Vattagamani-Abhaya reign twelve 102 years, and, at the beginning,2 five months beside.

Thus does the wise man labour, when he comes to rale, for 103 the bliss of others and for his own bliss, but a man without understanding does not render the possessions which he has won,3 however great they are, blissful for both, being greedy of (more) possessions.

Here ends the thirty-third chapter, called f The Ten Kings', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 After 98 a spurious verse is interpolated: 4To bring prosperity to the bhikkhus dwelling on the island, who belonged to the great Abhaya-(giri-community), the lord of the land, Vaijtagamani, made over to them the so-called patti.1 In S5. 48 patti simply means 4 revenue'.

2 That is, before the Damilas dethroned him.

8 Laddhabhogam, according to the Tiki stands for laddha (=labhitva, Skt. labdhva) bhogam. But, I this is not necessary. We have to take laddhabhogaip»Ud-dham bhogam and ubhayahitam as predicative objectCHAPTER XXXIV


1 AFTER his death MAHACULI MAHATISSA reigned fourteen years with piety and justice.

2 Since he heard that a gift brought about by the work of a man's own hand is full of merit, the king, in the very first

3 year (of his reign), went in disguise and laboured in the rice-harvest, and with the wage that he received for this he gave

4 food as alms to the thera Mahasumma. When the king had laboured also in Sonnagiri1 three years in a sugar-mill, and

5 had received lumps of sugar as wage for this, he took the lumps of sugar, and being returned to the capital he, the ruler of the earth, appointed great almsgiving to the brotherhood of

6 bhikkhus. He bestowed clothing on thirty thousand bhikkhus and the same on twelve thousand bhikkhunis.

7 When the protector of the earth had built a well-planned vihara, he gave the six garments 2 to sixty thousand bhikkhus

8 and to bhikkhunis likewise, in number thirty thousand. The

king built the Mandavapi-vihara, the Abhayagallaka

9 (vihlra), the (viharas) Vankavattakagalla and Dighabahu-gallaka and the Jalagama-vihara.

10 When the king (inspired) by faith had done works of merit in many ways he passed into heaven, at the end of the fourteen years.

1 I.e. *6o!d mountain,* according to the Tika situated near

On this see note to 28. 20. The rocky mountain that

on the of Ambatfhakola "bounding the valley of Nalanda-

on the west is called Rangala. GEXGER, Ceylon, p. 155;

ED. Inscriptions, p. 36. The Dambulla-caves are

»!«o in king Nissanka Haifa's inscription,

ED. LI, pp. m, 126.

2 Bm note to S3, 2S,xxxiv. 27 The Eleven Kings 239

Vattagumanr's son known as CORANAGA lived as a rebel 11 under the rule of Mahacula. When Mahacula had departed 12 he came and reigned. Those places, where he had found no refuge during the time of his rebellion, eighteen viharas, 13 did this fool destroy. Twelve years did Coranaga reign. And eating poisoned (food) that his consort gave him the 14 evildoer died and was reborn in the Lokantarika-hell.

After his death king Mahacula's son ruled three years as 15 king, being known by name TISSA. But Coranaga's spouse, 16 the infamous Anula, had done her infamous (consort) to death, giving him poison, because she was enamoured of one of the palace-guards. And for love of this same palace-guard Anula 17 now killed Tissa also by poison and gave the government into the hands of that other.

When the palace-guard, whose name was SIVA, and who 18 (had been) the first of the gate-watchmen, had made Anula his queen he reigned a year and two months in the city; but 19 Anula, who was enamoured of the Damila Vatuka, did him to death with poison and gave the reign to Vatuka. The 20 Damila VATUKA, who had been a city-carpenter in the capital, made Anula his queen and then reigned a year and two 21 jnonths in the city.

But when Anula (one d&y) saw a wood-carrier, who had come to the house, she fell in love with him, and when she had 22 killed Vatuka with poison she gave the government into his hands. TISSA, the wood-carrier, when he had made Anula his queen, ruled one year and one month in the city. In haste 23 he had a bathing-tank made in the Mahameghavana. But 24 Anula, enslaved by passion for a Damila named Niliya, a brahman who was the palace-priest, and eager to be united with him, did Tissa the wood-carrier to death giving him 25 poison and gave the government into (Niliya's) hands. And the brahman NILIYA also made her his queen and reigned, 26 upheld constantly by her, six months here in Anuradhapura. When the princess Anula (who desired to take her pleasure 27 even as she listed with thirty-two of the palace-guards)l had

1 The passage enclosed in brackets occurs in all the groups of MSS., but seems, as it interferes with, the division of the slokas.240 Mahavamsa xxxrv". 28

put to death Niliya also with poison, the queen ANULA. herself, reigned four months.

28 But king Mahaculika's second son, named KUTAKANNA-

29 TISSA, who had fled from fear of Anula and had taken the pabbajja returned hither when, in time,, he had gathered an

30 army together, and when he had slain the wicked Anula he, the ruler of men, reigned twenty-two years. He built upon the Cetiya-mountain a great building for the uposatha-

31 festival and to the east of this building he raised a thupa of stone, and in that same place on the Cetiya-mountain he planted a bodhi-tree.

32 In the region between the rivers he founded the Pelagama-vihara and in the same place (he made) a great canal called

33 Vannaka and the great Ambadugga-tank and the Bhayo-luppala,1 and moreover (he made) around the city a wall seven

34 cubits high and a trench. When, he had burned the licentious Anula in the palace (upon the funeral pyre), he, withdrawing a little (distance) from thence, built a new palace.

35 In the city itself he laid out the Padumassara-park. His mother entered the order of the doctrine of the Conqueror

36 when she had just cleansed her teeth. On a plot for building2 belonging to his family he founded a nunnery for his mother : and this was therefore known by name Dantageha.3

37 After his death his son, the prince named BHATIKABHAYA,

38 reigned twenty-eight years- Since he, the pious ruler of the earth, was the brother of king Mahadathika he was known

39 on the island by the name Bhatikaraja. Here4 did he carry out the work of repairing the Lohapasada and built two

to be a later addition. (See Mah. ed., Introduction, p. xxi.) kattum in kattukamais a pregnant expression for samvasam katturn.

1 We fail to establish the names here because we do not know what is meant by antaragangaya. The expression hardly denotes the delta of a river, "but perhaps rather the region between Amban-ganga and MahawaBliganga.

2 Lit. * place for a house.' I read kulasante. The Tika, too, renders its kulayatte by kulasantake.

8 Lit. * Tooth-house.' * I.e. in Anuradhapnra.xxxiv. 50 The Eleven Kings 241

vedikas for the Mahathupa, and the (hall) called the Uposatha (-hall) in the (vihara) named after the thupa.1

And doing away with the tax appointed for himself he 40 planted sumana and ujjuka-flowers2 over a yojana of land round the city. And when the king had commanded that 41 the Great Cetiya, from the vedika at the foot to the parasol at the top,, be plastered with (a paste of) sweet-smelling unguent 42 four fingers thick and that flowers be carefully embedded therein by their stalks, he made the thupa even as a globe of flowers. Another time he commanded them to plaster the 43 cetiya with (a paste of) minium eight fingers thick,, and thus , he changed it into a heap of flowers. Yet another time 44 he commanded that the cetiya be strewn with flowers from the steps 3 to the parasol on the top, and thus he covered it over with a mass of blossoms. Then when he had raised 45 water by means of machines from the Abhaya-tank he, by pouring (masses of) water over the thupa, carried out a water-offering. Prom a hundred waggon-loads of pearls, he, 46 bidding that the mass of plaster be carefully kneaded together with oil, made a plaster-covering (for the Great Thupa). He 47 had a net of coral prepared and cast over the cetiya, and when he had commanded them to fasten in the meshes thereof lotus-flowers of gold large as waggon-wheels, and to hang 43 clusters of pearls on these that reached to the lotus-flower beneath, he worshipped the Great Thupa with this offering.

When he heard one day in the relic-chamber the sound of 49 the arahants 4 chanting in chorus he made the resolve : 61 will not rise up till I have seen it/ and fasting he lay down at 50 the foot of the stone-pillar on the east side.6 The theras created a door for him and brought him into the relic-

1 I. e. in the Thuparama.

2 Tika: mahasumanani ca ujjakasumanani ca, namely two kinds of jasmine.

3 The steps form the ascent from the ' elephant-path' (cf. note to 33. 31) to the great terrace, on which the cetiya stands.

4 Tadi is a synonym of araha.

5 The Tika paraphrases pacinaddikamulamhi with pacinaad-dikassasamipe,pacinadisayasilattliambhaussapitatthane.242 MaMvamsa xxxiv. 51

51 chamber. When the ruler of the earth had beheld all the adornment of the relic-chamber he went forth and made an offering of figures modelled with clay in close likeness to those (within).

52 With honeycombs, with perfumes, with vases (filled with flowers), and with essences, with auri-pigment (prepared) as

53 unguent and minium; with lotus-flowers arrayed in minium that lay ankle-deep in the courtyard of the eetiya, where they

54 had poured it molten; with lotus-flowers that were fastened in the holes of mattings, spread on fragrant earth, wherewith

55 the whole courtyard of the cetiya was filled; with many lighted lamps, prepared with wicks made of strips of stuff in clarified butter, which had likewise been poured (into the

56 courtyard) when the ways for the outflow had been closed up; and in like manner with many lamps with stuff-wicks in

57 madhuka-oil1 and sesamum-oil besides; with these things, as they were named, the prince commanded severally with each seven times offerings for the Great Thupa.

58 And moreover, urged by faith, he ordered year by year perpetually a great festival (for the renewing) of the plaster-work ; and festivals also of the great Bodhi-tree (in honour)

59 of the watering of the Bodhi-tree, and furthermore twenty-eight great Vesakha-festivals 2 and eighty-four thousand lesser

60 festivals, and also divers mimic dances and concerts, with the playing of all kinds of instruments of music (in honour) of

61 the Great Thupa. Three times a day he went to do homage to the Buddha and he commanded (them to give) twice (a day) continually (the offering known as) the 'flower-drum'.3

62 And he continually gave alms at the preaching 4 and alms at the pavarana-ceremony, and (distributed) also, in abundance, the things needed for the ascetic, such as oil, molasses,

1 Oil pressed from the seeds of the Bassia Latifolia. The MSS. all have madhuka, and this should be the reading. In Skt. also the form madhuka exists beside madhuka.

2 See note to 32. 35.

8 Tika: divasassa dvisu varesu niyatam pupphapujam ea akarayi.

* Yery doubtful. The MSS. support the reading chandadanaip. Perhaps c hand a is here a synonym of sajjhaya.73 The Eleven Kings 243

garments and so forth among the brotherhood. Moreover, 63 the prince bestowed everywhere land for the cetiyas, to the end that the cetiyas might be kept in repair. And constantly the 04 king bestowed food (as alms allotted) by tickets1 to a thousand bhikkhus in the vihara (of the) Cetiya-pabbata. At five spots, 65 namely, the three receiving-places,2 called Citta, Mani, and Mucala, as also in the Paduma-house and the beautiful Chatta-pasada, offering hospitality to the bhikkhus who were harnessed 66 to the yoke of the sacred word he provided them always with all that was needful, being filled with reverence for the religion. Moreover, all those works of merit which had been 67 ordered by the kings of old regarding the doctrine, all these did king Bhatika carry out.

After the death of Bhatikaraja his younger brother named 68 MAHADATHIKAMAHANAGA reigned twelve years, intent on 69 works of merit of many kinds. He had kineikkha-stones3 laid as plaster on (the square of) the Great Thupa and he turned 70 the sand-pathway round (the thupa)4 into a wide court; in all the viharas he had (raised) chairs put up for the preachers. The king built the great Ambatthala-thupa;5 since the 71 building was not firm he lay down in that place, bethinking him of the merit of the Sage (Buddha), risking his own life.6 72 When he had thus made the building firm and had completed the cetiya he set up at the four entrances four bejewelled 73 arches that had been well planned by artists and shone with

1 Salakavattabhatta, see note to 15. 205.

2 Upatthana is 'attendance, service'. Thus the allusion is to a place where people waited on the monks to offer gifts. The Tiki calls the three places which are said to have been in the interior of the royal palace, Cittupatthanapasada, Maniupatthanapasada, and Mucalupatthanapasacla.

8 Cf. SB. kinjalka ' stamens of the lotus-blossom1. CHILBEKS, P.D.j s. v, 'Kinjakkhapasano appears to be some sort of marble or other ornamental stone*.

4 On the valikamariyada see note to 33. 81.

5 On the Cetiya-pabbata (Mihintale). See PAKKEE, Ancient Ceylon, pp. 320-322. Cf. 13. 20.

6 He ran a risk of being killed by falling stones during his meditation.

E 2244 Mahavamsa xxxiv. 74

74 gems of every kind. To be fastened to the cetiya he spent a cover (for it) of red stuff and golden balls thereto and festoons of pearls.

75 When he had made ready around the Cetiya-mountain a (tract of land measuring a) yojana, and had made four gateways

76 and a beautiful road round about (the mountain), and when he had then set up (traders') shops on both sides of the road and had adorned (the road) here and there with flags, arches,

77 and triumphal gates, and had illuminated all with chains of

78 lamps, he commanded mimic dances, songs, and music. That the people might go with clean feet on the road from the Kadamba-river to the Cetiya-mountain he had it laid with

79 carpets?the gods themselves might hold a festival assemblyl there with dance and music?and he gave great largess at the

80 four gates of the capital. Over the whole island he put up chains of lamps without a break, nay over the waters of the

81 ocean within a distance of a yojana around. At the festival of (consecrating of) the cetiya these beautiful offerings were appointed by him: the splendid feast is called here (in the country) the great Giribhanda-offering.

82 When the lord of the earth had commanded almsgiving in eight places to the bhikkhus who were come together in the

83 festal assembly, he, with the beating of eight golden drams that were set up even there, allotted lavish gifts to twenty-four

84 thousand (bhikkhus). He distributed the six garments, commanded the remission of the prison-penalties and he ordered the barbers to carry on their trade continually at the four

85 gates. Moreover, all those works of merit that had been, decreed by the kings of old and that had also been decreed by his brother, those did he carry out without neglecting any-

86 thing. He gave himself and the queen, his two sons,2 his state-elephant and his state horse to the brotherhood as their own, albeit the brotherhood forbade him.

87 To the brotherhood of the bhikkhus he gave gifts worth six hundred thousand, but to the company of bhikkhunls

88 (such gifts) worth a hundred thousand, and in giving them,

1 On samajja see HABBY in Album l&ra, p. 61 foil.

* Aman^aglmaip, Abhaya and Tissa.94 The Eleven Kings 245

with knowledge of the custom, various possessions suited (to their needs) he redeemed (again) himself and the rest from the brotherhood. In Kalayanakannika the ruler of men built 89 the (vihara) called Maninagapabbata and the vihara which was called Kalanda, furthermore on the bank of the Kubukanda- 90 river the Samudda-vihara and in Huvacakannikax the vihara that bore the name Culanagapabbata, Delighted with 91 the service rendered him in the vihara that he himself had built, called PasanadTpaka, by a samanera who had given him a draught of water, the king bestowed on that vihara (a tract 92 of land) in measure half a yojana round about, for the use of the brotherhood. And rejoicing likewise at (the behaviour of) 93 a samanera in. the Mandavapi-vihara the prince gave land for the use of the brotherhood to this vihara.

Thus men of good understanding, who have conquered 94. pride and indolence, and have freed themselves from the attachment to lust, when they have attained to great power, without working harm to the people, delighting in deeds of merit, rejoicing in faith, do many and various pious works.

Here ends the thirty-fourth chapter, called 'The Eleven Kings', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 According to the Tika, a district in Rohana.CHAPTEE XXXV


1 AFTER Mahadathika's death AMANDAGAMANI ABHAYA, his son,, reigned nine years and eight months. On the splendid

2 Great Thupa he caused to be made a parasol above the parasol,1 and he built even there a vedl at the base and at the top.

3 And in like manner he made an inner courtyard and an inner verandah 2 to the Lohapasada and to the (building) called the

4 Uposatha (house) of the Thuparama. Moreover, for both he built a beautiful pavilion adorned with precious stones; and

5 the ruler of men also built the Rajatalena-vihara.3 When he had made the Mahagamendi-tank on the south side (of Anura-dhapura), he, who was clever in works of merit, bestowed it

6 on the Dakkhina-vihara.4 On the whole island the ruler of men commanded not to kill. All kinds of vine-fruits did he

7 plant in divers places, and the king Amandiya, filling the almsbowls with the fruit called c flesh-melons3,5 and bestowing

8 garments as a support (for the bowls) he gave of these, with believing heart, to the whole brotherhood; because he had

1 I. e. he heightened the cone crowning the thupa at the top.

2 For ajira cf. Abhidhanappadipika 218 (ajira=Skt. ajira 'courtyard'). Alinda is the terrace before the house-door, as is evident from D. I. 89s0,34. See also the passages M.V. VI. 36. 4, and C.V. VI. 3. 5 and 14.1. (Tin. Pit, ed. OLDENBERG, i. 2482, ii. 153s, 16925.)

8 Now Ridi-vihara, see note to 28. 20.

4 Cf. note to 33. 88. The Mahagamendi-vapi will probably be the smaller tank which is in the immediate neighbourhood of the ruins of the monastery. Note the play on the words punnadakkhino and dakkhinassa vihirassa.

5 Kumbhan^akais, according to Abhidh. 1030, a creeping-plant which (according to SUBHXJTI) is now called in Sinh. puhul 'pumpkin gourd5. Evidently mantsak0 is a particular variety. Since our text connects the king's name with it, a man da, which elsewhere means the ricinog plant, to be a synonym of the above-mentioned.xxxv. 21 The Twelve Kings 247

filled the almsbowls (with them) he received the name Amandagamani.

His younger brother, the prince KANIKAJANUTISSA, reigned 9 three years in the city,, when he had slain his brother. He 10 decided the lawsuit concerning the Hposatha-house in the (vihara) named after the eetiya,1 but sixty bhikkhns who were involved in the crime o£ high treason did the king order to be 11 taken captive, with all that was theirs,2 upon the Cetiya-pabbata, and he commanded these evildoers to be flung into the caves called Kanira.

After Kanirajanu's death Amandagamani's son, the prince 12 CULABHAYA, reigned a year. The king built the Culagallaka- 13 vihara on the bank of the Gonaka-river3 to the south of the capital.

After the death of Culabhaya his younger sister SIVALI, 14 the daughter of Amanda, reigned four months. But Amanda's 15 nephew named ILANAGA dethroned Slvall and raised the parasol (of sovereignty) in the capital. When, one day, in the 16 first year (of his reign), the king went to the Tissa-tank, many of the Lamba,kannas 4 deserted him and went back to the capital. When the king saw them not he was wroth and (in punishment) 17 he ordered that they, even they themselves, should make a road to the Mahathupa, commanding to stamp it down firmly, where it ran beside the tank, and he set candalas 18 to be their overseers. And full of anger because of this the Lambakannas came together, and when they had taken the 19 king captive and imprisoned him in his palace they themselves administered the government; but the king's consort put festal garments on her little son the prince Candamukhasiva, 20 gave him into the hands of the serving-women and sent him to the state-elephant, charging (the attendants) with a message. 21

1 Judging from the expression used (cf. 34, 39) the Th 5 pa rim a. must be meant. Cetiya = thupa.

2 See note to 28. 11.

3 This is, no doubt, the correct reading. The Gona-nadi is the river now called Kalu-oya. By banking it up king Dhatusena constructed the Kala-vapi (Kaluwsewa), Culavamsa 38. 42.

4 An important clan in Lanka.248 Mahavamsd xxxv. 22

The serving-women conveyed him thither and gave the state-

22 elephant the queen's whole message: 'This is thy lord's son; thy lord is in prison; better is it for this (boy) to meet his

23 death by thee than by the enemies; then slay thou him : that is the queen's command/ With these words they laid him

24 down at the elephant's feet. And for grief the elephant began to shed tears, and breaking to pieces the posts (to which he was chained) he pressed forward into the palace and

25 dashed against the gate with fury, and when he had broken down the doorl in the room where the king sat,, he made him

26 mount upon his back and went towards Mahatittha. There the elephant made the king embark on a ship (that brought him) to the western shore of the sea; he himself went toward Malaya.

2 7 When the king had stayed three years on the other coast he

28 raised an army and went by ship to Rohana. Having landed at the haven Sakkharasobbha the king assembled there in

29 Rohana a mighty force. Then came the king's state-elephant forthwith out of the southern Malaya to Rohana to do him

30 service. As he had heard there the Kapi-jataka2 from the great thera, the preacher of jatakas., named Mahapaduma, who

31 dwelt in the (vihara) called Tuladhara, he,, being won to faith in the Bodhisatta, restored the Nagamahavihara and gave it

32 the extension of a hundred unbent bows in length,3 and he enlarged the thupa even to what it has been (since then); moreover, he made the Tissa-tank 4 and the tank called Dura.5

33 When the king had raised an army he marched to battle; when the Lambakannas heard this they also prepared them-

34 selves for battle. Near the gate of Kapallakkhanda on the

1 While dvara means the principal gate of a building, kava-tlni are the doors of the separate rooms in the interior. See SB E. xx. p. 160, n. 3.

2 Two jatakas bear this title, in FAUSBOLL'S edition, ii, pp. 268-270 and iii, pp. 355-858.

8 3D ha an is a measure of length equal to about 8 feet. PAEKEE, Ancient Ceylon, p. 274.

* In tie neighbourhood of Mahagama, PAEKEE, I L, p. 388 foil.

8 Probably the Damtissa-vlpi, to which Saddhatissa, according to Mak 83. 8, bnilt a monastery. Karesi here means, I presume, 'to restore * not * to build'.48 The Twelve Kings 249

field of Hankarapitthi was waged the battle between the two (armies) that brought destruction to both.

Since their bodies were exhausted by the sea-journey, the 35 king's men yielded their ground, therefore the king proclaimed his name and pressed forward. Terrified thereat 36 the Lambakannas threw themselves down upon their belly,, and they hewed off their heads and heaped them up high as the nave of the (king's) waggon-wheel, and when this had 37 come to pass three times the king, from pity, said: £ Slay them not, but take them captive living/

When then the king had come into the capital as victor in 38 battle and had raised the parasol (of sovereignty) he went to a festival at the Tissa-tank.1 And when he, fully arrayed in 39 his ornaments and armour, had withdrawn from the water-sports and reflected on the good-fortune that he had attained, and thought of the Lambakannas who had opposed his progress, 40 he was wroth and commanded that they be yoked two and two behind one another to his car, and thus did he enter the city in front of them. Halting on the threshold of the 41 palace the king gave the command : c Here on this threshold, soldiers, strike off their heads/ c These are but oxen yoked to 42 thy chariot, O lord of chariots; therefore let their horns and hoofs be struck off,' thus admonished by his mother the 43 king recalled (the order) to behead them and commanded that their nose and toes be cut off. The district where the elephant 44 had stayed the prince allotted to the elephant; and therefore the tract is called Hatthibhoga.2

So Ilanaga, ruler of the earth, reigned full six years as king 45 in Anuradhapura.

After the death of Ilanaga his son CANDAMUKHA SIVA 46 reigned eight years and seven months as king.

When the lord of the earth had constructed a tank near 47 Manikaragamaka he gave it to the vihara called Issara-samana. This king's consort who was known by the name 48 Damiladevi, allotted her own revenues from that village to the same vihara.

1 Cf. with this 26. 6-7.

2 I.e. 'the elephant's usufruct, the elephant's fief.*250 Mahavamsa xxxv.49

49 Having slain Candamukha Siva in the festival-sports at the Tissa-tank his younger brother, known by the name

50 YASALALAKATISSA, reigned as king in delightful Anuradhapura, the fair face of Lanka, seven years and eight months.

51 Now a son of Datta the gate-wratchman, named Subha, who was himself a gate-watchman, bore a close likeness to

52 the king. And this palace-guard Subha did the king Yasala-laka, in jest, bedeck with the royal ornaments and place upon

53 the throne and binding the guard's turban about his own head, and taking himself his place, staff in hand, at the gate,

54 he made merry over the ministers as they paid homage to (Subha) sitting on the throne. Thus was he wont to do, from time to time.

55 Now one day the guard cried out to the king, who was laughing: ' Why does this guard laugh in my presence ?'

56 And SUBHA the guard ordered to slay the king, and he himself reigned here six years under the name Subharaja.

57 In both the great viharas1 Subharaja built a noble row of

58 cells called Subharaja after him. Near Uruvela (he built) the Valli-vihara, to the east the (vihara) Ekadvara and at the mouth of the Ganga 2 the (vihara) Nandigamaka.

59 One sprung of the Lambakanna (clan), named Vasabha, whose home was in the northern province, served under his

60 uncle, a commander of troops. Since it was declared : 3 £ One named Vasabha shall be king/ the king at that time commanded that all in the island who bore the name of Vasabha

61 should be slain. The commander, thinking: 62 morning to go to the king's residence. And the wife, to guard Vasabha carefully who went with him, put betel into his hand but without powdered chalk.4

1 According to the T^i Abhajagiri and M ahavihSra.

2 Gangftnte, by Gaftga we should probably understand the Maha-

The Tika has Kacchakanadttfre. Kaechaka is the name of a ford In the Hohawaeliganga (see note to 10. 58).

8 to the T^S Tasftl&laka was said to hate uttered a similar

prophecy publicly*

* w powdered chalk (cunn% Sink hunu).XXXV. 75 The Twelve Kings 251

Now when the commander, at the gate of the palace, saw 63 the betel without chalk, he sent him back for chalk. "When 64 Vasabha came for the chalk the commander's wife spoke with him secretly, gave him a thousand (pieces of money) and aided him to take flight. Vasabha went to the Mahavihara and by 65 the theras there was provided with milk,, food and clothes, and 66 when he had again heard from a leper the certain prophecy that he would be king, rejoicing he resolved: c I will be a rebel/ And when he had found men suited (to his purpose) 67 he went, seizing in his further course village by village, according to the instruction (in the story) of the cake/ to Rohana, and gradually winning the kingdom to himself he 68 advanced, after two years, with the needful army and train, towards the capital. When the mighty VASABHA had con- 69 quered Subharaja in battle he raised the parasol (of sovereignty) in the capital. His uncle had fallen in battle. But his 70 uncle's wife, named Pottha, who had first helped him, did king Vasabha raise to be queen.

Once he questioned a soothsayer concerning the length of 71 his life, and he told him secretly (tliat he should live) just twelve years. And when he had given him a thousand 72 (pieces of money) to keep the secret the king assembled the brotherhood and greeted them reverently and asked them: (Is there perchance, venerable sirs? a means to lengthen life ?' 73 f There is/ so did the brotherhood teach him, ' a way to do away with the hindrances (to long life); gifts of strainers2 74 must be given and gifts of dwellings and gifts for maintenance of the sick, O ruler of men, and in like manner the 75 restoring of ruined buildings must be carried out; one should take the five precepts on himself and keep them carefully,

1 The story of Candagutta and the kapallapuva is to be found in Mah.Tika,p. 1284 foil.: cf. GEIGER, Drp. andMah., pp. 89-40 ; RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 269 ; JACOBI, Hemacandra's Pariiista-parvan, viii. 290-296; preface, p. 58.

2 The parissavana is among the requisites of the bhikkhu: its use is for straining water so that he who is drinking shall not swallow some living creature who may perhaps be in it.. 252 MaMvamsa XXXV. 76

76 and one should also keep the solemn fast on the uposatha-day/ The king said: clt is well/ and went thence and carried out all these (duties).

77 Every three years that went by the king bestowed the

78 three garments on the whole brotherhood in the island; and to those theras that lived far away he sent them. In thirty-two places he ordered milk-rice with honey to be distributed,

79 but in sixty-four places a lavish gift of mixed alms.

He had a thousand lamps lighted in four places; that is,

80 on the Cetiya-pabbata, about the cetiya in the Thuparama, about the Great Thupa and in the temple of the great Bodhi-tree.

81 In the Cittalakuta (vihara)1 he built ten beautiful thupas

82 and over the whole island he restored ruined buildings. Prom pious trust in a thera in the Valliyera-vihara he built the vihara

83 called Mahavalligotta. And (moreover) he built the Anura-rama (vihara) near Mahagama and bestowed on it a thousand

84 and eight karisa 2 (of land) of (the village) Heligama. When he had built the Mucela-vihara 3 in Tissavaddhamanaka 4 he allotted to the vihara a share in the water of the (canal) Alisara.

85 To the thupa in Galambatittha he added a mantling of bricks, and he built an uposatha-house too, and to provide oil for

86 the lamps he constructed a pond (yielding water to) a thousand karisa (of land)5 and gave it to the (vihara). In the Kumbhi-

87 gallaka-vihara he built an uposatha-house. In like manner the king, built an uposatha-house in the Issarasamanaka

88 (vihara)6 here and in the Thuparama a thupa-temple. In the Mahavihara he built a row of cells facing the west, and

89 he restored the rained Catussala (hall). In like manner the same king made four beautiful Buddha-images and a temple for the images in the fair courtyard of the great Bodhi-tree.

90 The king's consort, named Pottha, built in that same

1 The as Cittalapabbata, see note to 22. 23.

2 Tfkl: althiittaram karisasahassakam.

g According to the Tiki situated pnratthimadigSbhage. 4 Of. S7,48.

* In TTOTOCTR'I view sahaisakansa is the name of the pond.

* Cf. note to 10. 61.xxxv. 102 TJie Twelve Kings 253

place a splendid thupa and a beautiful temple for the thupa. When the king had completed the thupa-temple in the 91 Thuparama he commanded lavish almsgiving for the festival of its completion. Among those bhikkhus who were busied 92 with (the learning of) the word of the Buddha he distributed the things needed (by bhikkhus)^ and among the bhikkhus who explained the doctrine butter and sugar-molasses. At 93 the four gates of the city he had food given away to the poor and, to such bhikkhus who were sick, food suited to the sick. The Cayanti1 and the Bajuppala-tank, the Vaha and the 94 Kolambagamaka, the Mahanikkhavatti-tank and the M'ahara-metti, the Kohala2 and the Kali-tank/ the Cambuti, the 95 Cathamangana and the Aggivaddhamanaka:4 these twelve tanks and twelve canals he constructed^ to make (the land) 96 fruitful. For safety he built up the city wall even so high (as it now is)5 and he built fortress-towers at the four gates 97 and a palace besides; in the garden he made a tank and put geese therein.6

When the king had constructed many bathing-tanks here 98 and there in the capital he brought water to them by subterranean canals. And in this way carrying out various works 99 of merit king Vasabha did away with the hindrances (to long life), and delighting perpetually in well doing he reigned 100 forty-four years in the capital. He appointed also forty-four Vesakha-festivals.7

Subharaja while he yet lived had anxiously,, for fear of 101 Vasabha, entrusted his daughter to a brick-worker and had 102

1 The names are extraordinarily erratic in the MSS. This adds greatly to the difficulty of identifying the separate tanks.

2 The Tika has Kehala and places the tank near Titthapattana.

3 The Tika reads Kelivasam ca instead of Kalivapim ca.

4 See WICKREMASIKGHE, Epigraphia Zeylanica, i, p. 211.

6 The Tika gives the height of 18 cubits (attharasahatthappa-manam) =about 25-27 feet.

6 I do not believe that we need have recourse to the translation 'swan' or * flamingo*. The goose is a sacred bird to the Buddhists and appears frequently on the monuments of Ceylon.

7 See 1. 12 and 32. 35 with note.254 MaMvamsa XXXV. 103

at the same time given into his care his mantle and the royal insignia. When he was killed by Vasabha the brick-worker

103 took her with him, put her in the place of a daughter, and brought her up in his own house. When he was at work the girl used to bring him his food.

104 When (one day) in a thicket of flowering kadambas, she saw an (ascetic) who was in the seventh day of the state of

105 nirodha,1 she the wise (maiden) gave him the food. When she had then prepared food afresh she carried the food to her father, and when she was asked the cause of the delay she

106 told her father this matter. And full of joy he bade (her) offer food repeatedly to the thera. When the thera had come out (of his trance) he said to the maiden, looking into

107 the future: 'When royal rank has fallen to thy lot then bethink thee, O maiden, of this place/ And forthwith the thera died.

108 Now did king Vasabha when his son Vankanasikatissa had

109 come to (full) age seek a fitting wife for him. When those people who understood the (auspicious) signs in women saw

110 the maiden in the brick-worker's village they told the king ; the king thereon was about to send for her. And now the

111 brick-worker told him that she was a king's daughter, but that she was the daughter of Subharaja he showed by the mantle and so forth. Rejoiced the king gave her (in marriage) to his son when all had been duly provided.2

112 After Vasabha's death his son VANKANASIKATISSAKA reigned

113 three years in Anuradhapura. On the bank of the Gona-river the king Vankanasikatissaka built the vihara called

114 Mahamangala. But his consort Mahamatta collected money to build a vihara, bethinking her of the thera's words.

115 After Vankanasikatissa^s death his son GAJABAHXJKAGAMANI

1 Nirodha or samnavedayitanirodha is a state of trance, cessation of consciousness. KEEN, Manual, pp. 55, 57, If the state lasts over seven days it ends in death.

2 Ski krtamangala (f. a) means a person over whom prayers have "been pronounced or who is arrayed with the auspicious things for some undertaking. B.R., Skt. Wib^ s.v. mangala. The pali katamangala must be taken in the same sense.XXXV. 127 The Twelve Kings 255

reigned twenty-two years. Hearkening to his mother's word 116 the king founded the Matuvihara on the place of the thicket of flowering kadambas, in honour of his mother. His wise 117 mother gave to the great vihara a hundred thousand (pieces of money) for the plot of land and built the vihara;1 he 118 himself built a thupa of stone there and gave (land) for the use of the brotherhood, when he had bought it from various owners.

He erected the great Abhayuttara-thupa, making it greater,, 119 and to the four gates thereof he made vestibules. When the 120 king had made the Gamanitissa-tank he bestowed it on the Abhayagiri-vihara for maintenance in food. He made a mant- 121 ling to the Maricavatti-thupa and gave (land) thereto for the use of the brotherhood, having bought it for a hundred thousand (pieces of money). In the last year he founded the 122 vihara called Ramuka and built in the city the Mahejasana-sala (hall).

After Gajabahu's death the king's father-in-law MAHAL- 123 LAKA NA.GA reigned six years. (The viharas) Sejalaka in 124 the east, Gotapabbata in the south, Dakapasana in the west, in Nagadlpa Salipabbata, in Bijagama Tanaveli, in the 125 country of Rohana Tobbalanagapabbata, in the inland country Girihalika: these seven viharas did the king Mahallanaga, 126 ruler of the earth, build in the time (of his reign), short though it was.

In this way do the wise, doing many works of merit, gain 127 with worthless riches that which is precious, but fools in their blindness, for the sake of pleasures, do much evil.

Here ends the thirty-fifth chapter, called 'The Twelve Kings', in the Mahavamsa. compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

1 The meaning plainly is that the mother and son jointly founded the vihara. In 116 it is said, in a general way, that the king together with his mother, founded the Matuvihara. How the undertaking was shared is explained in 117 and 118. The mother buys the plot of land and constructs the monastery buildings ; the son builds the thupa and presents the necessary lands for the maintenance of the inmates of the monastery.CHAPTEE XXXVI


1 AFTEE the death of Mahallanaga his son BHATIKATISSAKA

2 reigned twenty-four years in Lanka. He built a wall around the Mahavihara. When the king had built the Gavaratissa-

3 vihara he made the Mahamani-tank and gave it to the vihara.

4 Moreover, he built the vihara called Bhatikatissa. He built an uposatha-house in the beautiful Thuparama; the king

5 also made the Randhakandaka-tank. Filled with tenderness towards beings and zealous in reverencing the brotherhood the protector of the earth commanded lavish almsgiving to the community of both sexes.

6 After the death of Bhatikatissa (his younger brother) KAMTTHATISSAKA l reigned eighteen years in the island of

7 Lanka. Since he was well pleased with the thera Mahanaga in the Bhutarama he built for him in splendid fashion the

8 Ratanapasada in the Abhayagiri. Moreover, he built in the Abhayagiri a wall and a great parivena and a great parivena

9 besides in the (vihara) called Manisoma.2 In that place he built a temple for the cetiya and in like manner for the Ambatthala-thupa; and (he ordered) the restoration of the

10 temple in Nagadipa. Doing away with the boundary of the Mahavihara, the king built there the row of cells (called)

11 Kmkkutagiri with all things provided. In the Mahavihara the ruler of men built twelve great four-sided pasadas,

12 admirable to see and beautiful^ and he added a mantling1 to the thupa of the Dafckhinavihara, and a refectory besides,

13 away with the boundary of the Mahameghavana. And

the wall of the Mahlvihara to the side, he also made

14 a leading to the Dakkhinavihara. He built the Bhuta-

1 The * the younger brother TIasa \

1 Cf. note to 88.84.xxxvi. 28 TJie TJiirteen Kings S57

ramavihara and the B/amagonaka,, and the arama of Nan-dafcissa besides.

In the east the king built the Anulatissapabbata (vihara) 15 in Gangarajl, the Niyelatissarama and the Pilapitthi vihara as well as the Ra jam aha vihara. In like manner he built in 16 three places an uposatha-house., in the three following viharas, 17 the Kalyanikavihara/ the Mandalagirika., also the (vihara) called Dubbalavapitissa.

After Kanitthatissa's death his son^ who was known as 18 KHTOTANAGA,, reigned one year. The younger brother o£ 19 Khujjanaga KUNOANAGA, when he had slain the king his brother, reigned two years in Lanka. During the great 20 Ekanalika2 famine the king maintained without interruption a great almsgiving 3 appointed for five hundred bhikkhus.

But the brother of Kuncanaga's consort, the commander of 21 troops, SIBINAGA, became a rebel against the king, and when 22 he was equipped with troops and horses he moved on to the capital and when he, in battle with the king's army, had put 23 king Kuiicanaga to flight, victorious he reigned over Lanka nineteen years in splendid Anuradhapura. When the king had 24 placed a parasol on the stately Great Thupa, he had it gilded in admirable and splendid fashion. He built the Lohapasada, 25 keeping it within five stories (height), and he restored the steps to the four entrances leading to the great Bodhi-tree. When 26 he had completed the parasol and the pasada 4 he commanded offerings at the festival (of the consecration); great in compassion, he remitted the tribute of families5 throughout the island.

1 Cf. 82.51 and note to 1. 63.

2 Nail is a certain measure = 4pasata 'handfuls'. RHYS DAVIDS, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p. 17. To so small a quantity of food were the people reduced in that famine. Thence the designation.

3 Mahapela, lit. ' great basket,' in contrast to ekanalika.

4 The readingis,I think, chattapasadam. Still Chattapasada may also be understood as the name of a building. Thus TURNOUE, WIJESINHA. and my edition.

' 5 Kulambana is obscure. Perhaps it means a certain tribute in kind (ambana is a measure of capacity, used as a corn-measure), which was levied from, single families (kula).

s258 Mahavamsa xxxvi. 27

27 After the death o£ Sirinaga his son TISSA reigned twenty-two years, with knowledge of (the) law and (the) tradition.

28 Because he first in this country made a law that set aside (bodily) injury (as penalty) he received the name king Voharika-

29 tissa. "When lie had heard the (preaching of the) doctrine by the thera Deva, who dwelt in Kappukagama, he restored five

30 buildings. Moreover, contented with the thera Mahatissa, who dwelt in Anurarama,1 he commanded almsgiving in Mueela-

31 pattana.2 When the king Tissa 3 had set up a pavilion in the two great viharas 4 and in the eastern temple of the great

32 Bodhi-tree two bronze images, and had built also the Satta-pannakapSsada, goodly to dwell in, he appointed every month

33 a thousand (pieces of money)5 for the Maha vihara. In the Abhayagiri-vihara and in the (vihara) called Dakkhinamula, in the Maricavatti-vihara and the (vihara) called Kulalitissa,

34 in the Mahiyangana-vihara, in the (vihara) called Mahaga-managa, in the (viharas) called Mahanagatissa, and Kalyanika

35 he put parasols to their eight thupas. In the Mulanagasena-

36 pati-vihara and in the Dakkhina(vihara), in the Maricavatti-vihara and in the (vihara) called Puttabhaga, in the (vihara) called Issarasamana and the (vihara) named Tissa in Naga-

3 7 dipaka ; in these six viharas he put up a wall, and he also built an nposatha-touse in the (vihara) called Anurarama.

38 For the occasions when the Ariyavamsa6 was read he decreed over the whole island a regular giving of alms> from reverence

39 for the true doctrine. With the spending of three hundred

1 According to E5. 83 Bear Mahagama in the province of Rohana.

2 According to the Tika mticelapattana is the name of a *ship* made of bronze in which offerings were placed. Such 'canoes' but of stone, which evidently served the same purpose, are, in fact, found in the ruins of Aniiradhapura. (BtTRKOWS, Buried Cities of

s Following the reading Tissarajl manclapam. If we read Tlsiarijamai^apans we must translate *a pavilion (called) Tlssaraja (after him)*.

4 I.e. the vihara and Abhayagiri-vihara.

8 According to the TIkS, articles of clothing.

* Lit. *lK>ok of the holy ones/ probably the life-histories of men eminent in the Bnddhitt Church, which were read aloud publicly for the education of the people.xxxvi. 50 The Thirteen Kings 259

thousand (pieces of money) this king, who was a friend to the doctrine, freed from their indebtedness such bhikkhus as were in debt When he had decreed a great Vesakha-festival,1 40 he bestowed the three garments on all the bhikkhus dwelling in the island. Suppressing the Vetulya-doctrine 2 and keeping 41 heretics in check by his minister Kapila, he made the true doctrine to shine forth in glory.

This king's younger brother,, known as ABHAYANAGA, who 42 was the queen's lover, being discovered (in his guilt) took flight for fear of his brother and went with his serving-men 43 to Bhallatittha and as if wroth with him, he had his uncle's hands and feet cut off. And that he might bring about 44 division in the kingdom, he left him behind here and took his most faithful followers with him, showing them the example of the dog,3 and he himself took ship at the same place and 45 went to the other shore. But the uncle, Subhadeva, went to the king and making as if he were his friend he wrought 46 division in the kingdom. And that he might have knowledge of this, Abhaya sent a messenger thither. When Subhadeva 47 saw him he loosened (the earth) round about an areca-palm, with the shaft of his spear, as he walked round (the tree), and when he had made it thus (to hold) but feebly by the roots, he struck it down with his arm; then did he threaten the 48 (messenger), and drove him forth. The messenger went and told this matter to Abhaya. And when he knew this, Abhaya 49 took many Damilas with him and marched from there against the city to do battle with his brother. On news of this the king 50

1 See note to 32. 35.

2 Cf. the Vaipulya-sutras, sometimes also called Vaitulya-sutras, which form part of the Northern Mahayanist Canon. KERN, Manual, p. 5 ; idem, Verslagen en Mededeelingen van de K. A~k* van Weten-schapen, Afd. Letterk., 4e R., D. VIII, p. 312 foil., Amsterdam, 1907 (see L. BE LA VALUES POUSSIN, J.B.A.S. 1907, p. 432 foil.; WINDISCH, Abh. d. Jc. Sachs. Gesellsch. d. W"., xxvii, p. 472; OLDENBERG, Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft, xiii, 1910, p. 614).

3 According to the Tika, when he was about to embark on the ship, he had chided and punished a dog that he had with him. Nevertheless the animal followed him, wagging his tail. Then he said to Ms followers, 'Even as this clog, you must stand by me with unchangeable fidelity.'

S 2260 MaMvamsa XXXVI. 51

took flight, and, with his consort, mounting a horse he came to

51 Malaya. The younger brother pursued him, and when he had slain the king in Malaya, he returned with the queen and reigned eight years in the capital as king.

52 The king set up a vedl of stone round about the great Bodhi-tree, and a pavilion in the courtyard of the Lohapa-

53 sada. And obtaining garments of every kind for twice a hundred thousand (pieces of money), he distributed gifts o£ clothing among the brotherhood of bhikkhus on the island.

54 After Abhaya's death, SIRINAGA, the son of his brother

55 Tissa, reigned two years in Lanka. When he had restored the wall round about the great Bodhi-tree, then did this king also

56 build in the sand-courtl of the temple of the great Bodhi-tree, to the south of the Mucela-tree,2 the beautiful Ham-savatta and a great pavilion besides.

57 Sirinaga^s son named VIJAYA-KUMAEAKA reigned for one year after his father's death.

58 (At that time) three Lambakannas lived in. friendship at Mahiyangana: Samghatissa and Samghabodhi, the third

59 being Gothakabhaya. When they were coming (to Anura-dhapura) to do service to the king, a blind man who had the gift of prophecy, being by the edge of the Tissa-tank,

60 cried out at the sound of their footsteps: cThe ground bears here three rulers of the earth! * As Abhaya, who was walking last, heard this he asked (the meaning of the saying). The

61 other uttered yet again (the prophecy). ' Whose race will endure?* then asked again the other, and he answered: < That of the last5 When he had heard that he went (on)

62 ^rJth the two (others). When they were come into the capital the three, being the close and trusted (counsellors) of the king, remained in the royal fervice about the king.

ii When they together had slain king Vijaya in his royal

palace the two (others) consecrated SAMGHATISSA,, the com-

64 mander of the troops^ as king. Thus crowned did Samgha-

1 Vllikltala is employed here in the same way as vali-

in 83. 31. 1 Paraio i» In tlie T*ka by dakkhinadisabiiage

cf. n. so.XXXVI. 76 The Thirteen Kings 261

tissa reign four years in stately Anuradhapura. He set up 65 a parasol on the Great Thupa and gilded it, and moreover the king put four great gems, each worth a hundred thousand (pieces of money), in the middle of the four suns,1 and put 66 upon the spire of the thupa a precious ring of crystal. At 67 the festival of (consecrating) the chatta the ruler of men distributed the six garments to the brotherhood (in number) forty thousand. As he (one day) when listening to the khandhakas 2 68 heard from the thera Mahadeva, dwelling in Damahalaka, the sutta that sets forth the merit of (a gift of) rice-gruel.,3 69 he, joyfully believing, distributed to the brotherhood at the four gates of the city an abundant and well-prepared gift of rice-gruel.

Prom time to time the king, with the women of the royal 70 household and the ministers, used to go to Paelnadlpaka4 to eat jambu-fruits. Vexed by his coming the people dwelling in 71 Pacinadlpa poisoned the fruit of the jambu-tree from which the king was to eat. When he had eaten the jambu-fruits he 72 died forthwith even there. And Abhaya consecrated as king Samghabodhi who was charged with the (command of) the array.

The king, who was known by the name SIKISAMGHABODHI, 73 reigned two years in Anuradhapura, keeping the five precepts.5

In the Mahavihara he set up a beautiful salaka-house,6 74 When the king heard that the people of the island were come to want by reason of a drought he himself, his heart 75 shaken with pity, lay down on the ground in the courtyard of the Great Thupa, forming the resolve : i Unless I be raised 76

1 Which were placed on tlie four sides of the £ Tee '.

2 The sections of the M.V. and C.V. in the Vinaya-pitaka.

3 See M.V. VI. 24 Of. particularly 5 and 6. The scene of the exhortation is Andhakavinda.

4 I.e. * East-Island.' The Tika says: Mahatitthapattane pa-rato samuddamajjhe sambhutam Pacinadipam agamasi. According to this Pacmadipa is one of the islands between the north point of Ceylon and the Indian continent.

5 See note to I. 62.

4 On salakagga see note to 15, 205.262 MaMvamsa XXXVI. 77

up by the water that the god shall rain down I will nevermore

77 rise up from hence, even though I die here/ As the ruler of the earth lay there thus the god poured down rain forthwith on

78 the whole island of Lanka, reviving the wide earth. And even then he did not yet rise up because he was not swimming in the water. Then his counsellors closed up the pipes by

79 which the water flowed away. And as he now swam in the water the pious king rose up. By his compassion did he in this way avert the fear of a famine in the island.

80 At the news : ' Rebels are risen here and there/ the king had the rebels brought before him, but he released them again

81 secretly; then did he send secretly for bodies of dead men,, and causing terror to the people by the burningl of these he did away with the fear from rebels.

82 A yakkha known as Eatakkhi^2 who had come hither, made

83 red the eyes of the people here and there. If the people did but see one another and did but speak of the redness of the eyes they died forthwith, and the yakkha devoured them without fear,

84 When the king heard of their distress he lay down with sorrowful heart alone in tie chamber of fasting, keeping the

85 eight uposatha vows/ (and saM): "Till I have seen the yakkha I will not rise up/ By the (magic) power of his

86 piety the yakkha came to him. To the king's (question): ' Who art thou ?' he answered: < It is I, (the yakkha)/ c Why

87 dost thou devour my subjects? Swallow them not!' 'Give up to me then only the people of one region/ said the other. And being answered: f That is impossible/ he came gradually

88 (demanding ever less and less) to one (man) only. The (king) spoke; * No other can I give up to thee; take thou me and devour me/ With the words: ' That is impossible/ the other

1 He bad the corpses burnt in place of the rebels and thus inspired the belief that he had condemned them to death by fire. Of. also s u 1 e uttSseti ' to impale \ Jit. I. 50011 and frequently.

1 I.e. 'Red-eye.' Perhaps scarlatina? The Attanagaluvamsa which relates this episode in chap. VI (ed. Alwis, p. 16 foil), speaks of a fever (jararoga) beginning with inflammation of the eyes,

3 Cf. with this SPEKCE HAEDY, Eastern Monachism, p. 237,XXXVI, 103 The Thirteen Kings 263

prayed him (at last) to give him an offering- in every village. ' It is well/ said the king,, and over the whole island he 89 decreed that offerings1 be brought to the entrance of the villages, and these he gave up to him. Thus by the great 90 man/ compassionate to all beings, by the torch of the island was the fear pestilence brought to an end.

The king's treasurer, the minister Gothakabhaya, who had 91 become a rebel, marched from the north against the capital. Taking his water-strainer with him the king fled alone by 92 the south gate, since he would not bring harm to others.

A man who came, bearing his food in a basket, along that 93 road entreated the king again and again to eat of his food. When he, rich in compassion, had strained the water and had 94 eaten he spoke these words, to show kindness to the other: £I am the king Samghabodhi; take thou my head and show 95 it to Gothabhaya, he will give thee much gold,' This he 96 would not do, and the king to render him service gave up the ghost even as he sat. And the other took the head and 97 showed it to Gothabhaya and he, in amazement of spirit, gave him gold and carried out the funeral rites of the king with due care.

Thus GOTHABHAYA, also known as Meghavannabhaya, ruled 98 thirteen years over Lanka.

He built a palace, and when he had built a pavilion at the 99 entrance to the palace and had adorned it, even there did he daily invite a thousand and eight bhikkhus of the brother- 100 hood to be seated, and rejoicing them with rice-gruel and with foods excellent and of many kinds, both hard and soft, together with garments, he bestowed alms lavishly upon them. lOi Twenty-one days did he continue (to give) thus.

In the Mahavibara he bnilt a splendid pavilion of stone; 102 he renewed3 the pillars of the Lohapasada. He set up a vedl 103

1 By "ball are understood particularly the offerings brought to the subordinate divinities, devatasy tutelary genii, local sprites, &c.

s Mahasatta is used elsewhere as designation of a Bodhisatta.

3 Lit. * He set them up when he had changed them.1 In Skt. parivartayati (B.E. g.v. vart with pari) the same meaning.264' -. MaMmmsa xxxvi. i(M

of stone for the great Bodhi-tree and an arched gateway i at the northern entrance, and likewise at the four corners (of the courtyard) pillars with wheel-symbols.1

104 At three entrances he made three statues of stone and at

105 the south gate he set up a throne of stone. To the west-of the Maha vihara be laid out a tract of land for exercises of meditation/ and over the island he restored all ruined

106 buildings. In the Thuparama he ordered the thupa-temple to be restored and also in the Ambatthala-monastery of the thera

107 (Mahinda);3 and in the arama called Manisoma, and in the Thuparama, in the Manisomarama and in the Maricavatti (vihara), and moreover in the vibara called Dakkhina (he

108 restored) the uposatha-houses. And he founded also a new vihara called Meghavannabhaya and at the (time of) festal

109 offerings -at the consecration of the vihara he distributed the six garments to thirty thousand bhikkhus dwelling on the island, whom he had assembled,

In like manner he appointed then a great Vesakha-festiva!,* ?'

110 and yearly did he distribute the six garments to the brother-Ill hood. Purifying the doctrine by suppression of heresy he

seized bhikkhus dwelling in the Abhayagiri (vihara), sixty in. number, who had turned to the Vetulya-doctrine5 and were

112 like a thorn in the doctrine of the Buddha,-and when he had excommunicated them/ he banished them to the further coast. A bhikkhu from the Cola people, named Samghamitta,

113 who was versed in the teachings concerning the exorcism of spirit?, and so forth, had attached himself7 to a thera banished

1 See note to 80. 92. , ,

2 CHILDERS, P.D. s.v. padhanam, says: 'padhanabhumi, ^ cloister in a monastery for monks to walk in who are striving to attain arhatship.'

'?l ' 3 The Therambatthalaka is without doubt the. Ambatthala-thup& "built in memory of Mahinda on the Cetiya-mountain. See note to 34. 71. * Of. mote to 32. 35. 5 Cf. note to 36. 41.

6 Katvana niggaham tesam, lit. * having suppressed them.' See papakanam niggahena in v. 110.

7 iN is si to, the term for one who stands to an older monk in the rela&o&'Qf p«pil to teacher (n.i;ssaya). * ; ? 4'XXXVI. 123 The Thirteen Kings 265

thither, and he came hither embittered against the bhikkhus of the Mahavihara.

When this lawless (bhikkhu) had thrust himself into an 114 assembly in the Thuparama and had refuted there the words of the thera living in the parivena of Samghapala, namely the 115 thera Gothabhaya, uncle of the king on the mother's side, who had addressed the king with his (old) name,, he became a 116 constant guest in the king's house.1 The king who was well pleased with him entrusted his eldest son Jetthatissa and his younger son Mahasena, to the bhikkhu. And he made the 117 second his favourite, therefore prince Jetthatissa bore ill-will to the bhikkhu.

After his father's death JETTHATISSA became king. To 118 punish the hostile ministers who would not go in procession with him, at the performing of the king's funeral rites, the 119 king himself proceeded forth, and placing his younger brother at the head and then the body following close behind, and 120 then the ministers whilst he himself was at the end (of the procession), he, when his younger brother and the body were gone forth, had the gate closed immediately behind them, and 121 he commanded that the treasonous ministers be slain and (their bodies) impaled on stakes round about his father's pyre.

Because of this deed he came by the surname 'the Cruel*. 122 But the bhikkhu Samghamitta, for fear of the king, went hence 123

1 The passage is very obscure as the course of events in the Thupa-razna is too briefly described. I believe that we must supply the object raj an am to ranno namenalapato, and that we have to understand the passage in the following way. A solemn assembly of

the brotherhood was held in the Thuparama to settle the dissensions between the various parties, Tlie king himself was present. In this

assembly Samghamitta exposed his heretical doctrine, speaking1 against the monks of the Mahavihara, and he succeeded in convincing the king. The thera Gothabhaya, the king's uncle, after whom the king himself was named, tried to bring the king round to the orthodox party. ? But. although he spoke urgently to him, even addressing him tenderly, not with his royal title Meghavannabbaya, but with his familiar name Go|h.abkaya (Tiki: tata Gothabhaya Gothabhaya ti...), he did not succeed, and Samghamitta even became the king's kulupaka* On this see note to SO. 40.266 Mahavamsa XXXYL 124

at the time of his coronation, when he had taken counsel with Mahasena, to the further coast awaiting the time of (Mahasena's) consecrating.

124 He (Jetthatissa) built up to seven stories the splendid Lohapasada, that had been left unfinishedl by his father, so

125 that it was now worth a koti (pieces) of money. When he had offered there a jewel worth sixty thousand, Jetthatissa named it the Manipasada.

126 He offered two precious gems to the Great Thupa, and he built three gateways to the temple of the great Bodhi-tree.

127 When he had built the vihara Paclnatissapabbata the ruler gave it to the brotherhood in the five settlements.

128 The great and beautiful stone image that was placed of old

129 by Devanampiyatissa in the Thuparama did king Jetthatissa take away from the Thuparama,, and set up in the arama

130 Paclnatissapabbata. He bestowed the Kalamattika-tank on the Cetijapabbata (vihara), and when he celebrated the consecrating festival of the vihara and the pasada and (held)

131 a great Vesakha-eeremony he distributed the six garments among the brotherhood, in number thirty thousand. Jettha-

132 tissa also made the Alambagama-tank. Accomplishing thus many works of merit} beginning with the building of the pasada, the king reigned ten years.

J33 Thus, reflecting that sovereignty, being the source of manifold works of merit, is at the same time the source of many an injustice, a man of pious heart will never enjoy it as if it were sweet food mixed with poison*

Here ends the thirty-sixth chapter, called * The Thirteen

Kings \ in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and

?*m0ti0n of the pious.

1 flppakata is used (e.g. D.I. 22f) of an interrupted discourse.

we have the Interrupting of building (cf. 36. 102 cd.)« The renders the word correctly nitfhanam agatam aparinit-



AFTER king Jetthatissa's death, his younger brother MAHA- 1 SENA ruled twenty-seven years as king. And to consecrate him 2 as king, the thera Samghamitta came thither from the further coast, when he heard the time (of Jetthatissa's death).2 When he had carried out the consecration and the other 3 ceremonies of various kind, the lawless (bhikkhu) who would fain bring about the destruction of the Mahavihara won the 4 king to himself with the words:?"The dwellers in the Mahavihara do not teach the (true) vinaya, we are those who teach the (true) vinaya, O king*, and he established a royal 5 penalty: * Whosoever gives food to a bhikkhu dwelling in the Mahavihara is liable to a fine of a hundred (pieces of money)/

The bhikkhus dwelling in the Mahavihara, who thereby 6 fell into want, abandoned the Mahavihara, and went to Mmlaya and Rohanav Thus was our Mahavihara desolate for 7 nine years and empty of those bhikkhus who (else) had dwelt in the Mahavihara. And the unwise thera persuaded the 8

1 After VQTSQ 50 in -chapter 87 the old Mahavamsa breaks off. But the later author, who continued the work, carried on this chapter and added 198 verses, giving to the whole the subscription Sattarajako «s* the Seven Kings '. (However, there are in reality six:? Mahasena, Kittihiri-Meghavan^a, Jetthatissa II, Buddhadasa, Upatissa II, and MahSnSma.} Our section (verses 1-50) has thus no conclusion, neither the usual memorial verse, nor a subscription. The substance of the former ought to have corresponded to that of the closing verses of the Dip,, but clothed in a more artistic form. The writer who continued the Mali* put the last two verses of the Dip. at the head of km work and thus connected the new part of the poem with the eld one. On the whole process, cf. GEIGER, Dip. and JT0&., pp. 18-19.

2 fik2: kllaiji Satv5? Jefthatissassa niatakalam janitva*268 Mahavamsa XXXYII. 9

9 unwise king;?'Ownerless land belongs to the king/1 and when he had gained leave from the king to destroy the Mahavihara, this (bhikkhu), in the enmity of his heart, set on people to do so.

10 An adherent o£ the thera Samghamitta,, the ruthless minister Sona, a favourite servant of the king, and (with

11 him) shameless bhikkhus, destroyed the splendid Lohapasada seven stories high, and carried away the (material of the)

12 various buildings from hence to the Abhayagiri (vihara), and by means of the many buildings 2 that were borne away from the Mahavihara the Abhayagiri-vihara became rich in build-

13 ings. Holding fast to his evil friend,, the thera Samghamitta, and to his servant Sona, the king wrought many a deed of wrong*.

14 The king sent for the great stone image from the Pacma-tissapabbata (vihara) and set it up in the Abhayagiri (vihara).

15 He set up a building for the image, a temple for the Bodhi-tree, a beautiful relic-hall and a four-sided hall,3 and he

16 restored the (parivena) called Kukkuta.4 Then by the ruthless thera Samghamitta was the Abhayagiri-vihara made stately to see.

17 The minister named Meghavannabhaya, the friend of the king, who was busied with all his affairs, was wroth with him

18 for destroying the Mahavihara; he became a rebel, and when he had gone to Malaya and had raised a great force, he pitched a camp by the Duratissaka-tank.5

19 When the king heard that his friend was come thither, he

1 A play on the words assamiko and pathavisami 'owner I ruler) of the earth '.

2 Pisicia means here, in quite a general sense, the habitations of the bhikkhus in the Mahavihara, which were demolished here and the material of which was conveyed to the Abhayagiri-vihara.

3 Catu(s)8llS. A certain building of this name in Anuradhapura is Mentioned^ Mah. 15. 47, 50; and 35. 88. In our passage the word Is evidently an ajppelfativuin.

4 By thift is probably meant the Kukkutaglri-parivena erected by

See 36. 10.

to 83, 9. Md-ghayannabhaya evidently inarches from the of Makya to secure the province'of34 King MaJmsena 269

marched forth to do battle with him., and he also pitched a camp.

The other had good drink and meat, that he had brought 20 with him from Malaya and thinking: < I will not enjoy it without my friend the king/ lie took some, and he himself 21 went forth alone by night, and corning to the king he told him this thing. When the king had eaten with him, in perfect 22 trust, that which he had brought, he asked him : < Why hast thou become a rebel?" 'Because the Mahavihara has been 23 destroyed by thee' he answered. ' I will make the vihara to be dwelt in yet again; forgive me my fault/ thus spoke 24 the king, and the other was reconciled with the king. Following his counsel the king returned to the capital. But 25 Meghavannabhaya, who persuaded the king (that It was fitting to do this), did not go with the king that he might collect in the meantime the wherewithal to build.

One of the king's wives, who was exceedingly dear to him, 26 the daughter of a scribe, grieved over the destruction of the Mahavihara, and when she, in bitterness of heart, had won over 27 a labourer to kill the thera who had destroyed it, she caused the violent thera Samghamitta to be done to death as he came to 28 the Thuparama to destroy it. And they slew likewise the violent and lawless minister Sona. But when Meghavanna- 29 bhaya had brought the building-materials (that he had collected), he built several parivenas in the Mahavihara. When 30 this fear had (thus) been calmed by Abhaya the bhikkhus coming from here and there again inhabited the Mahavihara. But the king made two bronze images and set them up on 31 the west side of the temple of the great Bodhi-tree.

Being well-pleased with the hypocrite, the plotter, the 32 lawless thera Tissa, his evil friend, who dwelt in the Dakkhi-narama, he, although he was warned, built within the 33 boundaries of the Mahavihara, in the garden called Joti, the Jetavana-vihara.1 Then he called upon the brotherhood 34

1 According to 15. 202, Jotivana is a name for the Nandana park which, according to 15. 1, 7-8, was situated immediately before the south gate of Anuradhapura, From this and from our passage it appears quite certain that the Jetavana-vihara must be the monastery270 Mahavamsa xxxvii. 35

of monks to do away with their boundaries, and since the bhikkhus would not do this, they abandoned the vihEra.

35 But now, to make the shifting of the boundary void of effect, if others should seek to do this, certain bhikkhus hid themselves in various places.1

36 Thus was the Mahavihara abandoned for nine months by the bhikkhus, and the other bhikkhus thought: 'We will

37 begin to shift (the boundaries)/ Then, when this attempt to shift the boundary was given up,2 the bhikkhus

38 came back hither and dwelt again in the Mahavihara. But within the brotherhood of bhikkhus a complaint touching an offence of the gravest kind3 was raised against the thera

39 Tissa, who had received the (Jetavana) vihara. The high minister, known to be just, who decided (the matter) excluded him, according to right and law, from the order, albeit against the king's wishes.

40 The king built also the Manihira-vihara 4 and founded three

41 viharas, destroying temples of the (brahmanical) gods :?the GokaBna (vihara), (and another vihara) in Erakavilla, (and a third) in the village of the Brahman Kalanda;5 (moreover

the thupa of which was mistakenly (called) the Abhayagiri Dagaba. On the other hand the present Jetavana Dagaba to the north of the city belonged to the Abhayagiri Cf. note 33. 81. 1 Namely, within the old boundaries of the Hahavihara, possession

of which was thus formally maintained. Tika: antosimaya eva afinatthaagantva tasmim tasmim thane paticchanna hutva

nilfyimsu. s Evidently since the bhikkhus remaining behind raised a protest.

3 Antimavatthn is a matter that involves expulsion from the order. Cf. M.V. II. 22.3; 36.1 ; S.B.E. xiii, p. 276, note !.

4 Now Minneriya, the name of a tank (see below, v. 47) not far from Polonnarawa.

c According to the TlkatheGokanna-vihara is situated on the coast

of the * Eastern Sea', the two other viharas in Rohana. The Tika

then adds: evam sabbattha Lankadipamhi kuditthlkanam

Ilayaip, viddhamsetva, Sivalingadayo nasetva buddha-

eva patitthapeei 4 everywhere in the island of Lanka

he the doctrine of the Baddha, having destroyed the

of the unbelieverSj i.e. having abolished the phallic symbols

&f asi i» forth \xxrra.50 King Mahasena 271

he built) the Migagama-vihara and the Gangasenakapabbata (vihara). To the west, he built the Dhatusenapabbata 42 (vihara); the king founded also the great vihara in Kokavata. He built the Thuparama-vihara and the Hulapitthi (vihara) 43 and the two nunneries, called Uttara and Abhaya. At the place 44 of the yakkha Kalavela1 he built a thupa, and on the island he restored many ruined buildings. To one thousand sam- 45 ghattheras2 he distributed alms for theras, at a cost of a thousand (pieces of money), and to all (the bhikkhus he distributed) yearly a garment. There is no record of his gifts 46 of food and drink.

To make (the land) more fertile, he made sixteen tanks, the 47 Manihlra,3 the Mahagama, the Challura, and the (tank) named Khanu/ the Mahamani,5 the Kokavata6 and the Dhamma- 48 ramma-tank, the Kumbalaka and the Vahana, besides the Rattamalakandaka,,7 the tank Tissavaddhamanaka.,8 that of Velangavitthi,9 that of Mahagallaka, the Clra-tank and the 49 Mahadaragallaka and the Kalapasana-tank. These are the sixteen tanks. On the Ganga he built the great canal named 50 Pabbatanta.

Thus did he gather to himself much merit and much guilt.

The Mahavamsa is ended.

1 Of. 10. 84.

2 L e. superiors of the communities of bMkkhus. Cf. 3. 4 ; 4. 56. * See above note to 37. 40.

4 A Khanugama is mentioned 25. 14.

5 In 36. 3 the construction of a Mahamani-tank is ascribed to Bhatikatissa.

® Cf. the Kokavata-vihara in 37.42.

7 Maharatmala is the older name of the great Padaviya-lake in the North Central Province, 25 miles north of Anuradhapura. Arch. Survey of Ceylon, XIII, 1896, p. 40. There is, however, also a Ratmala-tank 2| miles south of Anuradhapura. ED. HULLER, Ancient Inscriptions of Ceylon, p. 27.

8 A village or district of this name is mentioned in 35. 84. f A vihara of the same name, see 33. 8.APPENDIX A


ON Mah. 2 = Dip. 3 = Sum. T. p. 258 = Rajav. p. 4 foil (Engl. transl. by B. GUNASEKARA) I should like to give a reference to two parallel passages in northern Buddhist litera-ture, the MaMvastu l which, belongs to the Vinaya of the Mahasamghikas and, moreover, of the Lokottaravada-school, and to the Dulva? the Tibetan translation of the Vinaya of the Sarvastivadins.

The names handed down in both these sources may be compared with those of the D. and M. in the following list:?

Dip. Mah. Mahavastu Dulva

Mahasammata Mahasammata Mahasammata

Boja ? Rokha

Vararoja ? ?

Kalyana Kalyana Kalyana

Varakalyana Rava ?" Varakalyana

Uposatfaa Uposadha Utposadha

Mandhatar Mandhata Mandhata

Caraka ? Kara

Upacara ? Upaklru

&c. &c. Karumat, &c.

1 ! !

Okkaka Ikavaku Iksvaku

(Dip. : surnamed (surnamed Sojata) (Gotama)


Okkimakha, Nipuna Ulkamukha,3 Nipura Ulkamuklia, Nupura

and three other and three other and two other

sons sons sons

1 Ed. SENART, I, p. 348.

9 See EOCKHILI,, Life of ike (1907), p. 11 foil.

s In the Mahlvastu tradition not Ulkamnklia but Opura is said to

be the eldest son; bat in the Dulva .again the former is so.

T274 Appendix A

In the Mahavastu 1.3488-3528 and in the Dulva (RocKHiLL, p. 11 foil) there follows a story about the rise of the Sakya and the founding of Kapilavastu. Iksvaku banishes his legitimate sons from the country as he wishes to hand on the throne to Jenta the son of a concubine. He is thus fulfilling a promise into which the mother of Jenta has beguiled him. Iksvaku's sons withdraw into the wilderness and there take to wife their sisters who have accompanied them. Afterwards Kapilavastu is built by them. Their descendants are the Sakyas.

This story was also known to the Theravadins. It occurs in Sum. T. p. 258 foil and in the Tlka to the Mahavamsa, p. 84.1 In agreement with the Dulva the M. T. mentions only four sons of Okkaka who were banished from the country; the fifth is Jantu to whom the brothers have to give way.

Further on (I p. 352i5 foil.) the Mahavastu relates the story of a Sakya king's daughter who is a leper and therefore banished to the forest. Here she is cured and is found by a hermit named Kola. Kola had formerly been king of Benares and had withdrawn into the forest because he too suffered from leprosy. He married the $akya princess and from these two sprang the Koliya clan.

This legend too was known in Ceylon, we come across it in Sum. T. p. 260 foil, and in the (Sinhalese) Rajavali immediately following on the story of the sons of Iksvaku.2

The Mahavastu and Dulva speak of Simhahanu (= Slhahanu in Dip. Mali.) as the Buddha's grandfather. He has four sons : (!) Suddhodana the Buddha's father, (2) Dhautodana, (3) Su-klodatia and (4) Amrtodana. These are the Suddhodana, Dhotoda'ia, Sukkodana and Amitodana of the Dip. and Mah.? which add yet another, Sakkodana.

According to the Dip. Mah, the Buddha's genealogical tree s Is this:?


Colombo, 1895. GEIGER, Dtp. and Mak., p. 38.

9 The ed. fin English) by B. GUKASEKARA, Colombo,

pp. II43. 7.1, p. 95.

s See alto DAVIDS, (1910), p. 52.The Dynasty of jSfdkasammata 275

Devadahasakka Jayasena


Anjana Kaccana, married to Sihahami Yasodhara,

married to ABjana


Suddhodana, married to Maya

I _________I

I BodMsatta

The Mahavastu I. 35515 foil, names as Maya's father Subhiiti who was married to a Koliya princess and lived in Devadaha. Plainly this is the Anjana of the Mah.^ and the Suprabuddha of the Dulva (p. 14), while the Mah. (2. 18-19) takes Suppabuddha to be the son of Anjana and brother of Maya. Perhaps Suprabuddha was a surname borne by the father and son.1

1 For the whole subject cf. also SPENCE HAEDY, Manual of Buddhism, p. 125 foil.



(On Mali. 5. 1-13)

RHYS DAVIDS. 'The Sects o£ the Buddhists/ J.R.A.S., 1891, p. 409 foil; the same, SOUTHERN BUDDHIST LISTS (SB.) occur besides MaA. 5 in the Dtp. 5. 39 foil.; also in the MaMbodhivamm (ed. STRONG, jP.r.5. 1891), pp. 96-97, in the Sdsanavamsa (ed. M. BODE, P.T.8. 1897), p. 14, 24-25; in the Sinhalese NiMya-Samgraha (ed, WICKKEMASINGHB), pp. 6-9. Special mention should be made of the Commentary on the Kathavatthu^ the KatMmft'huppakarana-AtthakatAa, (ed. MINAYEFF, J. P. T. S. 1889, pp. 2-3, 5 and passim). The Kathavatthuppakarana is ascribed to Tissa Moggufiputta,1 who is said to have composed it after the holding of the Third Council in order to refute the views held by sectaries. The names of the sects are not mentioned in the Kathavatthu but are in the commentary thereon, mentioned above, which was composed by Buddha-

All the Southern Buddhist lists are in complete agreement

one another.

1 I to this assertion (Mali. 5. 278) as a statement of fact.

the objection by if INAYBFF (Recherchea, p. 200) to the age

is upon an error has been already demonstrated by

21DJC.0., 52, p. SS% and EHYS DAVIBS, Dialogues, if p. s bjr me a* 1?a. Co.The Buddhist Sects 277

I will mention, when, occasion arises, certain trifling variations in the NiL Samgr. The ground for the agreement is that all the southern sources are based,, in the last resort, upon the old-sinhalese Atthakatha,

NORTHERN BUDDHIST LISTS (NB.) occur in the Dulva, the Tibetan Vinaja of the Sarvastivadins according to a work of Bhavya, see ROCKHILL, Life of the Buddha (1907), p. 182 foil. (R.), and according to a work of Vasumitra, see WASSILJEW, Der Buddhimu* (1860), i, p. 224 foil. (W.), also BEAL, < The Eighteen Schools of Buddhism * (Ind. Ant., is, p. 299 foil) (VB.).1

Besides we have lists in Taranatha. See SCHIEFNEE, Tdrand-tha's History of Buddhism in India (1869), pp. 270-274 (Tar.).

ST. JULIEF gives five Chinese lists based, for the most part, upon Vasumitra: (Listes diverses des noms de dix-huit ecoles schismatiques qui sont sorties du Bouddhisme/ Journ. A$., v. serie, t. xiv (1859), p. 327 folk (St. J.). To these may be added the statements of the Chinese pilgrims Fa-hian, Hiuen-thsang 2 and I-tsing.3

The number of the sects is unanimously given as 18. Evidently we again have to do with one of those established numbers which form the backbone of tradition.

The individual names vary and the dividing-up of the sects also shows certain variations. This is shown by the following survey:?

1. SB. THBRAVADA =? NB. STHAVIRAVADA is one of the two original schools into which the united church was divided at the first schism. It was so according to Mah. Dip., &c., also according to St. J., p. 343 (list V), 100 years after the Nirvana. On the other hand the number is 116 in St. J. 333 (list II); and 160 in R. 182S St. J. 336 (list V).

1 BEAL gives two lists following Vasumitra, as ROCKHXLL gives two following Bhavya.

2 I call them Ch, 1, 2, and quote Fa-Man and Hiuen-thsang according to BEAL (B,), Buddhist 'Records of the Western World*.

3 A record of the Buddhist religion by I-tsing> transl. by TAJEAKUSU, Ch.3.278 Appendix B

We may consider as a synonymous designation :? la. SB. HEMAVATA = NB. HAIMAVATA in W. 253, VB. 300, R. 184. Still in E. 190 distinctions are made between the Sthaviras and the Haimavatas. In Dip. and Mah., &c., they are considered as separate sects. Probably the Haimavatas were a local school of the Sthaviras of continental India.

2. SB. MAHASAMOHIKA = NB. MAHlsAMGHiKA.1 For their particular doctrine see W. 258 foil. They are the second school of the first great schism.

3. SB. GOKULIKA == NB. GOKULIKA (R. 186, 187; Tar. 271; VB. 301; St. J. 330, 334, 337, 341 == lists I-IV). The name is missing in Ch. 1, 2, 3 as also in W. In its place here appears:?

3a, KUKKUTIKA (W. 252, 258) or KUKKULIKA (W. 249; VB. 300). Similarly in St. J. 344 (list V), the Kaukkutikas are put in instead of the G-okulikas and the two are expressly said 341 (list IV) to be identical. Very closely related to the Goknlikas are:? S11. LoKOTTAEAYADm who do not appear in the tradition of the Southern Buddhists. They are mentioned immediately beside the Gokulikas (or Kukkutikas). (W. 249, 252, 258; VB. 301 j St. J. 334, 337, 341, 343 = lists II-V.) In E. 182 they are to be found just in the place where we should expect the Gokulikas. Cf. St. J. 330 = list I and Tar. 271, where the Gokulikas appear in the list, whilst, on the other hand, the Lokottaravadins are missing. Lastly, Tar. says, 273^ that Lokottaravadins and Kaukkutapadas are the same. Ch. 2 mentions the L. in Bamian (BEAL, i. 50).

4. SB. EKAVIOHAEIKA = NB. EKAYYAVAHAEIKA (W. 249, 252; VB. 300, 301; R. 182, 187; Tar. 271; St. J. 330,

334, 337, 341, 344 = lists I-V). According to Tan 273 the is employed as a general designation of the Maha-Their doctrines according to W. 258 are the as those of 2, 3a and 3b.

1 In St J. S40 (list IIj the Klmikas? besides the Yogaclras and are as belonging to the MaMsamghikas,The Buddhist Sects 279

5. SB. PANKATTIVABIN = NB. PIIAJNAPTIVADIN (W. 251; R. 182; Tar. 271; St. J. 341 = list IV; missing in VB. 300; St. J. lists I-III, V, also In R. 185). They are the Si-chi in VB. 301. For their particular doctrines see "W. 268, R. 189.

6. SB. BAHTJLIKA = NB. BAHUSEXJTIYA (W. 250; VB. 300, 301; R. 182; Tar. 250, 252 ; St. J. 330, 334, 338, 341, 345 = lists I-V). For their doctrines see W. 268; R. 189.

7. SB. CETIYAVADA = NB. CAITIKA or CAITYIKA (W. 251, 252; VB. 300, 301; R. 182, 186). They are said to be a branch of the Gokulikas, R. 189; Tar. 252. In Tar. 273 they are said to be identical with the Purvasailas. Corresponding to them in the lists I-III, V = St. J. 330, 334, 338, 345 are the Jetikas or Jetavaniyas or Jetasailas.

8. SB. MAHIMSASAKA = NB. MAHI£ASAKA. They are, according to R. 186; Tar. 271, to be reckoned as belonging to the Vibhajyavadins (cf. 14a) and are said to be a branch of the Sarvastivadins in W. 254; VB. 300, 301 ; St. J. 335, 339, 342, 345 = lists II-V. For their doctrines see R. 185, 191; W. 280 foil. Ch. 2 mentions them in Swat (BBAL, i, p. 121). According to the same authority (BEAL, i, p. 226) the Bodhisattva Asanga professed himself to be of the school of the M., but went over to the Mahayana.

9. SB. VAJJIPUTTAKA = NB. VATSIPTJTRIYA or VASAPTJTKIYA (W. 253, 256; VB. 300, 301 ; R. 182, 184, 186, 193; Tar. 271, 272, 273; St. J. 331, 335, 339, 342 = lists I-IV). They are said to be a branch of the Sarvastivadins in W. 253, VB. 301, St. J. 335 (list II), while according to the southern Buddhist tradition the relation is reversed; and they are said,, R. 186, to be a principal branch of the Sthaviras beside the Sarvastivadins. The Kvu. Co., however, mentions them very slightly. The Pali form of the name must be understood as an assimilation to the name of the Vajjiputtaka monks, the sectaries of Vesali.

10. SB. DHAMMUTTABIYA = NB. DHARMOTTAIIIYA the Dharmakarikas of the Nik. S., are said, as also in the southern280 Appendix B

tradition, to be a branch, of the Vatsiputriya (W. 253; VB. 300, 301; E. 182, 186; Tar. 271; St. J. 331, 335, 339, 342, 345 = lists I-V).

11. SB. BHADBAYANIKA = BHADRAYANIYA are also a branch of the Vatsiputrlyas (W. 253; VB. 300, 301; E. 186; Tar. 271, 273; St. J. 335, 339, 342, 345 = lists II-V), and stand in especially close relation (E. 194) to the Dharmottariyas from whom, according to St. J. 331 (list I), they had taken their rise.1 For 10 and 11, E. gives the common designation Mahagiriya.

12. SB. CHANDAGARIKA = NB. SANNAGABIKA c those from the 6 cities', also a branch of the Vatsiputrlyas (W. 254; VB. 300; E. 186, cf. 194; Tar. 271; St. J. 335, 342 = lists II, IV) and are but slightly distinguished from 11 (W. 279). In the lists I, III, V in St. J. 337, 339, 345 there appear, instead of them, the Abhayagirivasins.

13. SB. SAMMITIYA = NB. SAMMATIYA, taking their rise like 10-12, from 9 (W. 254; E. 186; Tar. 271, 272; St. J. 331, 335, 339, 342, 345 = lists I-V). According to E. 182 they are also called (13a) AVANTAKA or (13b) KURUKULLAKA, and Tar. 272 relates that according to the view of the Sarva-stivadins, the Kaurukullakas, the Avantakas, and the Vatsiputrlyas are the three kinds of the Sainmatiyas. They are the Mi-li in VB. 301. They must have been, a widely spread sect; Ch. 2 mentions them repeatedly as a school of the Hlnayana (see BEAL, iL 14, 44, 45, 186, &c.); according to Ch. 3 (TAKAKUSU, p. xxiv) they fall into four subdivisions and are spread over Western India and in Campa (Cochin-China) especially. The Kvu. Co. in a whole series of passages is occupied with their doctrines. On those see E. 194.

14. SB. SABBATTHAVADIN = NB. SARVASTIVADIK. According to W. 253, VB, 301, St. J. 339 (list III) and 342 (list IV), they are also called (14a) HETUVADA or HETUVIDYA, and according to R. 182, also Mumntaka, and they are said (W. 253, E. 182, Tar. 271) to be, beside the Vatslputriyas,

1 It should be observed, however, that in the list I, in Si J., each school is made to take its rise from the one mentioned before it.The Buddhist Sects 281

one of the principal schools of the Sthaviras. The statements of the Chinese pilgrims agree with this.

Ch. 1 (BEAL, i, p. kx) states that the Vinaya of the S. is held to be particularly correct and agrees in essentials with that which is observed in China, Ch. 2 (BEAL, i, pp. 18, 19 49, &e., il pp. 182, 270, &c.) mentions them frequently as a branch of the Hmayana; the Bodhisattva Vasubandhu (BEAL, i. 226) professed himself of this school. According to Ch. 3 (TAKAKUSU, p. xxiv) the S. were (beside the Sthaviras, Mahasamghikas and Sammatlyas) one of the four principal Buddhist schools; they themselves fell into four groups (Mulasarvastivadins, Dharmaguptas, Mahlsasakas and Ka-syaplyas), and had spread mostly in Magadha and Eastern India. On their doctrines see W. 270 foil.; R. 184,185, 190. See also TAKAKUSU, J.P.T.S. 1904-1905, pp. 67 foil.

Here I will mention :?

14b. SB. VIBHAJJAVADIN = NB. ViBHAJYAVADiN. These are mentioned Mah. 5. 271. It is said here that the Buddha professed himself belonging to the V. From this as from the relation of the list in Tar. 271, 272 to the Ceylonese list (Dip. 5. 45 foil.; Mah. 5. 6-9), OLDENBERG1 has concluded that V. is another name for the Theravadins. In the Maha-bodhivamsa; besides, this is said in plain terms.2 However, according to Tar. 272, the V. are reckoned as belonging to the Sarvastivadins, beside which they appear in H. 182 as a Sthavira school. According to R. 186, 191, Tar. 271 they embrace the sects of the Mahlsasakas, Kasyaplyas^ Dharma-guptakas and (14°) TAMEA^ATIYAS. The last named are in Tar. 272, 274 counted as belonging to the Sarvastivadins and identified with the Samkrantikas and (14d) the UTTARIYAS.

If we resume these data it appears that Vibhajjavadin denotes not so much a particular sect but rather a philosophical tendency, which, for the Theravadins, was bound up

1 Vin. Pit, i, p. xli foil.

2 P. 951?: therdnam sambandhavacanatta theravado ti, vi'bJiajjavadind munindena desitattd Mhajjavado ti vuccati. The same conclusion may be drawn from Mah. Ttka, 948, 992.282 Appendix B

with their conception of orthodoxy1 and to which their different schools thenceforward laid claim.2

15. SB. DHAMMA.GTJTTIKA = NB. DHAEMAGUPTAKA. They are, as we have just seen, reckoned as belonging to the Vi-bhajyavadins and are said (W. 254; VB. 300, 301; St. J. 335, 339, 342, 345 = lists II-V) to be a branch of the Mahlsasaka. On their doctrines see W. 283, K. 192.

16. SB. KASSAPIYA = NB. KASYAPIYA, belonging also to the Vibhajyavadins. They took their rise in the Sarvastiva-dins ("W. 255; VB. 300, 301; St. J. 335, 340, 342, 346 = lists II-V) and are also called (16a) SUVAUSAKA (W. and St. J. as above; cf. Tar. 271). For their doctrines see W. 283-284, E. 193.

17. SB. SAMKAKTIKA = NB. SAMKKANTIVADIN, a branch of the Sarvastivadins (W. 255; BV. 300, 301; Tar. 271, 272; E. 193; St. J. 336, 340, 342 = lists II-IV). Their other name is said to be Uttariya (E. 183; Tar. 273), also Tamrasatlya (see under 14*). In W. 256, St. J. 336, 342 = lists II-IV they are identified with the Sautrantika.

18. SB. SUTTAVADA = NB. SAUTR!NTIKA. The accounts of this school are far from clear. In the SB. sources no further mention is made of it. Its identity with 17 seems also to be evident from E. 186 where in the list the Sautrantikas are

introduced as a branch of the Sarvastivadins, but the Sam-krantivadins are missing.

In Ch. 2 also the former (see SEAL, i, pp. 139,226; ii, p. 302) are mentioned, but not the latter. Besides, in list I, St. J. 332 the Sautrantika evidently appear in the place of 17, being a branch of the Kasyapiya. On the other hand, according to St. J. 340, 346 (lists III, V) the Sautrantika would seem to be identical with the Prajnaptivadins (5), thus would belong not to the Sthaviras at all but to the Mahasamghikas.

1 Only thus can we understand how the Buddha himself can "be called a Vibhajjavadi. He could never be called a Theravadl.

3 Cf. KathSvatthu (ed. TAYLOR), ii, p. 578, with the Co., pp.. 177-178.The Buddhist Sects 283

It seems that this last conclusion may also be drawn from B, 186 (n. 1) and Tar. 271.

Besides these eighteen schools the SB. sources mention the following branches:?

19. SB. HEMAYATA = NB. HAIMAVATA. See above la.

20. SB. RAJAGIRIYA = NB. EAJAGIKIYA. They are counted (E. 186) as belonging to the Mahasamghikas,, but are missing entirely from the other list, R. 182. In Tar. 271, too, they only appear in the list belonging to the Mahasamghikas. In the Chinese lists in St. J. they appear just as little as in Ch. 1, 2y 3.

21. SB. SIDDHATTHIKA. They are not mentioned in the NB. lists.

22. SB. PUBBASELIYA = NB. PtjRVASAiLA. It is clear and beyond doubt, from all the data, that these are most closely related to the Caityika. They are mentioned beside them (R. 182, 186; Tar. 271) or positively in place of them ("W". 251, 252). In Ch. 2 they are mentioned only once as the Avarasaila (BiAL; ii, p. 221); Ch. 1 and 3 do not mention them. In St. J. 331, 334,338, 342,345 (lists I-V) the (22a) UTTARASAILA are also mentioned^ always beside the Jetikas; in list I, VB. 300, also beside the Purvasailas; and in list V, VB. 301 beside the Aparasailas.

23. SB. APABASELIYA = NB. APAEA^AILA or AVARASAILA, introduced as a school of the Mahasamghikas in W. 254, 255 ; B, 182,186; Tar. 271.

24. SB. VAJIEIYA (Dip. 5. 54 = Apararajagiriya). They are

not mentioned in the northern sources, and the same may be said of the 23. DHAMMAEUCI and 24. SAGALIYA which are

expressly called (Mah. 5. 13) Ceylonese sects.1 Lastly, we may refer to the 25. VBTULYA mentioned Mali. 36. 41, 111, also KEEN'S ingenious combination by which they are brought into relation with the Mahay ana.

1 On tfaeir origin see the interesting passage in the Mah. TIM, p. 115,1. 31 ML, translated by TUKHOUB, Mcik., p. liii.284 Appendix B

The different opinions as to the relation of the different sects to one another and their rise of one from another may be given in the form of a genealogical tree.

1. VASUMITEA (W. 249; VB. 301) divides them after the separation of 1 and 2 thus?

: L (a) (d) 2 1

i 14 = ! 1 = 14a la (19) 4 6 5 7 23 I 22

1 9 I i 1 3 16 = 16* 17 = 18 >

10, 1 11, 13, 12

' 2, BHAVYA (R. 182, 186) represents two views of which the one is based on the same division as in VasumuWs list, bnt the second on an original division into three, where the Yibhajyavadins form the third group.


1 = 1*, 14, 14*, 14b, 9, 2, 3b, 4, 6, 7,

10, 11, 13, 8, 15, 16* = 16, 14d 22, 23

II.____1_____ 2 14*


14 9 2,22, 23, I I

| i \ [ 20,, la> 7, 8, 16, 15,14°

14 18 13, 10, 11, 12 17, 3

3. TARAKATHA (270- 271) gives four different lists: I, according to the Sthaviras; II, according to the Mahasamghikas; III, according to the Sammatlyas; and IV, according to the Sarvastivadins. The first is based, on a division into two

principal groups, the second on a similar division into three, the third and fourth on a division into four. The first two lists coincide with those of Bhavya.The Buddhist Sects


1,14, 9, 10,11, 13, 8,15, 16a, 14*

2,4, 3*, 6,5, 7, 22, 28







14 18 13,10,11,12

2, 22, 23, 8,16, 15, 14°

20, la, 7, 17,3

III. 2



2, 4, 3, 14, 14*, 6, 15,

6, 5, 7 14', 16, 17


9,10, 11, 13

la without branch

IV. 1

Jetavaniya Abhayagiriya Mahaviharin

22, 23,

la, 3*, 5

14,16, 8, 15, 6,14C, 14b

, 13b, 9

4. Of the Chinese lists in St. Julien the lists II-V are in agreement with each other and agree with Yasumitra's list with quite trifling variations. List I is connected with Bhavya^s first list and Vasumitra-'s also (in BEAL), but makes each sect branch off from the preceding one within the two great groups. The series is as follows :?

1. : 14 ; la : 9 : 10 : 11 : 13 : 13* i : 15 : 16 : 18.

2. : 4 : 3 : 6 : 7 : 22 : 22a.

5. I-TSING admits four principal groups: (a) Mahasam-ghika (with seven subdivisions); (b) Sthavira (with three subdivisions) ; (c) Sarvastivada (with Mulasarvastivada, Dharma-

gupta, Mahl&saka, and Kasyaplja as subdivisions); and (d) Sammitiya (with four subdivisions). Here,, too, eighteen is given as the sum-total of the schools.

1 The sect of the Abhayagirirosins is inserted between 13 and IB*. 1 1

1 8 1 1 14 15 1 16 17 18 9 1

! 10, 11, 12, 13

286 Appendix B

6. According to Dip. and Mah. the relation of the schools takes this shape (cf. list I of Tar.) :?




As regards the time at which the separate schools arose, according to the Ceylonese sources the first schism took place 100 years after the Nirvana. The remaining sects must have arisen in the time between the Second and Third Council, i. e. between 100 A.B. and 247 A.B., the most of them in the second century after the Nirvana, but the last six (19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24) in the third century, the Dhammarueis, according to the Mah. Tlka at the time of Vattagamani, the Sagaliyas at that of Mahasena.1

Among the Northern Buddhists we find quite similar traditions.

According to VASTJMITEA (W. 249 foil, VB. 301) the sects 4, 3b, and 3a, as also 6 and 5, were formed in the course of the second century A.B., that is, after the first schism. By the end of the second century 7, 22, and 22a had arisen. In the third century arose 14 (14a), and 1% later 9, and then 10, 11, 13, 12, also 8, and from this last 15. Only the rise of 17 (=18) is placed in the fourth century. These dates are transferred from Yasumitra into the Chinese lists (ST. JULIEX).

The information given by I-TSIXG on the spread of the schools at his time, i.e. towards the end of the seventh century A.D.,2 is of great interest. At that time the Sarvasti-prevailed in Magadha, the Sammitiyas in North-west India*, the Sarvustivadins in the North, and in the South the In the East the four great groups, i.e. the three mentioned the MaMsamghikas, were mixed.

1 Set p. S88» ». L f TAKAKUSTCJ, J-fefajr, pp. 8-9.The Buddhist Sects 287

In the polemics of the Kathavatthul the most prominent schools, according to the commentator Buddhaghosa, are the Theravadins, the Sammitiyas, the Mahimsasakas^ the Sab-batthavadins, and the Mahasamghikas. But more frequently than these the names ANDHAKA and UTTAUAPATHAKA are employed, in which Bnddhaghosa evidently comprises the South Indian and North Indian sects.

1 See RHYS DAVIDS, J.R.A.S. 1891, p. 418.APPENDIX C

CAMPAIGNS OF PANDUKABHAYA (Mah. 10. 27 foil) AND DUTTHAGAMANI (Mah. 25. 1 foil.)

PANDUKABHAYA takes refuge from the persecution o£ his uncles in Pandulagamaka.

The place is unknown. In our inquiry,, therefore, we must take as starting-point Pana, where he gathers together his first followers,, to engage in battle with his uncles.

Pana is situated near Kasapabbata. This name has been, I believe, preserved in the modern Kahagala-gama,1 the name of a village situated about ten miles to the north of Kalu-waewa and fifteen miles to the south-west of Anuradhapura.

From Pana he does not direct his march northward on the then capital of the country Upatissagama.2 He is not strong enough for this. Rather he is obliged to follow the tactics of all rebels, to bring first the border-districts, the pcMcantagawa, into his power.3 Therefore he marches first towards the southeast, more or less along the line which Dutthagamani followed, in the opposite direction in his march against Anuradhapura. Probably the old military road ran along here. So he comes first into the district of Girikandasiva. This name is, we may conjecture, connected with that of Girilaka, which is mentioned Mah. 25. 47 with reference to Dutthagamanr's campaign. We must look for this district between the Kalu-and the Ritigala.

1 On the map of Ceylon, four miles to an inch.

s Upatissagama is situated on the Gambhiranadi (Mah. 7.44) to the

north of Annradhapura. From here to the Gambhiranadl (Mah. 28.7)

is a distance of a jojana = 7-8 miles. By this we arrive at a general

notion of the position of Upatissagiina. 21 GEIGJBB, DIJL and Mahy pp. 39-40.Campaigns of PanduMWiaya and DuttJiagamani 289

P. now marches on southward of Ritigala to the spot where the Ambanganga and Mahawseliganga unite. To the south of the Mineri-tank the people of Girikandasiva come up with him. The result is the battle of Kalaha-nagara. This is the Kalahagala1 of the present day,, situated 7-8 miles distant from the lake mentioned. Not far from here we must look for the scene of the second battle o£ Lohitavaha-khanda (Mah. 10. 43).

Although the victory in both battles is attributed to P., he does not yet venture to attack Upatissagama directly. On the contrary, he continues his march in the direction followed hitherto, and crosses the Mahawseliganga (pdragangam, Mah. 10. 44).

The place where he crossed over must have been the Kacchaka-ford, which I take to be the Mahagantota2 below the spot where the Ambanganga flows into the Mahawseli-ganga.

As the base of further operations P. chooses a region oa the right bank of the Mahaganga (Mahawseliganga), the Dola-mountain. This name survives in that of the village Dola-galawela 3 in the Bintenne district, twenty miles to the north of the place so named, which is now called Alutnuwara.

During the four years that P. spends near the Dola-moun-tain he is said to have been making preparations for the really decisive battle. This is made possible for him by the fact that he has now the whole province of Rohana^ with all its resources, behind him. By his position he has also the key to the most important or the only ford of the Mahawseliganga,

In the meantime P/s uncles have also completed their preparations. They march against the rebels and entrench themselves on the Dhumarakkha-mountain. Its position is shown clearly by Mah. 10, 53, 57, 58. We must look for it

1 See Census of Ceylon, 1901, iv, p. 468.

2 Itinerary of Roads in Ceyton, i (1909), p. 39, no. 68.

8 Census, 1901, iv, p. 262. The Boltikanda which PARKER (An-cieni Ceylon, p. 192) mentions cannot be the Bola-pabbata of the Mah., since it is situated (PARKER, in a letter dated July 17,1910) about ten miles to the north of Ktiransegala.290 Appendix C

on the left bank of the Mahawseliganga, not far from the Kacchaka-ford. The chief object of the uncles was evidently to prevent P. from crossing the river.

However, to be beforehand with them, P. risks the crossing. He defeats the enemy in flight, and takes possession of their camp. He then proceeds on the direct road to the capital.

On the Arittha-pabbata (Ritigala) he pitches an entrenched camp which is to serve as a base for his final operations. The uncles once more march against him with fresh troops. The decisive battle takes place near Labu-gamaka (Mah. 10. 72)) the Labunoruwa* of the present day, on the north-west slope of the Ritigala. P. carries off the victory.

The road to the capital now lies open to him. He takes possession of it and afterwards, having assumed sole sovereignty, he removes the royal residence to Anuradhapura.

We see that the information given by the Mahavamsa on Pandukabhaya's campaigns, if rightly understood, is quite adequate. The military measures taken seem thoroughly methodical; their aim can be clearly understood.

On quite similar lines is the advance of Dutthagamani on Anuradhapura, a proof that we have to do in both cases with old connecting roads between the regions left and right of the Mahawseliganga. P. was obliged to secure these in order to carry out successfully his operations against Upatissagama. D. used them for bringing up his troops.

Dutthagamani starts (Mah. 25. 5) from Mahagama in Rohana, the site of which is indicated by the ruins of Tissa-Maharama in the South Province, sixteen miles north-east of Hambantota. Taking a northerly direction, he marches through Guttahalaka,2 now Buttala, towards Mahiyangana. This, according to the local tradition, is the modern Bintenne or Alutnuwara.

1 Cmmtjs, 1901, iv, p. 464.

2 The evidence for this site is chiefly Mah. 24. 17, D. stations out-ports in G. on the look-out for Ms brother Tissa, whose advance from DIghavSpi is, expected here.Campaigns of PanduJcabMya and DuttJiagamani 291

D. is here on the bank of the Mahawasliganga. Now follows the enumeration of a whole series of forts which were occupied by Damilas and taken by D.

Among these, too, appears Kaccha-tittha (now Mahagan-tota), to take which required a four months' siege (Mah. 25. 12). I think, therefore, that the places mentioned are mere frontier-outposts or forts which had been placed along the Mahawseligangal from the bend of the river above Bintenne to the neighbourhood of the mouth. The individual names cannot now be settled.

The remains of the vanquished Damila-divisions retreat-to wards Vijita-nagara. It still seems to me most probable that we should look for this city in the neighbourhood of Kalu-wsewa, where the Vijitapura-vihara is now situated, and ruins in the jungle testify to the former existence of a larger settlement.2

In all probability D. will have crossed the Mahagahga near Kacchaka-tittha. On the advance against Vijita he first followed the same road that Pandukabhaya used when he marched from the Kasa-pabbata to the Dola-pabbata. It must have run somewhere between Slgiri and the Mineri-tank.

The siege and storming of Vijita are described with great clearness and vivacity. The further stations, Girilaka, Mahe-la-nagara, and Kasa-pabbata lay far along the road which leads from Dambul to Anurudhapura. On the Kasa-pabbata D. entrenched himself, evidently in order to await in a favour-position his adversary Elara. Here again in fact it comes to a decisive battle, the fortunate issue of which opens to D. the road to the capital. The conquered foe was pursued up to the immediate vicinity of Anurudhapura. In a last attempt to bring the fleeing troops to a halt beneath the walls of the city Elura falls by the hand of D. in heroic single combat.

s Cf. Mali. 25, 19, where tills to be plainly said,

s BURROWS, Citit* of Ceylon, p. 75. PAEKEE certainly

(Ancient tV$/0H, p. 237 foil.) looks for Vijita IE the region of the later



1. ACABIYA, *teacher, master.5 See p. 31, n. 4.

2. ARAHANT. Literally f able, worthy \ a person who has reached the ideal. In an Arahant the dsavd, the deadly drags of delusion, are brought to an end; he is no longer subject to re-birth, but lives in Nirvana, the final liberation, RHYS DAVIDS, Buddkim, 110; "Early Buddhism, 72-74.

3. ARAMA, 'park, garden.5 Designation of a Buddhist convent ? wMra, CHILDERS, Pali Dictionary, s.v.

4. ASAVA. The term is hardly translatable. It has been first explained by RHYS DAVIDS, Dialogues, i, p. 92, ii, p. 28 (= SBB. ii, iii). According to Buddhaghosa, Asl. 4815, well-matured spirituous liquors are called asavd. Jat. IV. 22219 we read: dsavo tdta lokasmim mrd ndma pavuccati. The underlying idea is, therefore, that of * overwhelming intoxication', not that of a deadly flood. There are four dsavd: (1) Mma clust, desire', (2) b&ava ((desire of a future) existenceJ, (3) amjjd * ignorance (of the four holy truths)', and (4) ditthi c false belief. D. I. 84; II. 81; M. I. 7, &c., Mmdsava ' one who has overcome the asavas *, and andsava c one who is free from the asavas *, are epithets of the arakant.

5. BHIKKHU, BHIKKHUNI, mendicant monk, nun. Member of the Buddhist order^

6. BUDDHA (Samlnddha, Sammd-Samluddka convey the same notion in a heightened degree) denotes a being who by his own force has attained to possession of the highest knowledge. He is neither man nor god. He is able to perform certain wonders in aeeord with the laws of nature. In an endlessList of Pali Terms 293

series of existences the Buddha prepares himself for his state of Buddhahood. During the whole of this time he is called a lodkisatta (Skt. bod/dsaUva) till in his last existence as a man? the last but one he generally spends in a heaven of the gods? he attains to knowledge (bodhi, sambodhi, abhisambodki). In the ancient texts sambodki is always the insight of an Arahant.1 Since this event comes to pass for the historical Buddha tinder an assattka tree (Mcu§ religiosa), this is the sacred tree of the Buddhists,, and the ' Bodhi-tree> (Sinh. loga/ia) is not lacking in any Buddhist sanctuary in Ceylon.

A Paccekabuddha has also reached Nirvana (see below) by his own force,, but does not come forward as a teacher. The historical Buddha is called,, after his family, Gotama Buddha or Sakyamuni,c the sage of the house of the Sakyas.* See KEEN, p. 62 foil.

7. CETIYA. See under THUPA.

8. DEVATA, divinity, genius, particularly applied to the spirits which, according to popular belief, inhabit trees, wells, hills, and in fact every place. In Mah. 28. 6 a devatd of the royal parasol is mentioned.

9. DHAMMA, truth, religion, the sum-total of Buddhist doctrine. Opposed to mnaya, c Discipline, the monastic rule/ Dhamma in the more restricted sense denotes the second part of the tipitaka (which see).

10. KABISA, first a measure of capacity; in another sense an area of about 4 acres, ie. as much ground as can be sown with a karlsa of seed-corn. See EHYS DAVIDS, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon^ p. 18.

11. KHATTIYA (Skt. hatriya), the class of nobles or warriors. This was one of the four ancient vanm, or social grades. The Buddhists and Jainas put them first in the list, the Brahmans put themselves first. The Khattiyas have been sometimes called a caste; but they never formed an organized community, like the modern castes, with eonnubram and com-mensality between all Khattiyas. See EHYS DAVIDS, Dia-loy*c*> i 96-107; India, 52 ff,

1 EHYS DAVIDS, Dialogue*, i, pp. 100-192.294 Appendix D

12. MAKTA, formula, sacred formula, charm, spell, designation of the Vedic hymns. Cf. Mah. 5. 109.

13. NAGA, designation of supernatural beings, snake-demons, sometimes represented in human form with a snake's hood in the neck, sometimes as mixed forms, half man half snake. They are distinguished by devout reverence toward the Buddha. Their sworn enemies are the Garuda, winged beings resembling the griffin (cf. p. 129, n. 4). See GBTO-WBDEL, Buddfiut. Kunstj p. 42 foil.

14. ISTiBBAisrA (Skt. nirvana). One of the terms for Arahant-ship. At Samyutta IV. 251, 261 it is defined as the destruction (in the heart) of rdga, dosa, and moJia, (lust, illwill, and stupidity); and is stated to be attainable by the eightfold Path. , See also DE LA VALL^E POUSSIN, EouddMsme, p. 57 f£.

15. PABBAJJA. Literally c going forth'; the technical term for giving up the household life and becoming a religieux, entering an order. The rules for the reception of candidates for membership varied in the various orders. The Buddhist rules are now translated by RHYS DAVIDS and H. OLDENBEKG, Finaya Texts, vol. i. When a candidate is first admitted he is called a Samanera, novice.


17. PARIVEHA, monk's cell, the private dwelling of a bhikkhu within the monastery.

18. PAVAEAIJTA, ' invitation/ name of a festival held by the bhikkhus at the close of the vatisa, i.e. the rainy season, spent in the monastery. See Vinaya Texts, i, pp. 335-353.

19. SAMANA, f ascetic/ designation of the Buddhist priests as opposed to the Brahmana.


21. SAf GHATTHEKA. See under THISA.

22. SUBDA (Skt, m)} a man of the fourth, non- Aryan caste.List of Pali Terms 295

23. TALA. Lit. 'palm,' a measure of length. RHYS DAVIDS, Ancient Coins, &c., p. 18.

24. TATHAGATA, one of the terms of veneration applied to. the Buddhas. The Buddha usually speaks of himself thus. The meaning is a matter of controversy. The native commentators explain the word in quite different ways. See BURNOUF, Introduction a fkistoire du Bouddhisme indien^ p. 75.

25. THEEA, THERI (Skt. stJiavira, °rd), term of respect applied to monks and nuns, especially to those of venerable age. SamgJiatthera is the denotion of the senior priest in any assembly of bhikkhus, or in the whole community. See J.P.T.S. 1908, p. 19.

26. THUPA (Skt. stiljpa, tope), name of edifices which serve as receptacle for a relic or as monument. They are hemispherical or bell-shaped, and rest upon a base of three concentric stories which form ambulatories round the tope ; they sustain a cubical erection, the so-called tee from which rises the spire (ckatta) which crowns the whole. The relic-chamber (dkdtitgabbha, whence the name ' Dagaba ', used in Ceylon for the whole edifice) is in the interior, below the tee.

The expression cetiya, .(Skt. caitya), originally the most general term for ' sanctuary *?a tree, too, can be a cetiya?is used in the Mah. mostly as a synonym for thupa. Cf., for instance, JlaJtdcetiya or Jlfa/tdlftupa as the name of the Buwanwseli-Dagaba in Anuradhapura.

There is frequent mention in the Mah. of a tft&pag&ara or cetiyaghamy ? house of the thupa or cetiya/

There can be no doubt, from Mah. 31. 29, that sometimes a sort of roof or temple was built over the tope. In Anuradhapura the ThuparSma-Dagaba is surrounded by four concentric rows of pillars. It appears as if the two inner rows, where the capitals of the pillars have tenons, were intended to bear the roof of a thupagham. PARKER (Ancient Ceylon, p. 270) considers it altogether possible, differing ia this from SMITHER (Anvrddiapura, p. 7). Of course such temples could only be296 Appendix D

constructed over the smaller thupas, and, as far as I can see, are only mentioned in this case. If mention is made of a lodMghara, i.e. of a temple for the bodhi-tree, then it is naturally only a question of building round and not over the sacred tree.

27. TIPITAKA. (Skt. tripitaka). Lit. ' three baskets/ collective name for the canonical scriptures of the Buddhists. They fall into three main divisions, Vinaya-pitaka, Sutta-p. (or Dhamma), and Abhidhamma-p. SeeCmLDEKS, s.v.; KEEN, p. 1 foil.

28. UPASAMPADA, the solemn ordination of the monk who is a novice until that time, by a chapter of the order; the higher consecration of the priesthood. See CHILDEES, s.v.; KERN, p. 77 foil.; SP. HARDY, Eastern MonacMsm, p. 44 foil

29. UPOSATHA (Skt. upavasatha). The Buddhist sabbath which is considered a holy day both for priests and laymen. It occurs four times in the month: on the full- and new-moon day, and on the eighth day following full- and new-moon. On two of these four days the recitation of the Patimokkha-pre-cepts (pdtimokkkuddesa) takes place, i.e. the priestly ceremony of confession, in which every member of the order is to acknowledge the faults he has committed. CHILDERS, s.v.; KERN, p. 99.

UposatJidgdra, or iipomtkagJiara, is a building belonging to the monastery used for the performance of the uposatha ceremonies,

30. VEDI or VEDIKA (Skt. the same), means first ' terrace, altar'. When in Mah. 36. 52 &pdtdnavedi around the bodhi-tree is mentioned, it means a stone terrace, on which such sacred trees usually stand. Cf. in the same sense sildveM^ Mak 36. 103,

Further, this word has the sense of? terrace with balustrade \ It is to be understood thus in D. II. pp. 182-183 in the description of Sudassana's palace. Exactly in the same manner, D. TL pp. 181?182, by sopdna a l staircase with balustrade * is meant, and in Both pas-sages an accurate description follows,List of Pali Terms 297

not of the terrace or of the staircase, but especially of the rail.

When a muddhavedl and pddavefa of a thupa are mentioned (Mah. 35. 2) the former is the so-called tee, the latter the storied base (see no. 26). Railings in relief are frequently added to both. SMITHEK, p. 52, 27. Finally the meaning ' balustrade, railing' supersedes the others. Thus by the coral-vedikas to the kutdgdra, the c window-chambers' of the Loha-pasada, the parapet-balustrade to the windows is evidently meant. Cf. vedikd-vdtapdna, C.V. VI. 2. 2. Plainly in the same way vedikd> C.V. V. 14. 2, means a balustrade. See S.S.K xx, p. 104, n. 3; p. 162, n. 4.

31. VESSA (Skt. vai&ya), a man of the third social grade.

32. VIHARA, dwelling, habitation for gods as also for monks, therefore temple or convent (FEKGUSSON, History of Indian and "Eastern Architecture, 1910, i, p. 170). In the Mah. the latter meaning prevails.

33. YAKKHA (f. yakkkini; Skt. yaksa, yaksinl}, designation of certain supernatural beings who are under the rule of Vessavana (Skt. 7ai#rawma9 name of the god Kubera). In the Mah. the aboriginal inhabitants of Ceylon, are frequently called Yakkha.

34. YOJANAJ a measure of length. According to the system of the Abhidhanappadipika 196, 1 yojana is = 4 ffdvitta = 80

usabha = 20 yattki = 7 ratana (or Jiattka 'ell') = 2 vidatthi (span) = 12 angula. According to EHYS DAVIDS, .Ancient

Coin* &c., p. 15 ML, the native tables of linear measures make

the yojana between 12 and 12-J miles, but in actual practice it must have been reckoned as 7-8 miles.INDEXES

(The numbers refer to pages and notes)


Accbagallaka-vihara, 142. 3 Anurarama, 258. 1 Anotatta-lake, 3. 5 Aparantaka, 85. 1 Abhayagiri-vihara, 235. 1; 269.1 Abhaya-vapi, 74. 3 Ambattbakola, 188. 1 Ambatitthaka, 170. 8 Ambattbala, 90. 1; 243. 5; 264. 3 Arittha-pabbata, 72. 3 Alasanda, 194. 3 Avanti, 21.2

Akasa-cetiya, 148. 4

Isipatana, 163. 3 Issarasamanarama, 133. 2 ; 137. 3

Ujjeni, 29.1 Uttara Kuru, 3. 4 Upatissa-gama, 58. 4 Uruvela in India, 2. 2 Uravela in Ceylon, 189. 2

Eacchaka-tittha, 72. 2

Kadamba-nadi, 58. 3 Kapilavattiiu, 11. 1 Eappukandara-nadi, 165. 5 Earinda-nadl, 221. 1 Ealaha-nagara, 71. 1 KalyanT, 7. 4 Kasmira, 82. 2 Kajara-gama. 132.1 KaiavS^,58.'5; 247. 3 Efoa-pabbata, 70. 1 Kisi, 86.1 EukkutSrSma, 36. 5 Kas5?ati} 10. 8

14.2 (see JM.A.S. 1902y

p. 139 foil.; 1903, p, 367 foil. Koiambakliaka, °balaka, 176, 2 21.2 (see J.R.A.S. 1903,

p. 583; 1004, p. 249)

Ganga=Mahaganga Gandbara, 82. 2 G-anibhira-nadi, 58. 4 Gamani-vapi, 75. 1 Giri-dipa, 4. 4 Griribbaja, 36. 2 Guttahalaka, 165. 3 G-otha-samudda, 150. 2 Gona-gamaka, 64. 1 Gona-nadi, 247. 3

Cittala-pabbata, 148. 2 Ctilanganiyapitthi, 165. 5 Cetiya-pabbata," 114. 3 Cola, 143. 4

Jambukola, 79. 1 Jambudlpa, 15. 5 Javamala-tittba, 165. 5 Jetavana in India, 6. 1 Jetavanarama in Ceylon, 235. 1;

269. 1 Jotivana, 77. 1

Tamalitti, 80. 4 Tissamahavihara, 138. 3 Tissa-vapi, 247. 4 Tissa-vapi, 248. 4

TJauparama, 9. 2 ; 230, 2

Dakkbinavibara, 246, 2 Dakkbinagiri, 88. 3 Digbatbupa, 230. 3 Digbavapi, 8. 1 Dui-atissa-vapi, 229. 2 ; 248. 5 Dola-pabbata, 71. 3 Dvaraman^ala, 68. 1

DMmarakkha-pabbata, 72. 1

Nandana-vana, 77.1 Naga-eatukka, 94. 1Indexes


Nagadipa, 6. 2 Nivatta-cetiya, 97. 3

Pathamacetiya, 95. 2 Payaga, 209. 1 Pacinadipa, 261. 4 Pataliputta, 22. 5 Pava, 21. 2 Paveyyaka, 21. 2 Pupphapura, 22. 5 Pulinda, 60. 5 Peli-vapi, 190.1

Baranasi, 108.1 Bodhimanda-viliara, 194. 5

Manisomarama, 235. 3 Manihlra, 270. 4 Madda, _62. 1 Madhura, 59. 1 Maricavatti-vihara, 179. 2 Malaya, 60. 4 Mahakandara-nadi, 63.1 Mahaganga, 3. 9; 71. 3 Mahagama, 146. 5 Mahatittha, 60. 1 Mahameglia-vana, 8. 2 ; 77. 1 Maharattha, 85. 3 Mahavana, 20. 2 Mahiyangana, 3. 9; 170. 7 Mahisamandala, 84. 5 MitMla, 10. 3 Missaka-pabbata, 89. 8

Yatthalaya-viliara, 146. 3 Yona, 85. 5

Rajatalena-vihara, 246. 3 Rattamala-kandaka, 271. 7 Rajagaha, 10. 3 Rohana, 146. 2

Lanka, 3. 7 Labugamaka, 73. 2

Vanga,_5L 1 _

Vanavasin, °vasaka, 84. 7

Vijita-pura, (-nagara), 58.5:171.3

Vinjha, 128. 4; 194.4

Yedisa, 88. 4

Veluvana, 98. 1

Vesali, 19. 2 (see JM.A.S. 1903,

p. 583} Yessagiri-vihara, 137. 3

Sineru, 213. 1 Silasobbha-kandaka, 236. 1 Sikkuta, 90. l"" Supparaka, 54. 3 Sumanakuta, 5. 1 Suvannabhumi, 86. 2 Son^agiri, 238. 1 Somarama, 235. 3 Soreyya, 21. 5

Huvaca-kannika, 245.1


anagamin, 89. 6 ; 93. 4 antimavatthu, 270. 3 abhmna, 20.1; 92, 1 ariya, 35. 3 ariipabhava, °loka, 25. 2

Sgataphala, 93. 4 acariya, 31.4

acariyavada, 26.1

ajira, 246. 2 aiinda, 246, 2

iriyapatha, 17. 1

udana, 130. 4 upajjiaSya, 31, 4

upanlssaya, 29. 3 opisana, 164. 1 ubbShikS, 23. S ubhato-saxpgha, 223. 4

kammatthana, 39. 3 kammavaca, 44.1 kasina, 45. 1 kahapana, 20. 3

kamabliava, °Ioka, 25, 2 kulnmbana, 257. 5 kulflpaga, °ka? 201. 2

kBinasava, 35. 3 garala, 129. 4

caftkama, 45. 4 caturassacaya, 219. 1

jaffla, 3, 2 tadin, 102. 2

thBpika, 210. 2 tkeravada, 26. 1; 49. 2300


dasasila, 122. 3

dhanu, 248. 3 dhamina, 17, 4 dhammasamgaha, 16. 1 dhaiomasamglti, 16.1 dhammabhisamaya, 4. 6

nap, 201.1 nigantha, 75. 2 nirodha, 254. 1 nissita, 264. 7

paccaya, 15. 7 paticcakamma, 48. 3 paribhogadhatu, 109. 2 parissavana, 251. 2 pasada, 1. 1 pamanga, 79. 7 puthujjana, 35. 3 pupphadhana, 202. 2

bala, dasa balani, 14. 4 bhava, 25. 2

marumba, 191. 5 malaka, 99.4 muddhavedi, 219. 1; 220. 3

yatthimadhuka, 224. 5 yamaka patihariya, 120. 1

ratanattaya, 33. 2 rupabhava, °loka, 25. 2

vatamsa, 79. 6 vinaya, 17. 4 vibhajjavada, 49. 2 vetulya, 259. 2 vedi, vedika, 220. 2

samvega, 1. 1 sakadagamin, 98. 2 samkhara, samkhata, 25. 3 saccakiriya, 125. 3 samapatti, 37. 1 sarana, 4. 6; 7. 2 sariradhatu, 109. 2 salaka, salakagga, 112. 6 samanaka parikkhara, 22. 1 sila, 4. 6; 7. 3 ; 122. 3 supanna, 94. 3 ; 129. 4 gekha,*16. 3 _ sotapatti, sotapanna, 5. 2

hatthipakara, 228. 2


v. 132. The meaning is as follows; The words gaccMti are a polite form of refusing a mendicant friar: 'go on (to the next house).' Therefore Siggava could say that he had received something (i.e. a polite answer), without telling a lie. Formerly he had received nothing at all, no alms, nor even an answer, but had been entirely disregarded. See Milinda-patiha 8 ; RHYS DAVIDS, S.B.U. xxxv, p. 15, and noie.

xxix. 40. Translate: From his dwelling-place, the Vattaniya (arama) in the Vinjha forest hills came the thera Uttara &c.PALI TEXT SOCIETY Translation Series.

THE Pali Text Society having published almost all the original texts of the canonical Pali scriptures has now undertaken a series of translations in order to make these important historical texts better known. The series will include versions of texts not in the Canon^ if such texts are either themselves of historical importance or throw light on the interpretation or history of the texts or of the doctrine they contain.

At present there have appeared the following:?

1. Psalms of the Early Buddhists, Part I, PSALMS OF THE SISTERS, translated from the Then-gatM. By Mrs. Rhys Davids, M.A., Lecturer on Indian Philosophy at Manchester University, Fellow of University College, London, Price 5s. net.

(We conclude with best thanks to Mrs. Rhys Davids for the capital work she has given us ... and the hope that the psalms of the brethren will follow soon.1?Journal qftlie Royal Asiatic Society.

'Are of much interest as a contribution to the history of women under Monasticism and as an expression of the Buddhist view of life.'?The Times.

' Next to her learned husband, the distinguished Professor of Comparative Religion at the Manchester University, there is probably no more authoritative exponent of Pali Buddhistic literature in this country than Mrs. Rhys Davids, the author of this interesting work, issaed in an elegant and attractive form by the Pali Text Society.1? The Manchester Guardian.

* The verses give UB many exceedingly interesting glimpses of the

religious spirit of the East in its redeeming work. . . . The present work is intended for serious students, and not for those in of simplified versions of the world's religions. It is published for the Pali Text Society, and will be welcomed by those who are interested in the East.1?The Daily News.CA baffling sense of the futility of much that we so desperately busy ourselves about comes into the mind in reading these pages. A strange and elusive influence seems to haunt them?an influence that does not age nor change. It speaks with a voice that echoes in many a volume of modern poetry. We read, and seem to be striving in some inexplicable way to remember, and to be groping after the forgotten vicissitudes of our own countless lives.'?The Westminster Gazette.

'Mrs. Rhys Davids's rendering is masterly?in places it reflects what seems to be very fine poetry?and her notes and introduction sustain her high reputation as a scholar.1?The New York Nation.

1 Bass der "Qbersetzerin die vortreff lichsten Hilfsmittel der Palilexi-kographie zur Hand sind, wird der fachkundige Leser an mehr als einer Stelle bemerken. Weit aber tiber den Kreis der Fachgenossen hinaus wird dieses Buch geschatzt und genossen werden kQnnen als ein seltenes Specimen philologischer und asthetischer Durehbildung/? Deutsche Litemlurzeitung.

1 The English reading public is in a position, thanks to her accomplished hand, to study these ancient testimonies to the power of Buddhist doctrine in a complete and satisfactory form. ... It has long been recognized, in the study of Sanskrit literature, that it is vain to attempt to dispense with the help of native light, and to interpret texts solely by means of grammar and lexicon. No doubt much may be explained without the vernacular commentators, and the student must always exercise his critical faculty in using them, but, with all reserves made, these commentators do stand closer to their texts than occidentals can stand, and point out many things that, without their help, would be overlooked or only half understood. " Chaque pays a sa pensee " says the French poet, and the greater German poet bids us go to the poet's country if we would understand the poet's word. Of all this Mrs. Rhys Davids has been duly mindful, and her version has gained much in point of trustworthiness on this account. But the flow and spontaneity of the verse has by no means suffered through this accuracy and rigid adherence to the tradition. The metrical form moves lightly withal, and this freedom of movement is a witness to the sympathy of the translator with the thoughts of the ancient Thens.?The Buddhist Remew.2. Compendium of Philosophy, being a translation o£ the AlhidhammaUha-sangaha. By Shwe Zan Aung, B.A., revised and edited by Mrs. Rhys Davids. Price 5s. net.

'The translation now before us is, in the best and fullest sense of the words, the result of Eastern and Western effort combined. The most intrinsically interesting part of the book, the Appendix (pp. 220-85), which contains Mr. Aung's extensive notes on some of the most important technical terms of Buddhist philosophy, will be found extremely useful by all students of Buddhism. More especially I would point out the very lucid and highly instructive discussions on the vexed question of the Paticcasamuppada and on the true meaning of the term Samkhara. Three useful indexes add to the usefulness of the volume, for which both the English editor and the Burmese author deserve our best thanks, and on the publication of which the Pali Text Society is to be heartily congratulated/ ? Journal ofiheEoyal Asiatic Society.

'Ein entscheidender Grund fur die Unzulanglichkeit unserer bezfiglichen Kenntnisse ist aber wohl darin zu suchen, dass die Gedan-kenkreise, in denen die buddhistische Weltanschauung sich bewegt, so wenig mit okzidentalischen Begriffen in Einklang zu bringen sind, dass eine wesentliche Fc5rderung in der angedeuteten Kichtung vielleicht nur dann zu erhoffen ist, wenn es gelingen sollte, die berafenen Yertreter der buddhistischen Gelehrsamkeit in den in Frage^kommenden Landern? vor allem Japan, Birma, Ceylon ? fur die Ubersetzung und Bearbeitung der massgebenden Werke zu interessieren. Dass eine derartige Teilnahme an der wissenschaft-lichen Erforschung des Buddhismus, namentlich soweit dessen jiingere Entwicklungszustande in Betracht kommen, nur von dem vorteilhaftesten Einfluss sein kSnnte, wird vor allem auch. durch die hier vorliegende Ubersetzung eines der wichtigsten neu-buddhisti-schen Texte der "siidlichen" Schule, der " Zusammenfassnng des Sinnes des Abhidhamma", durch den Birmesen Shwe Zan Aung nahegelegt. Ber Name des Mitherausgebers, Mrs. Rhys Davids, bietet fur die Zuverl^ssigkeit der Ubersetzung sowohl wie fur die in AnhSngen und Bemerkungen gebotene Bearbeitung der verschie-denartigen Probleme? vor allem auch pMlosophiegeschichtlichen die beste Gew^hr.1 ?